Teaming as a Strategic and Tactical Tool: An Analysis with Recommendations by ProQuest

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									320     International Journal of Management            Vol. 26 No. 2        August 2009

Teaming as a Strategic and Tactical Tool: An Analysis
with Recommendations
Mildred Golden Pryor
Texas A&M University-Commerce
Lisa Pryor Singleton
Texas A&M University-Commerce
Sonia Taneja
Texas A&M University-Commerce
Leslie A. Toombs
University of Texas at Permian Basin
This paper addresses teaming as a strategic and tactical tool which, when properly
implemented, will achieve positive performance results. When strategic plans are
developed, teams and teaming should be included as a strategy, and the reason for
the strategy should be explained (e.g., using teams to improve processes or as a way
to empower people). Once teaming becomes a strategy, the strategy must be executed
in order to accomplish the mission, vision, goals and objectives of the organization.
Also, the organizational structure may have to change to support the strategy. If team
leaders and other team members do not understand team requirements, they may not do
their jobs properly. Therefore, team leaders and members must be taught the theories,
concepts, and tools that are necessary for their teams to be successful. In this paper, we
analyze reasons for team failure and offer strategic and tactical approaches to achieve
team success. In addition, we provide university and business examples to demonstrate
how leaders can integrate teams and teaming into their organization’s strategic and
tactical plans.
The application of team concepts is not a new phenomenon in international or U.S. work
environments. Beginning in the early 1900’s, articles and books about group (team)
concepts were readily available. Some of the earlier publications included Lewin,
Lippitt and White (1939) and Lewin (1947, 1951, and 1958). Kurt Lewin is respected
as the psychologist who invented the concept of group (team) dynamics. Some of the
more recent authors of publications in the area of effective, high performance teams are
Rico, Sanchez-Manzanares, Gil, and Gibson (2008), Harrison and Tarter (2007), Adobor
(2004). Munro and Laiken (2003), Ammeter and Dukerich (2002), Romig (1996), Ray
and Bronstein (1995), �enger, et al (1994), Katzenbach and Smith (1994), Ehin (1993),
Pryor (1993, 1998, 2007), Osburn, et. al. (1990), and Shonk (1992).
Longenecker (2001) noted that between 70% and 80% of all U.S. manufacturing
companies use some type of teams. He indicated that teams are generally used
to “improve productivity, quality, efficiency and overall operating performance”
(Longenecker, 2001:21),
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