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the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED), Institution for Economic Research, in a census of individuals receiving research perception, attitude and behavior of Taiwan, examines how geographically doctoral degrees from accredited U.S. players involved in a creativity-oriented inter-organizational networks affect universities and colleges. project. Speciﬁcally, they investigated innovative performance of ﬁrms located the effect of trust on partners’ creativity in industrial clusters, especially Notable Papers and Articles and willingness to invest ﬁnancially in a Taiwan’s Hsinchu Science-based joint development. They demonstrated Industrial Park (HSIP). Based on a Innovation in Turbulent Times; Darrell K. that more trustful partners invest higher Rigby, Kara Gruver and James Allen; search of the United Daily News Group amounts in the alliance. However, Harvard Business Review, June 2009, pp. database, 1,445 inter-organizational creativity does not always increase with 79–86. alliances were identiﬁed in the 1991– trust; rather, there seems to be a level of 2002 period. This research revealed that Why does a company cut back on trust that maximizes the outcome of the the innovation performances of ﬁrms in innovation when the economy tanks? joint task. Consequently, they advise industrial clusters may beneﬁt not only Because innovation wasn’t an integral managers of innovative joint projects to from networking in industrial clusters part of the organization to begin with, maximize their chances of success by but also from national and international assert these Bain & Company partners. seeking trusting business partners but to networking. Speciﬁcally, the As a result, the creativity that leads to be cautious during the creativity phase investigators recommend that managers breakthrough innovation is either stiﬂed when there is a risk of incurring a can improve their ﬁrms’ innovative or missing altogether. The authors’ less-optimal development if trust among performance by “interlinking” and remedy is to emulate the fashion houses team members becomes so high that taking advantage of several innovative which must reinvent themselves every perspective is lost. networks, including: season. Their mechanism for this Customer integration strategies for reinvention is a distinctive kind of innovation projects: anticipation and • The intra-regional networks with partnership at the top where one partner brokering; Patricia Sandmeir, Int. J. research institutes, universities and is the creative, right-brain individual Technology Management, Vol. 48, No. 1, industrial ﬁrms to be a part of industrial and the other is the analytical, left-brain 2009, pp. 1–23. clusters. business person. Such “both-brain” This ABB Ltd. business development • The national networks with ot
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