Culturally Specific Interventions for African American Smokers: An Efficacy Experiment

Document Sample
Culturally Specific Interventions for African American Smokers: An Efficacy Experiment Powered By Docstoc
					o     r     i    g     i    n     a     l          c     o      m      m   u    n    i   c    a    t    i   o    n




Culturally Specific Interventions for African
American Smokers: An Efficacy Experiment
Monica S. Webb, PhD



                                                                           tiveness of established approaches by framing the inter-
  funding/Support: This work was funded by Syracuse Univer-
                                                                           vention within a cultural context.1-3
  sity, Syracuse, New York.
                                                                               Culturally specific interventions are developed based
  This pilot study sought to dismantle the efficacy of culturally          on the characteristics of the target population, using the-
  specific print materials for smoking cessation. Two-hundred              oretical or empirically derived variables. Culturally spe-
  sixty-one African American smokers were randomized into 1                cific approaches are often referred to as culturally sensi-
  of 2 conditions: standard booklet or culturally specific book-           tive.3 Culturally specific is the preferred term in this
  let. The content and length of the interventions were identi-            article, as intervention approaches may be “sensitive” to
  cal yet varied in their degree of cultural specificity. Three-           some individuals within the cultural group, yet not oth-
  month follow-up assessments were completed by 70% (N =                   ers.4 There are several examples of such culturally spe-
  183) of participants. Dependent variables included content               cific interventions designed for African American smok-
  evaluation, readiness to quit smoking, and actual behavior               ers,5-7 although the algorithm for developing culturally
  change. Evidence suggested that the culturally specific                  specific interventions varies across studies. Culturally
  material was more effective at capturing attention, pro-                 specific tobacco interventions often include community-
  viding encouragement and gaining interest compared to                    level involvement (eg, community advisory boards),
  standard materials; however, greater credibility was found               formative research (eg, focus groups), medical (eg, pri-
  for standard materials. In addition, greater readiness to quit           mary care) involvement, and race-matched staff or
  and more 24-hour quit attempts were found in the standard                interventionists.3,8-10
  condition. No differences were found in abstinence rates.                    The Resnicow et al10 model for culturally sensitive
  In conclusion, culturally specific interventions may be pre-             interventions conceptualizes 2 primary dimensions: sur-
  ferred over standard approaches among African American                   face structure and deep structure. Surface structure is
  smokers. Culturally specific approaches, however, may not                thought to enhance acceptability or receptivity via osten-
  result in greater behavior change. Implications for written              sible culture-based characteristics (eg, pictures of Afri-
  interventions and cultural specificity are discussed.                    can Americans). Deep structure is thought to increase
                                                                           the efficacy of interventions via meaningful sociocul-
  keywords: African Americans n tobacco                                    tural, historical, environmental, and psychological fac-
  J Natl Med Assoc. 2009;101:927-935                                       tors (eg, a focus on family and community, African
                                                                           American smoking patterns, racism, targeted tobacco
author affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral   marketing, and unique stressors). Pathways to Freedom
Gables, Florida.                                                           (PTF)11 is an established culturally specific smoking ces-
corresponding author: Monica S. Webb, PhD, Department of Psychol-          sation guide for African Americans that incorporates
ogy, University of Miami, PO Box 248185, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0751       both surface and deep structure dimensions.
(mwebb@miami.edu).

                                                                           Efficacy of culturally SpEcific

D
        eveloping effective self-help interventions for                    intErvEntionS for Smoking
        African American smokers remains a challenge.                      cESSation
        Standard (ie, generic) interventions may not                           A range of culturally specific interventions have been
address the unique smoking patterns and sociocultural                      developed for African Americans.5,12-15 Some research
differences of this population. Thus, targeted interven-                   has found culturally specific communications to be more
tions that address the needs of African Americans—                         personally relevant than non–culturally specific materi-
known as culturally specific interventions—have prom-                      als,14 although other studies have not.16,17 The strength of
ise for responding to the observed ethnic differences                      the evidence suggesting that tobacco interventions
in smoking behavior and addressing health disparities.                     should be modi
				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: This pilot study sought to dismantle the efficacy of culturally specific print materials for smoking cessation. Two-hundred sixty-one African American smokers were randomized into 1 of 2 conditions: standard booklet or culturally specific booklet. The content and length of the interventions were identical yet varied in their degree of cultural specificity. Three-month follow-up assessments were completed by 70% (N = 183) of participants. Dependent variables included content evaluation, readiness to quit smoking, and actual behavior change. Evidence suggested that the culturally specific material was more effective at capturing attention, providing encouragement and gaining interest compared to standard materials; however, greater credibility was found for standard materials. In addition, greater readiness to quit and more 24-hour quit attempts were found in the standard condition. No differences were found in abstinence rates. In conclusion, culturally specific interventions may be preferred over standard approaches among African American smokers. Culturally specific approaches, however, may not result in greater behavior change. Implications for written interventions and cultural specificity are discussed.
BUY THIS DOCUMENT NOW PRICE: $6.95 100% MONEY BACK GUARANTEED
PARTNER ProQuest LLC
ProQuest creates specialized information resources and technologies that propel successful research, discovery, and lifelong learning.