Chapter 25 Kingdom Plantae

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Chapter 25 Kingdom Plantae Powered By Docstoc
					Chapter 25         Kingdom Plantae

Today’s Objectives
   • Identify characteristics of the Kingdom Plantae.
   • Describe the form and function of basic plant structures (roots, stems, leaves, flowers,
       seeds, and fruit).
   • Explain how sexual and asexual reproduction differ and identify the value of each.
   • Classify plants as either mosses, ferns, conifers or flowering plants.
   • Identify how mosses, ferns, conifers and flowering plants differ.
   • Provide examples of how plants respond to and interact with other organisms and how
       they respond to the physical environment.
   • Discuss several plant adaptations.

Plant Kingdom Characteristics
    •   Multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that contain chlorophyll
    •   Autotrophs
    •   Cell wall made of cellulose
    •   Examples: Mosses, ferns, flowering plants (angiosperms), evergreens (gymnosperms)

Structure & Function
Roots--anchor plant in the soil
Stems--tissues that support the plant
Leaves--carry on photosynthesis

More Specifics
Roots--uptake water and minerals (inorganic molecules)
Root hairs provide large surface area for the absorption of nutrients
Important storage places for food.
Name some roots that we eat:

To serve as supports for the leaves
To transport raw materials from the roots to the leaves and manufactured food from the leaves to
the roots
         Vascular Tissue
         Xylem - carries water from roots to leaves
         Phloem - carries food from leaves to stems and roots

Photosynthetic factory for food production

Summary equation for PHOTOSYNTHESIS:

Leaf Structure
        Chloroplasts - Leaf cells are packed with chloroplasts containing green pigment,
        Stomates - help regulate H2O balance and turgor pressure
        Vascular Tissue – veins are branched (dicot) and parallel (monocots)
Plant Reproductive Organs – Flower are reproductive structures
    Stamen (Male)
         • Anther produces pollen.
         • Filament supports anther.
    Pistil (Female)
         • Stigma--sticky, pollen deposits here
         • Style--supports stigma
         • Ovary--houses ovules which contain egg

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Two step process: Pollination followed by fertilization

1. Pollination - the transfer of pollen from one flower to the next
Pollinators - wind, water, butterflies, birds, bees, bats

        Living Pollinators
        Certain flowers attract specific pollinators both need to have the right shape & scent

        CoEvolution of Species Specific Pollinators
           • Birds--attracted to red flowers, little odor, petals curved to cover bird’s head
           • Moths--nocturnal, pale flowers, deep tubes
           • Bats--nocturnal, good sense of smell, musty, large white flowers.
           • Butterflies are attracted to brightly-colored, often pink, tubular flowers in
              clusters, loading platform (probiscus--tongue fits in tube)

2. Fertilization--joining of the egg in the ovary with sperm from the pollen. Fertilization occurs
after pollination.
         Seeds --plant embryo, stored food for energy and protective seed coat resists
         environmental threat
         Fruit --ovary, nutrition for animals, method of passing on seeds

Plant Adaptations

Adaptations of Desert Plants
   • Thick, waxy outer layers or
   • Leaves reduced to spines
   • Reduced number of stomates
   • Extensive roots to capture water
   • Water storage in stems

Plant Defenses Against Herbivores
    • Thorns, spines and bark
    • Chemical toxins
    • Hard to chew
    • Hard to digest cellulose

Relationships with Other Organisms
    • Epiphytes - use trees for support
    • Fly-pollinated flowers - smells like carrion to attract pollinators
    • Parasitic plants - mistletoe growing on an oak tree, siphons nutrients from tree
    • Carnivorous plants - Venus fly trap, soil deficient in nitrogen