Chapter 25 Kingdom Plantae
• Identify characteristics of the Kingdom Plantae.
• Describe the form and function of basic plant structures (roots, stems, leaves, flowers,
seeds, and fruit).
• Explain how sexual and asexual reproduction differ and identify the value of each.
• Classify plants as either mosses, ferns, conifers or flowering plants.
• Identify how mosses, ferns, conifers and flowering plants differ.
• Provide examples of how plants respond to and interact with other organisms and how
they respond to the physical environment.
• Discuss several plant adaptations.
Plant Kingdom Characteristics
• Multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that contain chlorophyll
• Cell wall made of cellulose
• Examples: Mosses, ferns, flowering plants (angiosperms), evergreens (gymnosperms)
Structure & Function
Roots--anchor plant in the soil
Stems--tissues that support the plant
Leaves--carry on photosynthesis
Roots--uptake water and minerals (inorganic molecules)
Root hairs provide large surface area for the absorption of nutrients
Important storage places for food.
Name some roots that we eat:
To serve as supports for the leaves
To transport raw materials from the roots to the leaves and manufactured food from the leaves to
Xylem - carries water from roots to leaves
Phloem - carries food from leaves to stems and roots
Photosynthetic factory for food production
Summary equation for PHOTOSYNTHESIS:
Chloroplasts - Leaf cells are packed with chloroplasts containing green pigment,
Stomates - help regulate H2O balance and turgor pressure
Vascular Tissue – veins are branched (dicot) and parallel (monocots)
Plant Reproductive Organs – Flower are reproductive structures
• Anther produces pollen.
• Filament supports anther.
• Stigma--sticky, pollen deposits here
• Style--supports stigma
• Ovary--houses ovules which contain egg
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Two step process: Pollination followed by fertilization
1. Pollination - the transfer of pollen from one flower to the next
Pollinators - wind, water, butterflies, birds, bees, bats
Certain flowers attract specific pollinators both need to have the right shape & scent
CoEvolution of Species Specific Pollinators
• Birds--attracted to red flowers, little odor, petals curved to cover bird’s head
• Moths--nocturnal, pale flowers, deep tubes
• Bats--nocturnal, good sense of smell, musty, large white flowers.
• Butterflies are attracted to brightly-colored, often pink, tubular flowers in
clusters, loading platform (probiscus--tongue fits in tube)
2. Fertilization--joining of the egg in the ovary with sperm from the pollen. Fertilization occurs
Seeds --plant embryo, stored food for energy and protective seed coat resists
Fruit --ovary, nutrition for animals, method of passing on seeds
Adaptations of Desert Plants
• Thick, waxy outer layers or
• Leaves reduced to spines
• Reduced number of stomates
• Extensive roots to capture water
• Water storage in stems
Plant Defenses Against Herbivores
• Thorns, spines and bark
• Chemical toxins
• Hard to chew
• Hard to digest cellulose
Relationships with Other Organisms
• Epiphytes - use trees for support
• Fly-pollinated flowers - smells like carrion to attract pollinators
• Parasitic plants - mistletoe growing on an oak tree, siphons nutrients from tree
• Carnivorous plants - Venus fly trap, soil deficient in nitrogen