; Delivery of lycopene to physiologically relevant vascular cells
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Delivery of lycopene to physiologically relevant vascular cells


Cells relevant to the cardiovascular system, including bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC), the monocytic cell line THP-I, and RAT-I fibroblasts, were treated for various time periods (0-72 h) with different concentrations of lycopene (1, 5, and 10 ?), solubilized either in tetrahydrofuran (THF) or micelles as solvents.

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									          inform August 2009, Vol. 20 (8)               535

  Extracts &                                           α-ESA, PA, and CLA feeding. The contents
                                                       of 22:6n-3 and total n-3 PUFA were signif-
                                                       icantly increased in the liver, kidney, and
                                                                                                         day but were not different when consumed
                                                                                                         once per day (3.43 ± 0.62, 3.22 ± 0.58, and
                                                                                                         3.30 ± 0.65 mmol/L: control, three times

                                                       heart by PA feeding, but not by α-ESA. In         per day, and single-BF, respectively). Rel-
                                                       contrast to PA, supplementation with CLA          ative to the control, end-point LDL level
                                                       significantly decreased 22:6n-3 in the liver,     was 0.21 ± 0.27 mmol/L (6%) lower (P <
                                                       kidney and heart. The content of 20:4n-6          0.05) at the end of the three-times-per-day
                                                       was significantly decreased in the liver and      phase. Cholesterol fractional synthesis rate
                                                       kidney by CLA feeding, but not by α-ESA           was highest (P < 0.05) after the three-times-
       Effect of unsaturated acyl                      and PA. The present results indicate that         per-day-phase (0.0827 ± 0.0278, 0.0834
       chains on structural                            α-ESA, PA, and CLA have differential              ± 0.0245, and 0.0913 ± 0.0221 pool/day,
       transformations in                              effects on 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6 contents in        control, single-BF and three times per day,
                                                       mouse tissues. Conjugated linolenic acid          respectively). Cholesterol-absorption effi-
                                                       (CLnA), a group of octadecatrienoic acid          ciency decreased (P < 0.05) by 36 and 39%
       Mykhaylyk, O.O., and C.M. Martin, Eur. J.       isomers with a conjugated triene system,          after the three times-per-day and single-
       Lipid Sci. Technol. 111:227–235, 2009.          has been reported to exhibit favorable phys-      BF phase, respectively, relative to control.
            Simultaneous time-resolved small-          iological effects, including anticancer prop-     Present data indicate that to obtain optimal
       angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering has       erties and regulation of lipid metabolism.        cholesterol-lowering impact, plant sterols
       been used in the study of the isothermal        Punicic acid and α-ESA, two isomers of            should be consumed as smaller doses given
       crystallization behavior, after quenching, of   CLnA, have been shown to convert into             more often, rather than one large dose.
       triacylglycerols (TAG) with 18 carbons in       cis9,trans11-18:2 in vivo. The effect of
       the hydrocarbon chains. Saturated, unsatu-
       rated TAG, their blends, and mixed satu-
                                                       CLnA on fatty acid composition in mouse           Delivery of lycopene to
                                                       tissues was investigated in comparison with
       rated/unsaturated TAG were studied. The         CLA mixtures in the present study. The data       physiologically relevant
       mixed saturated/unsaturated TAG and their       obtained here could provide information for       vascular cells
       blends form an α2-phase with a longitudinal     the potential application of CLnA-contain-
       packing different from two-chain and three-                                                       Lorenz, M., V. Stangl, C. Jacob, K. Daemen,
                                                       ing seeds as functional food ingredients, a       V. Böhm, K. Fröhlich, G. Baumann, K.
       chain packings, which distinguishes them        natural source of endogenously formed
       from the other fats. The unstable α2-phase,                                                       Stangl, R. Simone, and P. Palozza, J. Food
                                                       cis9,trans11-18:2, and a dietary feeding          Lipids 16:259–272, 2009.
       observed at the initial stage of crystalliza-   strategy to beneficially modify the fatty
       tion of mixed saturated/unsaturated TAG,                                                                Lycopene most likely contributes to
                                                       acid composition of animal tissues.               the positive health effects of tomatoes on
       is classified as a transient mesophase. Two
       dimeric units proposed for a structural                                                           the cardiovascular system. However, eluci-
       model of the α2-phase have been used to         Plant sterol consumption                          dation of underlying cellular mechanisms
       describe the structural organization of TAG     frequency affects plasma lipid                    is hampered
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