A Systematic Review of Questionnaires Measuring Health-Related Empowerment by ProQuest


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									 Research and Theory for Nursing Practice: An International Journal, Vol. 23, No. 2, 2009

             A Systematic Review of
            Questionnaires Measuring
           Health-Related Empowerment
                     Rosemary J. Herbert, BN, MN, PhD
                  University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Canada

                       Anita J. Gagnon, RN, MPH, PhD
                School of Nursing and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
                        McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

                      Janet E. Rennick, RN, MScN, PhD
           The Montreal Children’s Hospital of the McGill University Health Centre
                                Montreal, Quebec, Canada

                           Jennifer L. O’Loughlin, PhD
                            University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada

    The objective of this systematic review was to identify questionnaires that measure
    health-related empowerment in adults or families and demonstrated the best evidence
    of reliability and validity. A search of nine data bases identified 8,269 abstracts that
    referred to empowerment. Full article review was completed for abstracts that met the
    inclusion criteria or that could not be excluded with certainty (n = 124). Fifty distinct,
    modified, or translated questionnaires measuring empowerment were identified in
    74 articles. Each was rated in terms of reliability and validity. One questionnaire had
    good evidence of reliability and validity, four had moderate evidence, and 45 had
    limited or no evidence. Limited or no evidence for reliability and validity for many
    questionnaires could relate in part to lack of consensus on the theoretical definition
    of, and indicators for measuring empowerment. We recommend that researchers
    use the questionnaire rated as having good evidence and that data on reliability and
    validity continue to be reported for other questionnaires.

    Keywords: empowerment; systematic review; questionnaire; measurement

        he term empowerment has become entrenched in everyday language in
        diverse professional fields including business, health, education, and psy-
        chology. Underlying routine use of the term is a broad theoretical construct
that is philosophically grounded in Freire’s (1970) classic work on education. Freire

© 2009 Springer Publishing Company                                                               107
DOI: 10.1891/1541-6577.23.2.107
108                                                                          Herbert et al.

believed that every individual, given adequate resources, is capable of
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