Refinement and Validation of the Episode-Specific Interpretations of Exercise Inventory by ProQuest

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									Journal of Nursing Measurement, Volume 17, Number 2, 2009




          Refinement and Validation of the
         Episode-Specific Interpretations of
                Exercise Inventory
                        Joanne Kraenzle Schneider, PhD, RN
                      Saint Louis University School of Nursing, Missouri

      The purpose of this study was to refine an instrument to measure interpretations of
      exercise, the Episode-Specific Interpretations of Exercise Inventory (ESIE), and further
      examine its validity. This study was a secondary data analysis using community-dwelling
      older adults from two larger clinical trials. Fit indices from confirmatory factory analyses
      were strong. CronbachÊs alphas for internal consistency reliability ranged from .70 to .91.
      Construct validity of the ESIE was supported by participantsÊ reports of more sweating
      during the strength phase of exercise than during the flexibility phase and during the
      aerobic phase of exercise than during the flexibility and strength phases. In addition,
      correlations between the ESIE subscales and other feeling-related subscales made sense
      conceptually. In conclusion, that the ESIE provides a measure that examines older adultsÊ
      exercise experience as well as their interpretations of that experience.


      Keywords: exercise behavior; episode-specific interpretations; older adults; self-regulation




A
         lthough the benefits of exercise for older adults have been well established, they
         can only be realized when exercise is maintained. Yet few older adults maintain
         a regular exercise program. In fact, 31% of individuals 65–74 years of age and
23% of individuals 75 years and older report moderate physical activity for 20 minutes 3
or more days per week. Even fewer engage in vigorous physical activity for 20 minutes
3 or more days a week as indicated by 13% of individuals 65 to 74 years of age and
6% of those 75 years and older (U.S. HHS 2000). Clearly, there is a need for additional
research and understanding of exercise maintenance for older adults.
   Researchers have studied exercise maintenance using social-cognitive models, for
example, self-efficacy, reasoned action, and planned behavior, as well as the transtheoretical
model. These models focus on variables that are distal or remote to the sensations and
thoughts experienced during an episode of exercise (Schneider, 1996). Because social-
cognitive models operate mainly in terms of predisposition, they cannot explain more than
a part of the variance in exercise behavior (Dishman, 1988; Godin, 1994). None of these
theories assess exercisersÊ interpretations of their experiences during episodes of exercise.
In this context, interpretation is the awareness of sensations, thoughts, and feelings asso-
ciated with exercise and includes the meaning of exercise (Schneider, 1996). Schneider
(1999) conducted explo
								
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