Expertise and the Detection of Deception

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					1204       News From the Field

   The neural responses were affected           A Mooney (1957, Can J Psychol             detect deception in body movement is
by the category that participants were       11:216) face is a type of stimulus           influenced by expertise. Expert bas-
set to search. Specifically, a larger re-    whose identification resists this char-      ketball players differed from novices
sponse appeared in one cortical area         acterization. Such a face is created by      in their sensitivity to faked passes,
during a search for cars rather than         taking a monochrome photograph of            with experts relying on different types
people, but another area showed the          a real face, thresholding it (making all     of cues to detect the deceptive move-
opposite pattern. Most importantly,          pixels darker than a given level black,      ments. Sebanz and Shiffrar screened
these responses occurred indepen-            and all other pixels white), cutting         participants for experience in playing
dent of whether the scenes appeared          it out, and centering it in an ellipse.      and watching basketball and presented
at attended or unattended locations.         What is remarkable about Mooney              the experienced basketball players and
For example, when searching for a            faces is that typically they don’t have      inexperienced novices with dynamic
car, the corresponding cortical area         recognizable features until one sees         (short videos clips) or static (series of
showed increased responses when a            them as complete faces; one can only         still frames) stimuli depicting a player
car appeared at either an attended or        identify the parts of a Mooney face          dribbling and preparing to throw ei-
an unattended location. These find-          (nose, eyes, mouth, ears, etc.) after        ther a fake or real pass. The stimulus
ings suggest that the top-down atten-        having first recognized it holistically      presentation stopped just short of any
tional set determines which stimuli          as a face. Given the holistic nature of      potential pass, and observers judged
are processed to the point of recogni-       Mooney face processing, one might            whether the player intended to fake or
tion. Stimuli that are irrelevant on the     expect that such stimuli would be            to actually make a pass. Both experts
basis of location can attract attention,     immune to crowding. After all, there         and novices could detect deception,
but only if they match a participant’s       seems to be no stage in the process-         but experts were significantly better
search set. Thus, attentional capture        ing of a Mooney face in which the            than novices when provided with the
and subsequent recognition may de-           individual features are sensed inde-         dynamic cues contained in the video.
pend on attentional set. —S.P.V.             pendently of the whole face itself,          In a second experiment, when only
                                             and therefore no way for the features        dynamic cues were available, experts
    VISUAL IDENTIFICATION                    of different Mooney faces to be mis-         readily detected deceptive movement,
                                             bound to another Mooney face.                but novices did not. These results sug-
Faces in the Crowd                                                                        gest that participants with experience
                                                Surprisingly, however, as Farzin
Farzin et al. (2009). Holistic crowding of                                                were sensitive to a rich set of dynamic
Mooney faces. J Vis, 9(6), Art. 18.          et al. show c
Description: Sebanz and Shiffrar screened participants for experience in playing and watching basketball and presented the experienced basketball players and inexperienced novices with dynamic (short videos clips) or static (series of still frames) stimuli depicting a player dribbling and preparing to throw either a fake or real pass.
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