Mountain Protected Areas Update - September 2002 by NiceTime


									                            MOUNTAIN PROTECTED AREAS UPDATE

Lawrence S. Hamilton, Vice-Chair for Mountains
No. 35, September 1, 2002
World Commission on Protected Areas/IUCN

       Look there! You see a mountain. We see the spirits of our ancestors.
       -Kuku Yalangi Australian Aboriginal, 2002

       You must always be careful with something that is greater than you are.
       -Shoshone Native American Proverb

                                             World Parks Congress
A goodly section (hopefully not too much) of this issue is devoted to involving Network members in the World
Parks Congress of September 2003 in Durban, South Africa. A nomination procedure is in place, due to the
necessity to cap the number at 2,000 participants and to try to obtain participants from different geographic
regions, areas and sectors other than PAs, gender and age balance, private sector etc. The deadline for
nominations is September 30, 2002. Invitations will go only to those nominated and accepted. Nominations may
be made by Stream or Workshop Leaders, IUCN Offices, Commission Chairs, IUCN Regional Counsellors and
WCPA Regional Vice-Chairs. Acceptance will be based to a large extent on potential contribution to the
Congress Program. Nomination forms (available from Ms. Delwyn Dupuis, should be filled out,
and sent to one of the "official nominators" above. The Congress Program Outline and Streams for which
contributions are sought, can be viewed at Registration
fee will be US$500 which includes all documentation, opening and closing functions and mid-Congress 2-day
field trip.

I gave some of this information in the last issue, and also explained the scenario for the only way I could
achieve a block of time for Mountains, --as a Pre-Congress Field Workshop. I appealed for abstracts (300
words) by November 15, but only in mid-July received word of the official nomination process, and a difficult
advanced deadline. Therefore, if you wish to participate in the Parks Congress, using the Mountain PA Field
Workshop as the principal vehicle for making a contribution, you must act immediately. For me to meet the
September 30 deadline, I need to have your proposals by September 18. We prepared UDPATE early and hope
it reaches you in time to permit this.

The topics to be covered in the Mountain PA Field Workshop are new developments in: spiritual/cultural values
conservation, transboundary PAs, water and PAs, alien species, fire management, managing access/visitor
impacts, linking PAs in corridors, and working with PA neighbors. Under access/visitor impacts, I would
particularly like to highlight mountaineering in view of our new partnership with UIAA.

Mountain PA Field Workshop will be September 5-8 (4 days/3 nights). This is changed from September 4
announced earlier. Please consult the last issue of UPDATE for how papers will be handled at the Workshop,
and other aspects of the program. See web site also, for
program, and nomination form. (Web site kindly provided by Dave Harmon.) Field Workshop limited to 40
participants. So far only 5 individuals have responded with abstracts and intent to participate. Get with it gang!!

                                        Not Only the Scots are Generous
We have received three gifts from generous Network members, to assist us in Mountain Theme work (including
this newsletter), --work which always puts the Hamiltons in a financial hole. We do not mind this personal
money cost, because the psychic income of working with people like you all, makes us happy to do so.
However, these contributions are always most welcome. Abi Rome1, is an ecotourism consultant, and head of
the International Thrust of the Natural Areas Association in the USA. (NAA has its next annual meeting in
Asheville, North Carolina October 2-5. These are always well organized and excellent in content. See
Upcoming Meetings.) Sabine Schmidt and husband Keith Swenson are both working out of Ulaan Baatar in
Mongolia, with mountain protected area projects (Gobi Gurvan Saikhan NP and Altai Tavan Bogd NP). Sabine
is GTZ (Germany) Advisor on the first one, and Keith is Project Manager for the second which is New Zealand
supported.) We thank these three colleagues very much indeed for each sending a check for $50. And thanks
again to our UPDATE co-sponsor Scottish National Heritage.
    Names of Mountain Protected Areas Network members appear in italics.

                                Site of Pre-Parks Congress Field Workshop
To whet your appetites, and encourage you to get in abstracts fast for one of the 40 slots on this Field
Workshop, Trevor Sandwith provides the following:

The Ukhahlamba-Drakensberg Park and World Heritage Site was found to have exceptional natural beauty in
its soaring basaltic buttresses, incisive dramatic cutbacks, and golden sandstone ramparts. Rolling high altitude
grasslands, the pristine steep-sided river valleys and rocky gorges also contribute to the beauty of the Site. The
Site's diversity of habitats protects a high level of endemic and globally threatened species, especially birds and
plants. The spectacular natural landscape also contains many caves and rock-shelters with the largest and most
concentrated group of painting in Africa south of the Sahara, made by the San people over a period of at least
4,000 years. The rock paintings are outstanding in quality and diversity of subject and in their depiction of
animals and human beings. They represent the spiritual life of the San people who no longer live in this region.

                                    Economic Impact of Large Mountain PAs
While the evidence has long been available that open space protected areas near cities, have stimulated nearby
economic activity through provision of amenity and desirable living conditions, we have not been so certain
about large, remote PAs. We therefore refer readers to an excellent paper printed in the most recent George
Wright FORUM (19(2):31-38) by T. M Power of the Economics Department, University of Montana. Power
selected for study all units of the US National Parks over 101,000 ha (21 units) which included all of the large
mountain PAs. For the period of analysis (1969-1998) counties adjacent to these national parks and national
monuments or preserves, showed above national average economic vitality. Ninety-one percent showed above
average population and job growth, 86% saw aggregate real income rises above average rates and one third had
above average growth in average real income. (Note that people often accept lower remuneration in order to live
close to areas with high amenity values and healthier environments.) When analyzing data from the decade
1989 to 1998, all but one of the large areas showed above average economic vitality signs: jobs grew twice as
fast as in nation as a whole, population grew 2-5 times faster than national average, and aggregate real income
expanded 65% faster. (Death Valley area showed above average growth only in population.)

Power cites another study of economic development in rural communities near large wilderness areas in the
Rocky Mountain West, which showed high correlation with these same measures of economic vitality. Several
other studies referred to indicate similarly the very real economic importance to people and communities of
having large protected areas nearby. These should give courage to Mt PA managers, at least in developed
countries, in meeting the criticisms of "locals" that having large (and presumably also, small) PAs are a drag on
the economic development of a community.

                                    Italian/USA Parks Exchange Agreement
We have been fortunate to be privy to a process which has now resulted in a formal professional development
exchange program between the Italian Nature Conservation Service and the US National Park Service. The
underlying legacy for this resides in the work of the early conservationist George Perkins Marsh. (His book
Man and Nature of 1864 influenced policies in both countries.) Marsh, a Vermonter, was US ambassador to
Italy 1861-1882. The actual physical development of the agreement I must attribute to the work of Paul Bray
(Association for the Protection of the Adirondacks) and Franco Tassi (Director of Abruzzo NP) who set up a
visit to the Adirondacks by a group from Abruzzo, including another Network member, Federico Niccolini. A
series of exchange visits ensued by park staff from both countries, and we have reported on some of these in
UPDATE when they involved Mt PAs. Franco's Camerino 2000 meeting, Millennium Parks, had a follow-up in
Abruzzo which reinforced this budding relationship. The most recent development is a linking of the Marsh-
Billings-Rockefeller National Historic Park and the Conservation Study Institute (Rolf Diamant and Nora
Mitchell) with the Lazio Regional Park Agency (Giulliano Tallone). It will implement a workshop in Vermont
at Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller NHP in October, and we hope to reconnect with our friend Guilliano and perhaps
also Federico at this event. The focus will be on education and interpretation of large-scale landscapes.
                                      Gran Ruta Inka - Andes Mountains
A Task Force of WCPA on Non-Material Values has been mentioned previously in UPDATE. It is headed by
Allen Putney and Mercedes Otegui. Allen sends us news of one of the activities of this Task Force which has
been funded by a Ford Foundation grant for case studies of Sacred Natural Sites (SNS).

The case study in Latin America will focus on developing a feasibility study for establishing a system of
protected areas along the Gran Ruta Inka. This was the major trail system used by the Inkas to establish their
empire along the Andes Mountains from Colombia to Central Chile, a distance of over 6,000 km. as the condor
flies. Major potions of this trail system, one of the archeological jewels of the Andes, are still intact. The system
of protected areas will try to incorporate not only the main trail and associated archeological sites, but SNSs,
biological corridors, the headwaters of critical watersheds, and living cultural manifestations as well. Attempts
are underway to draw on the resources of several of the major international NGOs working in Latin America as
well as the Inter-American Development Bank, to assist and enhance this study. If this happens, the study will
be expanded to determine the feasibility of ecotourism as a major economic activity for the sustainable
development of the communities along the route and the feasibility of establishing a Gran Ruta Inka Fund. The
goal is to complete the study in time for presentation at the World Parks Congress.

The Task Force hopes to have a light/sound/art show also prepared for the World Parks Congress, and to
develop a fund to assist SNSs in danger.

                               Activities of Fundació Paisatge (Catalonia, Spain)
Network member Miquel Rafa continues to keep us informed about the activities being carried out by this 4-
year-old foundation. It carries out nature conservation projects and environmental education in an overall
program Caixa Catalunya. Many of its activities are in the Catalonian segment of the Pyrenees. It owns 6,919
ha, has collaborative or rights agreements on 10,512 ha and has timber rights on 104 ha in 23 different parcels.
One of the largest of the reserves is the Alinya Mountain ownership. It was acquired in 1999 now has a
functioning management plan, including a photographic monitoring activity over time called Landscape
Observatory. An event of great interest held last year by the Fundació was the bringing together of nature artists
from around the world operating under the Artists for Nature Foundation. During two sessions their works of
sculpture, oil paintings, watercolors, engravings and drawings were produced. These will go on exhibit in spring
2003 at the Cultural Centre Caixa Catalunya at La Pedrera, and later travel to different places in Europe.

This is an excellent type of activity in our opinion. We saw it done two years ago by Franco Tassi in Abruzzo
NP (Italy) and in Taiwan 13 years ago. In the latter case the paintings were then sold to benefit the parks. The
Fundació is the Eurosite representative in Spain and acts as Secretary in the Mediterranean region. It became an
IUCN member last year.

                                 International Peace Park a Victim of Terrorism?
USA fears of terrorists entering the country have resulted in a disheartening diminution of the wonderful open-
border arrangement at Waterton Lakes/Glacier National Parks on the USA/Canada border. This was the world's
first official International Peace Park (1932) and has developed as an outstanding example of transboundary
cooperation. Our recent publication Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No. 7 (Sandwith, Shine,
Hamilton and Sheppard) features a cover photo of two park rangers shaking hands across the border marker.
Visitor groups from each side have been able to cross over for boating, hiking or other visitation. There has
even been a campaign underway to eliminate the swath of cut vegetation that marks the border between the two

Dave Mihalic, former Superintendent in Glacier, and now head guy at Yosemite NP, sends us word that the US
Immigration Service has clamped down because "instant" checks are not available via computer. Consequently
US Park Rangers have been instructed to shut down entry at the border at Goat Haunt, the ranger station at the
southern end of Waterton Lake and the terminous of the tour boats on Waterton. This results in boaters who
may land on shore and tour the ranger station and Peace Park exhibit, but go no further or use Goat Haunt as a
trail head for day or overnight hikes. Former Waterton Lakes Parks Canada Superintendent (now retired) Merv
Syroteuk reports that it has really put a crimp in the intellectual idea of celebrating the longest, undefended
border between two countries. Merv works as an interpretive naturalist on the Motor Vessel "International",
which takes tours up and down the lake and highlights the border crossing and educates tens of thousands of
visitors each year as to the Peace Park concept. Many Canadian and US citizens are outraged, and are
attempting to put pressure on Immigration to alter this new policy.

                                Gobi Gurvan Saikhan National Park (Mongolia)
                                           Sabine Schmidt, GTZ Advisor
Gobi Gurvan Saikhan National Park is named after the three mountain ranges "Three Beauties of the Gobi"
(2825 m). Its territory of approximately 2.7 million ha. encompasses a rich natural, cultural and scientific
heritage. The landscapes, part of the desert steppe and desert zone and used by nomadic hunters and livestock
herders since millennia, are of great diversity including oasis, salt marshes, dunes, mountain steppe, alpine
meadows, lakes and wetlands. The park is situated in the South Gobi, the southernmost part of Mongolia. The
climate is harsh with extreme seasonal temperature changes, varying between mean temperatures of +20°C to
+40 °C in July and -16°C to -30°C in January. Annual rainfall varies from approx. 50 mm in the lowlands to
about 150 mm in higher regions; flashfloods caused by heavy rainfalls occur in the summer months.

The conservation objectives include the protection of biodiversity and its fossil record, of geological and
geomorphological diversity, of ecosystems and of ecological and geo-morphological processes. They also
include the protection of traditional resource management practices, of cultural traditions and of historic and
prehistoric sites. Gobi Gurvan Saikhan National Park is habitat of rare wildlife including the globally
endangered snow leopard. The snow leopard population of the park is believed to be one of the more significant
populations in Mongolia. Other rare large mammals include Argali/Wild Sheep, Khulan/Asiatic Ass and Black-
tailed Gazelle, Lynx, Wild Cat and Manul Cat. Small mammals include the Marbled Polecat, and the endemic
Pygmy Jerboa and Satunin's Jerboa. Sightings of Gobi Bear and Wild Bactrian Camel have been reported.
White-tailed Gazelle is common and can occur in herds of 10.000 animals in autumn. The bird fauna of the park
is, with 246 reported species (99 migratory), particularly rich. Rare species include Houbara Bustard and Altai

The park belongs to the Gobi-Altai botanical region; 290 plant species are known from the area, among them
many species typical for cool mountain steppe as well as extremely rare, rare and relict plants. 38 species are
endemic. The steppe is dominated by Stipa gobica grass and wild leek, the semi-desert is dominated by
Carragana sp. and Nitraria sp. shrubs. Juniperus sabina and birch as a relic plant of northern forest occur in the
mountains. Globally significant paleontological findings include dinosaur, turtle and crocodile fossils; 30 new
fossil species have been found.

Although the Gobi seems an inhospitable region and is very sparsely populated (0.5 /km²), the park represents
an old cultural landscape that has been used by nomadic people as hunting and grazing grounds, as well as by
sedentary populations, for thousands of years. Prehistoric and archaeological sites include petroglyphs, grave
and burial sites, as well as middens and artifacts. The earliest petroglyphs of Gobi Gurvan Saikhan National
Park are believed to have been created by Indo-Iranian people during the Bronze Age. A wealth of Stone Age
artifacts has been found in different locations in the park. Many locations, particularly mountains, are sacred or
associated with legends; old texts on places of worship are preserved in the "Gurvansaikhan Fund" scripts.
                              Mountains for Sale in Scotland and Other Shenanigans
The peaks and buttresses of a modest (in height) but scenic and treasured range on the Isle of Skye is up for
sale. This >9,000 ha range is owned by the Chief of the clan MacLeod who needs money to repair his
deteriorating Dunvegan castle on the northwest tip of the island. Some of our Network members in the Scottish
mountaineering groups are outraged at the thought of a sale of a part of Scotland's natural heritage to an
overseas buyer (the most likely scenario). Mike Dales and Dave Morris are active on the protest front, and Alan
Blackshaw is raising questions about title to the peaks based on historical research. This all takes place as
Scotland celebrates the International Year of Mountains, and the Scottish Parliament is preparing to reform laws
from feudal times on ownership and access. And, on another front, the Scottish Executive has issued the draft
declaration on the proposed Cairngorm NP (to be Scotland's second NP). To the dismay of Scottish mountain
lovers and Network members there, this deviates substantially from the published results of earlier consultations
after an excellent public input process. John Foster points out that the draft proposes to not give strategic
planning powers and development control to the NP Authority, but to have those in the hands of individual local
authorities. It also significantly reduces the area by a boundary that cuts across the high mountain country
instead of following landform/watershed boundaries and maintaining a coherent identity. Any readers who
know and love the Cairngorms are urged to obtain information, and to write tot the Minister for Environment
and Rural development. Information from or
                              Wolf Re-introduction Update - Yellowstone NP (USA)
Re-introduction of 31 gray wolves into Yellowstone National Park in 1995 and 1996, after a 60-year absence,
has proved to be a remarkable success story for the National Park Service, ushering in a new ecological era for
the greater Yellowstone area. Approximately 216 wolves now reside in this area, comprising 24 packs with 14
breeding pairs that produced 77 surviving puppies. Ten of the packs make their home in Yellowstone NP.

The goal of the wolf restoration program is to maintain 30 breeding pairs throughout the three Rocky Mountain
recovery areas, --greater Yellowstone, central Idaho, and northwest Montana. Once 30 pairs reproduce for three
successive years, the gray wolf can be removed from the endangered species list in Idaho, Montana and

It is still too early to know what the ultimate influence of wolves will be on the Yellowstone ecosystem. Other
studies have revealed increases in biological diversity with carnivore restoration. Already, wolves have
dramatically lowered the coyote population, which will likely influence other species. Other findings indicate
that improved aspen growth occurs in areas with high wolf activity but low elk use. Besides aspen and elk,
many other plant and animal species stand to gain from the restoration of this long-absent, keystone carnivore.
What is clear is that wolf restoration in Yellowstone has been successful beyond all expectations. The greatest
victory of the effort to restore wolves to the greater Yellowstone area may be a philosophical one: an attempt
has been made to restore all of the parts and processes of a natural ecosystem.

                                 Trouble at Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal)
Sagarmatha NP was established in 1976 to protect the Nepal side of Mount Sagarmatha (also known as
Everest). It became a World Heritage Site in 1979. Early technical assistance in establishment and developing a
management plan was provided not only by IUCN, but by New Zealand Aid. Several of our Mt PA Network
members were involved, including the late, well-loved Bing Lucas and a feisty Kiwi Bruce Jeffries. On a recent
return 3-week trekking visit there in IYM, Bruce and his wife were dismayed to encounter what they considered
to be serious conditions of deterioration or neglect in this jewel of the Himalaya. In particular Bruce and
Margaret pointed out problems concerning: lack of sustained management activity, negative impacts of army
presence, tourism impacts (physical and social), uncontrolled forest cutting and rock quarrying, --hardly
compatible with a World Heritage Site.

Bruce appropriately sent in a report to IUCN Protected Areas Programme, expressing his concern. Alarm bells
have gone off, and emails have been flying fast and frequently between a host of individuals, prominent among
them, members of the Mt PA Network: Bruce, Chandra Gurung (WWF Nepal), Mahesh Banskota (IUCN
Nepal), Narayan Poudel (Deputy DG for Parks, Nepal), Kishore Rao (IUCN Asia), Stan Stevens (University of
Massachusetts, USA), Mike Beresford (International Centre for Protected Landscapes), Mingma Sherpa (WWF
US), Roger Payne (UIAA Switzerland), Larry Hamilton, and at IUCN HQ Georgina Peard, David Sheppard,
Pedro Rosabal and Annalisa Koeman (who juggled all of this efficiently). The dust has not settled, but a joint
IUCN/WWF assessment team is being talked about, with input from ICPL, and the Department is embarking on
a Periodic Report needed for a World Heritage Site. The airport construction at Syangboche has been stopped,
as has the tree felling near Tengboche monastery. Perhaps by December issue we will have a clear, concise
story to tell.

                           Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park (Scotland)
Debates about whether Scotland should have national parks have taken place for at least the past 5 decades.
Finally after Scotland gained a separate legislature from the British parliament, the Scottish Assembly passed a
National Parks Act in 2000. Tireless campaigner and Network member Malcolm Payne sends the following
personal note of interest.
         On July 24, 2002, HRH the Princess Royal will declare Scotland's first National Park open. The Loch
         Lomond and The Trossachs National Park will be officially inaugurated at a Royal ceremony held at
         Balloch, Loch Lomond. This historic event will mark the culmination of some 70 years of tireless
         campaigning by many individuals and environmental groups. Sadly, many of the giants of the Scottish
         national Parks movement did not live to see this memorable day: among them are the late Sir Frank
         Fraser Darling, and the late Professor Sir Robert Grieve who was a visionary town and country planner
         in the post-War year. Bob Grieve was presented with a decanter of whisky when Loch Lomond was
         designated as a Regional Park in 1988, --and he swore not to open it until the area became a National
         Park. Hopefully, Bob will have a sip of his whisky in heaven on July 24 this year! We thank all our
         friends and colleagues, --not the least our friends in IUCN, for their steadfast support over so many
         years. It has taken a little while but we have got there! I'll be there on the 24th, after my own 32 years of
         Parks campaigning, and I'll drink a dram for Larry! Adrian Phillips will send a message of congrats
         from IUCN.
Area of the Park is 1,865 km². Several peaks over 1,000 m in Trossachs. The Trossachs are traversed by the
West Highland Way (possibly the high road in "Ye'll tak the high road and I'll tak the low road" from the
Bonnie Banks o' Loch Lomond). It had been hoped that Cairngorm NP would also be designated in IYM, but
that is the next step in better mountain conservation in Scotland.
               Hengduan Mountains/Meili Snow Mountains/Four (Three) Parallel Rivers, China
The Hengduan Mountains extend south from the Himalayan Region, into Northwestern Yunnan Province. Here
are found the Meili Snow Mountains, sacred Mt. Kawayebo (6,740 m), incredibly deep gorges (2,000 m deep),
and 4 parallel flowing rivers which are at one point all within 100 km (they become the Irrawaddy, Mekong,
Salween and Yangtze). This physically spectacular area is also a major part of a recognized global biodiversity
"hotspot". Found here are a huge pharmacy of medicinal plants, the endangered red panda, golden hair monkey,
snow leopard, black-necked cranes and a host of other plants and animals. It is claimed by the Chinese to have
the richest biodiversity of any area in the Eurasian continent. It has been nominated for World Heritage status,
and Muddy Boots Thorsell and Les Molloy will be doing a field evaluation there in October. Network members
who know the area are invited to be "desk reviewers", --contact and she will send the
nomination document. Since the fourth river is mainly in Myanmar, this will be nominated as the Three Parallel

This area is the locale of a fine Nature Conservancy activity called the Yunnan Great Rivers Project. The
project is based in Kunming under Rose Niu. Network member Ed Norton is co-deputy director. A field office
in Dequin finds Bob Moseley as the only foreign resident. One interesting device being used by The Nature
Conservancy to reduce the heavy fuelwood cutting pressure on these forests is the promotion and cost-sharing
of biogas systems, and it seems to be working. The units cost about US$170, shared equally by TNC and the
Yunnan government, after a cash commitment of $25 from the householder. Energy is often a key to resource
damage or resource conservation in cold and remote mountain areas. Information from
We have a particular interest in Yunnan, because granddaughter Kate will soon start a 2-year post-graduate
fellowship at the University of Yunnan in Kunming. Our good friend Pei Shengji of the Kunming Institute of
Botany is also there, and doing great things in ethnobotany, cultural heritage and biodiversity. Friends and
former colleagues at Cornell University Jim Lassoie and Ruth Sherman are currently there on research projects
and supervising graduate student research. Seems like a hotbed of activity!

                                      No Climbing at Uluru (Australia)?
Visitors have been drawn to climb Ayers Rock, now known by its Aboriginal name of Uluru, since the first road
reached it in 1948. But the massive sandstone monolith looming over the flat Australian desert is a sacred site to
the indigenous Anangu population. Scaling the 335 m (1,100 foot) rock is, to them, a kind of blasphemy.

Uluru is located in central Australia, in Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park. Some 500,000 people travel to its
remote location every year, and perhaps half choose to climb to the rock's summit even though signs in the park
request that they not. After the death of an Anangu elder in May 2001, Uluru's climbing path was closed for ten
days during a mourning period. Fearing that tribal leaders might seek a permanent ban, the region's tourist
industry protested. The park has stepped up educational efforts to persuade visitors not to ascend. Respect for
Aboriginal beliefs is not the only reason to stay off Uluru. So far, 35 people have died while making the climb.

                                       Warfare and Conflict in Mountains
Nothing is more destructive of natural (and human) resources than open warfare, and such conflict is more
common in mountains than elsewhere. Many times PAs are involved, and sometimes PAs can provide a
solution, --Parks for Peace. This is a major program thrust for WCPA and IUCN's Protected Areas Programme.
We have been discussing this topic in UPDATE, and our last item was the Siachen Glacier Peace Park initiative
by a WCPA ad hoc group. Mountaineers, and the International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation
(UIAA) have an interest in resolving conflict in mountains and have launched a program to this end. UIAA will
collaborate with IUCN in this, and Roger Payne has proposed a symbolic Indian/Pakistan climb in the Jungfrau-
Aletsch-Bietschorn World Heritage area at the end of August as part of IYM. Meanwhile the Youth
Commission of the Ukrainian Mountain Federation organized a mass climb (300 persons) to demonstrate for
peace in mountains to the summit of Mt. Goverla (2,061 m/6,760 ft), the highest in the Ukraine. This occurred
on February 5 of IYM and subsequently the young alpinists signed a declaration addressed to the UN calling on
youth worldwide to work for peace and understanding against war and terrorism.

See also Harish Kapadia's article below.

                                             Siachen Glacier (Kashmir)
Harish Kapadia, Indian mountaineer and member of the WCPA/IUCN Ad Hoc group promoting a Peace Park
of the disputed Siachen Glacier, has recently returned from an expedition in that area. It was a joint Indian-
Japanese climbing and exploring almost the entire East Karakoram. Excerpts from his report follow.
        Siachen seems to have deteriorated rapidly and now looks more ghastly than ever! Due to receding of
        the glacier camps had to be shifted and thus instead one dump at one camp we have 4 dumps around the
        camp. There is no end to the conflict and war goes on unabated. In fact while we were there, as you all
        know, almost war-like scenario development. I gave a lecture to officers at Base Camp telling them
        about the history and what priceless nature they were defending. But in discussions later, there were no
        ready answers to how to change/protect environmental and how to end the conflict. So war goes on,
        snout has receded by 150 m further since my last visit, huge caves and gaps are seen in middle of the
        glacier and snow cover was far less. As I returned in first week of July, the Nubra River had almost
        floods near the snout (amount of water gushing out was unbelievable and causes concern every year).
        Death toll is rising and expenses are mounting. I talked to various officers in charge and in their own
        way they will try to look into the garbage situation or at least not cause further degradation while they
        are on the glacier. But that is all we could do at present.
                                 Clean Mountain Canisters and Leave No Trace
Favorable experience in using portable cans for human waste disposal is reported from Denali NP (Alaska) by
Roger Robinson, the Mountaineering Ranger there. So far, this climbing season over 500 climbers have used
them, and they are handed out even at the 4,330 m high camp. According the Roger, the overwhelming response
from both foreign and American climbers is that "they are good", "easy to use", can be "heavy to pack down",
but "worth the effort to keep the mountain clean". It looks positive to continue this into the future.

Roger also reports that arising out of a conference at Mount Rainier NP last May on Alpine Mountaineering
Skills, a working group is producing a manual on "Leave No Trace". He has sent me the first draft, and it looks
to be concise, to-the-point and well done. By this time it may be finished. Contact either or

                                      Glacial Retreat at Island Peak (Nepal)
To celebrate World Environment Day in IYM, UNEP and UIAA organized an expedition to the Island Peak,
6,189 m (20,305 feet), a neighbor of Sagarmatha (Everest) in the Khumbu region of Nepal. The expedition
gathered startling evidence of the impacts of climate change. The glacier from where Sir Edmund Hillary and
Sherpa Tenzing Norgay set out to make the first ascent of Everest nearly 50 years ago has retreated by around 5
km up the mountain. Other evidence of climate change included huge scars gouged in the landscape by sudden,
glacial floods from the lakes swollen by melting glaciers. However, perhaps the biggest indicator of climate
change was the glacial lake at the foot of Island Peak. Thirty years ago there was a rubble strewn glacier, but as
the climate has become warmer the glacier has melted and been replaced by a lake over 100 m deep, 500 m
wide and 2 km long. What is very worrying is that the wall of rubble that contains this lake could fail and cause
a life threatening flood to the villages downstream. This lake is just one of 20 glacial lakes in Nepal identified
by some experts as being in danger of bursting its banks. Roger Payne was an expedition member and supplied
this information.
                                                  Bits and Pieces
Dave Morris (of the Scottish Ramblers' Association, not the David Morris, Superintendent of Olympia NP in
USA) has been elected President of the Mountain Protection Commission of UIAA. Joss Lyman continues to
head the Expeditions Commission, and Alan Blackshaw remains the UIAA link to Mountain Agenda and IYM.
Ernst Haase, the current Editor of UIAA's World Mountaineering and Climbing journal will retire at the end of
2002. Any Mt PA Network members wishing to volunteer for this task, contact Roger Payne,
who has stepped down as General Secretary of the British Mountaineering Council, has taken up UIAA duties
as Sports and Development Director, where he will have a concern with the impact of Olympic Games and
other major sports events on mountain environments.

Fausto Sarmiento has been appointed Executive Director for International Education at his institution, the
University of Georgia. These new duties will not take him away from his mountain projects and activities in
Ecuador or elsewhere. The last issue of Mountain Research and Development 22(2), carried an article by Fausto
about a friend of many of us, "Gerardo Budowski: a beacon to conservation of tropical mountains."

The US National Park Service has recognized Rolf Diamant as the Natural Resources Superintendent of the
Year. This was for 2000, but the information was received only this year in the 2001 Annual Report of the
Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (the only NP in Vermont).

Allen Putney in his independent consultant capacity is working with The Nature Conservancy's Parks in Peril
Program, a more than US$50 million effort over 10 years covering 38 protected areas in 15 countries in Latin
America and the Caribbean. The purpose of the assignment is to assist in identifying the project's most
important experiences, lessons learned, and products that they and their 28 partner NGOs might contribute to
the World Parks Congress, and the best means for presentation of these outputs.

For "more than 50 years of unstinting and enthusiastic service to Irish mountaineering, Joss Lyman has been
awarded a Doctorate (Honoris Causa) by Dublin University. He is Chair of the UIAA Expeditions Commission.
He founded the Irish Mountaineering Club in 1948 and has led or co-led expeditions to the Andes, Alps,
Greenland, and the Himalaya of India, Pakistan and Tibet.

To celebrate IYM and pay homage to its own mountains, Scottish Natural Heritage's Mark Wrightham
(National Strategy Officer) has published an informative booklet "Scotland's Living Landscapes." It appears to
me, that no Scot can write about his or her mountains without that fierce love of these 3-dimentional earth
features shining through, and this biophysical/ historical publication shows it indeed. I was very kindly given
the opportunity to write the Foreword.

An Inter-Commission Task Force on Mountains has been formed between WCPA and the Commission on
Ecosystem Management in IUCN. This is being fostered by Steve Edwards, the designated mountain focal point
at HQ in Gland, who is able to commit some financial support to it. This is indeed an appropriate action to take
in IYM. I will serve on this Task Force as interim Chair or Co-Chair, but we are searching for a dedicated
volunteer who will take this on a more permanent basis. Readers with some science orientation are invited to
apply either as Chair or as a working member of this Task Force. This initiative is supported by both Kenton
Miller (WCPA Chair) and Hillary Masundire (CEM Chair). A Montane Cloud Forest Working Group is being
set up by Philip Bubb and Jeff Sayer. A mountain ecotourism initiative is being considered, involving the
UIAA, World Tourism Organization, WWF, UNEP and WCPA, and Deputy Vice-Chair (Mountains) Graeme
Worboys will play a major role in this. It would liase with Paul Eagles' Working Group on Tourism and PAs.

The new Commissioner for Protected Areas in Costa Rica is Mario Boza who has been with the Wildlife
Conservation Society in San Pedro, Costa Rica. Mario has been the person pushing the Ecoamericas corridor of
which we have written.

At a joint IYM event Patrizia Rossi tells us that the first common two-language signboard was placed at the
Colle di Finestra of the transborder parks Alpi Marittime and Mercantour. This is a pass at 2,474 m, linking
Italian and French communities for summer pilgrimage and for hikers.

With mountain glaciers shrinking and even disappearing everywhere in the world in our Mt PAs, it is of
interest to have some good news for a change. We have previously reported on the Research and Learning
Centers being established regionally by the US National Park Service. Thanks to the availability of one of the
five facilities, the Continental Divide RLC, a glacier survey was carried out last year in Rocky Mountain NP. It
identified 120 glacial ice features, compared to the previously mapped 34 for the Park and its immediate

The International Journal of Fieldwork Studies, a peer-review internet-base journal seeks manuscript
contributions targeted at geographical and environmental work, especially in mountains. Notes for contributors
available at and questions about the journal or review process from

Our Slovenian mountain woman Marija Zupancic-Vicar has been honored by Prince Bernhard of the
Netherlands as follows: "The Order of the Golden Ark is awarded to Mrs. Marija Zupancic-Vicar for her energy
and devotion to the cause of conservation and protected areas, as Director of the Triglav National Park in the
Julian Alps of Slovenia, and more recently as Vice Chair for Europe of the IUCN World Commission on
Protected Areas. Mrs. Zupancic-Vicar is honoured for her achievement in the development of a highly
motivated, European wide team of experts working in a volunteer capacity and the successful implementation of
a large number of projects on protected areas." Well deserved, Marija!

And, a partnership award from the US National Park Service for interpreting the inspirational qualities of
Mount Rainier states in part: "People around the world have ascribed their own special meanings to mountains.
As the highest and most dramatic feature in the region, Mount Rainier is especially meaningful to the people of
the Pacific Northwest. Through his direct contributions to interpretive training and exhibit development, Edwin
Bernbaum, Director of the Sacred Mountains Program at The Mountain Institute, has helped the interpretive
division at Mount Rainier reach new heights of meaning. By focusing on the universal meanings associated
with mountains, he has inspired staff to reach new audiences." Ed is also probing work at two other mountain
NPs, --Hawai`i Volcanoes and North Cascades.

Those interested in the activities of the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
(ICIMOD), can obtain regular postings by contacting Nira Gurung

Vanishing Night Skies is the title of a policy paper prepared by the National Parks and Conservation
Association. It sets forth the extent and effects of light pollution through a 1999 survey of the US National Park
System. W have previously reported on this issue for Mt PAs and it has elicited a high degree of interest from
many of you. NPCA web site is Ten of our Mountain NPs reported light pollution as a problem.

Joe Keenan has been appointed as Division Director for The Nature Conservancy to be in charge of Brazil,
Colombia, Venezuela and Paraguay. He was manager of the Brazil Atlantic Forest Program previously.

La Grande Traversée des Alpes, a hiking trail of discovery website of the 8 European Alps countries is open,
according to Nathalie Morelle, the project coordinator.

Barbara Cellarius winds up her work in Bulgaria's Rhodope Mountains through the Max Planck Institute and
in October will take up a position as cultural anthropologist/subsistence specialist in Alaska in Wrangell-St.
Elias National Park and Preserve.

                                               Publications of Interest
Marking the International Year of Ecotourism, which coincides with our Year of Mountains, the May 2002
issue of the journal Mountain Research and Development has the theme of ecotourism in Mountains. It was
assembled largely by guest editor Leslie Taylor, our stalwart Network member from the Banff Centre for
Mountain Culture together with Anne Zimmermann and Hans Hurni. The lead article by Sanjay Nepal is a gem.
Other Network members contributing include: Roger Barry, Jack Ives, Martin Price, Fausto Sarmiento.
Fausto's piece incidentally, is a tribute to his mentor, Gerardo Budowski, who was the first colleague to turn me
on to montane cloud forests as we sat in the mountains of Venezuela near Caracas, one day in 1974.

The latest issue of the Journal of the UIAA, World Mountaineering and Climbing, (2/3, 2002) is of very great
interest. Congratulations to Editor Ernst Haase. It presents some of the papers from the UIAA conference:
Benefits and Costs of Mountaineering for Regions and Communities, held in Trento, Italy last May. The value
of PAs figures frequently in the articles. Writers include Martin Price, Thomas Hofer, Dave Morris, Joss Lyman
and Roger Payne. We have borrowed several items from its pages. Subscription price is 30 Swiss
francs/year, 3 issues.

Two mountain guidebooks printed this year by John Mock and Kimberley O'Neil in The Lonely Planet
Publications Series, Melbourne, Australia: Hiking in the Sierra Nevada and Trekking in the Karakoram and
Hindukush. Check

                           A Few (of the many) Forthcoming Meetings of Interest
Fire Between Air and Water, Volcanic Islands in Science and Myth, Preservation and Valorization. September
29 - October 2 in Lipari, Aeolian Islands, Italy. Celebration of 30th anniversary of World Heritage Convention.
Aeolian Islands became a WH Natural Site last year. Contact

Which Future for Mont Blanc, -- World Heritage or Other Solutions?. October 14-15. Contact Three-country involvement in a possible transfrontier PA?
Protected Areas of European Mountains. November 13-17 in Chambery, France. Of direct interest to all
Network members of Europe, and perhaps others. Mountain Theme will be presented by Marija Zupancic-
Vicar, and several members will participate. Organized by the Network of Alpine Protected Areas. or

International Conference on Himalayan Biodiversity. December 10-13 in Kathmandu, Nepal. Himalayan
Resources Institute with collaborators. Major topics: Himalayan Flora and Fauna; Biodiversity Conservation;
Indigenous Knowledge on Biodiversity Conservation; Trade-related Property Rights; Ecotourism. Abstracts due
September 15. Registration fee variable, US$50-100. or

Making Ecosystem-based Management Work: Connecting Managers and Researchers. May 11-16, 2003 at
University of Victoria, Victoria BC, Canada. Fifth International Conference on Science and Management of
Protected Areas (SAMPAA V). Abstracts due December 31. details at

Also note the following meetings which were featured in the June 1 issue of UPDATE: Mountain Communities
Conference: Ecological and Earth Sciences in Mountain Areas. September 6-10 in Banff, Alberta, Canada.

Europarc 2002. October 2-6 in Snowdonia NP, Wales.

The Power of Nature and the Empowerment of Natural Areas. October 2-5 in Asheville, North Carolina, USA.

Wildlands Exchange: Beyond the Border. October 5-6 at Paul Smiths, New York, USA.

Summit 2002 Extreme Landscapes: Challenges and Celebration. October 27 - November 3 in Banff, Alberta,

Bishkek Global Mountain Summit. October 28 - November 1 in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.

Nature and People: Conservation and Management in the Mountains of Northern Europe. November 7-9 in
Pitlochry, Scotland.

The World Conservation Union
World Commission on Protected Areas - Mountain Theme
Rue Mauverney 28
CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland
fax 4122 999 0002; e-mail:

Lawrence S. Hamilton and Linda S. Hamilton
ISLANDS AND HIGHLANDS, Environmental Consultancy
342 Bittersweet Lane, Charlotte, Vermont 05445 USA
Telephone/fax 802 425-6509;

Battleby, Redgarton
Perth PH1 3EW
Browsing Classification: General: Periodicals: Global: Mountain Protected Areas Update
Généralités: Périodiques
Generalidades: Publicaciones Periódicas

Citation: Hamilton, L.S. (ed.). 2002. Mountain Protected Areas Update, No. 35. September 2002.

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