Number and kinds of children's residential institutions in the by fzw45252

VIEWS: 12 PAGES: 31

									I N T HEUNIT E D T A T E S
               S
Thls report su@arlzes a Esster list of chlldrenr s
lnstltutlons   conpiled as part of the ProJect oo
Physlcal Facllltles    for Group Care of Chlldren, a
proJect belng conducted by The Center for Urban
Studles of the Universlty of Chicago. ThLs re-
search was carrl-ed out under Grant PR-700 of the
Chtld llelfare Research and Demonstration Grants
Progran, Chlldrenr s Bureau.
NI]MBER AND KINDS OF CHILDRENS RESIDENTIAL INSTITI.TTIONS
                  IN THE UMTED STATES




                Shirley   A. Star and Alma M. Kuby




 U. S. DEPARTMEI.ITOF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
                   }IEI.FARE ADMINISTRATION
                      Chlldrenrs Bureau
                              L967




                                            d" '!
                           I   i:!
                           |
                                     "-,,
PROJECTON PHYSICAL FACILITIES FOR GROUPCARE OF CHII,DREN




       Donnell M. Pappenfort,                   proJect Dl,rector

       S l' s t er Ma ry E m a n u e l , R .G.S ., Assocl ate P roJect D l rector,              C hi l d W el fare

       M elalde       D J .n w o o d l e ,As s o c i a te proJect D l rector,       R esearch

       Alna M. Kuby, Ass{stant                   proJect Dlrector

       Char les A . Mc C o y , S tu d y D L re c tor, Fi el d V l si ts

       Dee M . Kl l p a trl c k ,       R e s e a rc h As socLate

       lif,ary Jean lvlcMorrls, Systens Analyst

       B r uc e C a s w e l l , R e s e a rc h A s s i s ta n t

       S us an Te rrl s ,      R e s e a rc h A s s l s ta n t

       Nancy Toder, Research Asslstant

       Janet Shepherd, proJect Coordlnator

       Slgnhlld       Damus, proJect Typlst

       G enev a B a i n e s , p ro J e c t R e c o rd s


CONSI'LTA}ITS

       S hir r ey A. s ta r,        R e s e a rc h c o n s ul tant,    fornerl y   proJect D l rector

       George A. Hlnds, Archltectural                           Consultant

       A delalde Be a n , F l e l d        Sp e c l a l l s t
BACKGROUND TI1IS REPOM
         OF

              Thls report ls a by-product of the flrst                      step along the way toward
f uJ - f lllln g     th e m a J o r g o a l s o f th e P roj ect on P hysi caL Facl l i tl es   for Group
Car e of C h l l d re n .            T h e p ro j e c t, a natl onal study of the physi cal faci l i tl es
hous lng c h i l d re n rs i n s tl tu ti o n s ,           seeks, fLrst, to determi ne the characterl stl cs
of t he e x i s tl n g p h y s i c a l p l a n ts of chi l drenrs i nstl tutl onsl         then, to rel ate
these facts to the emerglng functions of chlldrenr s instltutions                               and the
kinds of new program demands on facillties                             that result;  and, flnally,    to
estimate both the extent to whlch changed and changlng lnstltutlonal                                chlld care
programs require or wouLd substantlally                            beneflt from remodellng or even re-
bullding of the physlcal settLngs housing theb, and the scope, cost, flnanclng
and other problems of any such systematic prograos of rehabilitatlon                                of
lns t lt ut io n a l     fa c l l i tl e s    fo r c h l l dren.

         The study ls collecting           new data at three maJor l-evels:

          a. A survey of each state has been conducted ln order to determlne
the nrmber and klnds of residentlal   lnstltutlons for chlldren currentlv
oper at ln g .

         b . A s u rv e y o f c h i l d re n rs i nsti tutl ons    i n each sE ate w i l l add l n-
formatlon about the kinds of chlldren ln group residentl-al care; the staff,
goals a n d p ro g rm s o f th e i n s ti tu ti on;     the physl cal facl l l tl es    currentl y
av allabl e ; th e ro l e o f th e p h y si cal pl ant, as seeD by the l nstl tuti on
ltself,    ln facllltatlng            or lmpeding current and deslred programs; and the
k inds o f c h a n g e s l n fa c i l l tl e s each l nstl tutl on   requi res or desi res for
optlnal functloning.

             c. Field surveys of a sample of lnstltutions              wlll provlde expert
appr ais a l s o f th e fe a s i b l l l ty    o f the kl nds of changes i n physi cal pl ant
t hat m a y b e d e s i ra b l e , a n d re l a Ee these to Lssues of codes, type of con-
s t r uc t lon , p ro b a b l e c o s ts a n d means of fl nanci ng.

These data wlll be combined wtth lnforoatlon   about group child care prln-
clpLes and standards to provlde an esttmate of the size of the national
task ln providlng adequate facll-ltles for chlld care ln the lnstlttftional
s ec E or ,
                                                                 CONTENTS


                                                                                                               Page

N t rm be r an d Kin ds   of   Chlldr enis       Res ident ia l           Institutloos....                 .    I

Tabl-es
   1.   Auspices of Chlldr enr s                Res ident ial           Institutlons          in   the
        Unite d St at es .                                                                                      4

    2.    T y pes an d A u s p i c e s o f C h i l d re n ts          R esi denti al     Insti tuti ons
          in t he U n i te d Sta te s .                                                                         5

    3"    T y pes an d A u s p i c e s o f Pu b l l c C h ll drenrs               R esl denti al
          I ns t lt ut lo n s l n th e U n i te d Sta te s.                                                .    6

    4,    T y pes an d A u s p l c e s o f Vo l u n ta ry C hi l drents                R esl dentl al
          Lns t it ut io n s l -n th e U n l te d Sta c e s.                                               .    7

    5,    A us pic es o f C h i l d re n rs     R e s i d e n tl al     InsE l tutl ons       i n the
          I ndlv ldua l Sta E e s .                                                                             8

    6.    T y pes of C h l l d re n rs    R e s i d e n ti a l     Instl tuti ons        i n the
          I ndlv idua l Sta te s "                                                                               9

    7"    T y pes of Pu b l i c C h i l d re n ts      R e s i denti al       Instl tut.l ons       in
          t he I ndivi d u a l Sta te s .....                                                                   10

    8.    T y pes of V o l u n ta ry C h tl d re n rs            R esi dentl al     Insti tuE i ons
          in t he I n d l v l d u a l Sta te s ,                                                                11

    9"    T y pes of Pro p rl -e ta ry C h i l d re n rs           R esi denti al       Instl tuti ons
          ln t he I n d i v i d u a l Sta te s "                                                                12

Ap pendix :     Dev e l o p me n t o f th e C e n te rrs Master Li st                   of C hi l drents
                Res i d e n ti a l In s ti tu ti o n s . "                                                      13
                        AND KINDS oF CHILDREN's RESIDEMIAL INSTITInIoNS
                   NUMBER


           I n S ept e m b e r, 1 9 6 5 , th e re w e re an esti mated 3,763 resi denti al       i nsti tuti ons
fo r c hildr en in o p e ra ti o n i n th e U n i te d S tates, P uerto R i co and the V i rgi n Is-
lands.       This and the oEher figures to be reported here derive from a master list
o f c hildr enr s i n s ti tu ti o n s    d e v e l o p e d b y The C enter for U rban S tudi es for use i n
i -ts r es ear c h on p h y s i c a l fa c i l i ti e s    fo r the group care of chi l dren"    The i ncl u-
si v enes s and ad e q u a c y o f th i s l i s t i s di scussed i n the appendi x to thi s report.
It is strongly recomrended that the appendix be read as essential background to
co r r ec t int er pr e ta ti o n    o f th e s ta ti s L i c al  data.

              0f t he c h i l d re n ' s i n s ti tu ti o n s      i n operati on, j ust over l nal t (52% ) w ere pri -
va t e, v olunt ar y i n s ti tu ti o n s ,          a th i rd were publ i c faci l i ti es    and 157.w ere pri vate,
p ropr iet ar y ope ra ti o n s .r            T h e b u l k o f the publ i c chi l drenrs i nsti tuti ons      w ere
operated by sEaEe (537,) and county (357,) goverrunents, with the smal1 share oper-
aEed by the Federal Government (97.) largely accounted for by Federal Indian
b o a. r ding s c hoo l s a n d d o rm i to ri e s i n th e C enterts l i st.            Muni ci pal l y operated chi l -
d renr s f ac ilit ies         m a d e u p o n l y 3 % o f th e publ i c i nsti tuti ons.         A mong the vol untary
i n st it ut ions       f o r c h i l d re n , th e ma j o ri ty (56% ) w ere sponsored by rel i gi ous denomi na-
ti ons - - P r ot es t an ts ,       2 8 % i C a th o l i c s , 2 6 % i and Jew s, 2% . V ol untary i nsE i tuti ons
under a variety of secular auspices represented 39%, with the remaining 5% un-
cl as s if ied     as t o th e n a tu re o f th e i r v o l untary auspi ces.               (Tabl e l " )

               I n t er m s o f fu n c ti o n , i n s ti tu L i o n s  for dependent and negl ected chi l dren (i n-
cluding here a relatively                      small number of infant nurseries and temporary shelter
fa c ilit ies )       c om p ri s e d th e l a rg e s t s i n g l e category:        tw o-fi fths   of al l chi l drenrs
i n s t it ut ions      lr e re s o c l a s s i fi e d b y th e states i n w hi ch they w ere l ocated.             N ext
mos t f r equent i n n r:m b e r w e re re s i d e n ti a l           faci l i ti es for mental l y retarded chi l -
d ren, 197. ; and d e te n ti o n , c o rre c ti o n a l and other faci l i ti es                for del i nquent and
p re delinquent c h i l d re n , L 7 % , F a c i l i ti e s           for physi cal l y handi capped chi l dren (107.),
instiEutions            for emotionally disturbed children (87.) and maternity homes for un-
ma r r ied gir ls (6 7 .) n a d e u p th e re m a i n der of the chi l drenrs j -nsti tuti ons.                    (Tabl e 2.)




lNrmb"t,
             of institutions       should not, of course, be taken as indicative                  of nr:mbers
 of c hildr en r e s i d e n t i n i n s ti tu ti o n s .   Gi ven w i de vari ati ons i n sLze of i nsti tu-
 tions , it is q u i te p o s s i b l e th a t a mi n ori ty of the i nsti tuE i ons provi de care for
 a m ajor it y of c h i l d re n re s i d e n t i n i n sti tuti ons.     P opul ati on fi gures are, unfor-
 tunat ely , not a v a i l a b l e fo r th e C e n te rrs l i sL.

 The reader may be interested in referring                       also Eo Arnericats Children and Youth
 i n I ns t it ut ions 1 9 5 0 -1 9 6 0 -1 9 6 4 b y S e t h Low , a stati sti cal report on chi l dren
 i n ins t it ut ions  a n d o n ty p e s o f i n s ti tu ti ons    based on C ensus and other data, v/hi ch
 w as publis hed b y th e C h i l d re n ' s B u re a u i n 1965.
              Patterns of service varied considerably with auspices"                               Public institutions
pr ov ided alm o s t a fl (9 8 % ) o f th e d etenti on faci l i ti es,                 four-fi fths     of the psy-
t hi. t t i"     inp a ti e n t fa c i l i ti e s     fo r chi l dren, tw o-thi rds of the i nsti tuti ons        for
delinquent c h i l d re n a n d             j u s t o v e r h al f (55% ) ot the temporary shel ters.          C onversel y,
private voluntary auspices maintained almost afl (997.) of the maternity homes for
unsrarried girls,              over four fifths               (857.) of the residential      treatment centers for
em ot ionally d i s tu rb e d c h i l d re n ,            a n d j ust about four-fi fths     (78% ) of the i nsti tu-
t ions f or d e p e n d e n t a n d n e g l e c te d chi l dren.           P ropri etary faci l i ti es   accounted for
t hr ee- f if t hs     o f th e i n s ti tu ti o n s        fo r the mental l y retarded; i n fact, the l arge
m ajor it y Q a % ) o t th e p ro p ri e ta ry faci l i ti es              w ere i n thi s category, w i th onl y a
r " it t " r ing    o f p ro p ri e ta ry fa c i l i ti e s       i n other types of chi l drenrs i nsti tuti ons
and, even so, there is probably some inflation                                of the number of proprietary          insti-
 tutions for the dependent and neglected because of the inclusion of some large (or
ex t ended) fo s te r h o me s a s Pro P ri e ta ry i nsti tuti ons.                  (Tabl e 2.)

         A c t ua l l y , tra d i ti o n a l     p a tte rn s of servi ce can be carri ed further"       A rnong
public ins t i tu ti o n s         fo r c h i l d re n , s E ate resi denti al   servi ces w ere concentrated
in t he f ield s o f j u v e n i l e c o rre c ti o n al        i nsti tuti ons,  i nsti tuti ons for mental l y
and phy s ic a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d re n and psychi atri c i npati ent faci l i ti es   for
c hildr en.       In     e a c h c a s e , th e s ta te s provi ded the l arge rnaj ori ty of publ i c i nsti -
tutions in these areas.                     County goverruuents, on the other hand, were mainly re-
s pons ible fo r d e te n ti o n h o m e s a n d , secondari l y, for publ i c i nsti tuti ons          for de-
pendent and neglected children.                           (Table 3.)

          Within the area of institutional                    services provided under voluntary auspices,
there was not        as much tendency tohrard specialization.                   A majority of the chil-
drenr s institutions            sponsored by religious             groups provided care of dependent and
neglected children,             although this dominance varied from 75% of the Protestant
ins t it ut ions    fo r c h i l d re n to 5 9 % o f the C athol i c and 54% of the Jew i sh chi l dren' s
ins t it ut ions .     In s o me c o n tra s t, 4 7% of the i nstj .tuti ,ons under vol untary seoul ar
auspices served dependent and neglected children,                         and there was a marked tendency
for secular auspices to provide voluntary institutions                           outside the traditional
c hild welf a re fi e l d --m o s t n o ta b l y , vol untary i nsti tuti ons        for physi cal l y handi -
capped children.           As minor tendencies, it may be noted that Catholics sponsored
the majorixy (59%) of voluntary institutions                         for delinquents and predelinquents,
wher eas J e w i s h a g e n c j -e s h a d c o n rn i tted a far l arger proporti on of i ts chi l drenrs
ins t it ut ions    to th e c a re o f e mo ti o n al l y di sturbed chi l dren than had any other
voluntary group" Although the number of childrents                           institutions   under Jewish
aus pic es w a s s m a l 1 , 2 9 % o f th e m w ere i nsti tuti ons       for emoti onal l y di sturbed
c hildr en, a s a g a i n s t 6 % o f th e P ro testant, 5% of the C athol i c, and 9% of the
s ec ular c hi l d re n rs i n s ti tu ti o n s .       (Tabl e 4. )

            T able s 5 -9 p re s e n t th e n u m b e r, auspi ces and types of chi l drenrs i nsti tuti ons
in t he indi v i d u a l s ta te s .       Ac c u ra te compari sons betw een states requi re reference
t o as s oc iate d d i ffe re n c e s i n b o th p opul ati on and i nsti tuti on   si ze, a task w hi ch
is bey ond t h e s c o p e a n d d a ta o f th is report.          N everthel ess, casual i nspecti on
will indic a te th a t th e re w e re d i ffe rences i n the di stri buti on         of chi l drenrs i n-
s t it ut ions     a mo n g s ta te s b e y o n d th o se to be expected' from popul ati on di fferences.
Since the data are presented fully in the tables,                   no discussion       is included,   ex-
cept for the following observations, required for                   interpretation:

        1.   Institutions reported for California   included a large nr:mber
             of small proprietary institutions   for the menEally retarded.

        2.   I ns t i tu ti o n s re p o rte d fo r W i sconsi n i ncl uded a rel ati vel y   l arge
             number of extended foster homes, counted as proprietary                        insti-
             tutions for dependent and neglected or delinquent children"

        3.   The relatively        large number of institutions         for dependent and
             neglected children reported for some of the sparsely populated
             W es t e rn s ta te s re s u l ts fro m the i ncl usi on of federal l y operated
             Indian boarding school-s arid dormitoEies as institutions                for
             dependent and neglected chil-dren.

There may be e x c e p ti o n s l i k e th e s e i n the reporti ng    of other states as w el l ,     but
these are the outstanding ones"
                                                     Tobl e I

   Au s p i c e so f C h i l d re n ' sR esi denti oll nsti tul i onsi n the U ni redS totes*
                                           S eptember.1965




A U S PIC ES F IN S T IT U T ION
            O                                                                        NUN,IBER

   Publi c

      Federal                                                                                   107
      State . .                                                                                 o+r

      County                                                                                  431
      I dunic ipal                                                                               17
      Public , not f ur t her s pec i f i e d                                                         1

Pr iv ale

      Voluntary non-profit

            Protestant

         Cat holic .                                                                            503
            J ewis h                                                                             48
         Sec ular .                                                                           770
            Volunt ar y , not f ur t he r s p e c i f i e d .                                   101

      Proprietary                                                                             562
      Pr iv at e, not f ur t her s pe c i f i e d .                                              I'



         TO TAL I NSTI TUTI ON S . . .                                                   D,     I OO




* lnc ludes Puer t o Ric o and th e V i r g i n I s l a n d s .
                                                             Tobl e 2
      T y pes o n d A u s p i c e so f C h i l d re n ' sR e si denti oll nsti tufi onsi n the U ni ted S totes*
                                                     S e p t ember,1965

                                                                                        A U S P IC E S A N D N U MB E R OF
                                                                                                  IN S TITU TION S
                       T YPE OF INST IT UT ION
                                                                                                  V ol un-     P ropri -
                                                                                    P ubl i c                               Total a
                                                                                                   tary         etary

Mate rnity hom es f or unm ar r ied gir ls
   Se pa rate f ac ilit ies .                                                              2          170               1         174
   Fa cilitie s joint r v it h inf ant or c hild c ar e b .                                            38                             o6


Institutio ns f or dependent and neglec t e- dc h i l d r e n
   Nurserie s joint wit h m at er nit v hom es o                                                       ,Jb                        36
   Temp ora r y s helt er s . . . " .                                                    45            ol                         82
   In stitu tion s f or dependent and neglec t ed . . .                                 24+       1 090             oo        1, 397

Instilutio ns f or delinquent and pr edelinqu e n l c h i l d r e n
   Dete ntio n f ac ilit ies .                                                          oAo
                                                                                                        5                        247
   .ln stitu tion s f or delinquenr s & pr edelinq u e n t s . . . . . .                276           103          27            400

lnstitutio ns f or em ot ionall) di, s lur bed c hil d r e n
   Reside nti al t r eaLnr entc enLer s                                                   5           141          18            166
   Psvch iatr ic inpat , ient f ac ' ilir ies .                                         119            ll          T2            149

lnstitutio ns f or handic ' appedc hildr en
   Fa cilitie s f or nr ent allv r et ar ded                                                         128          416            701
   Fa cilitie ,s f or phv s ic allv hnndic apped. . . . .                               136          202           DI            9at



      TOTAL I NSTI TT' TI O \ S. . .            .                                   1.227         1, 967          562         3.763
'In clu de s
             Puer t o Ric ' o anc l t he Vir gin I s la n d s .
a lnclud es 1 3 ins t it ut ions of pr iv at e, but o t h e r w i s e u n k n o r l , n . a u s p i c e s
                                                                                                          nol shown in
, p reced ing d et ail c ' olum ns .
o Fig u.""
            for t hes e t uo c at egor ies r v ould b e i d e n t i c a l e x c e p t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t u , o o f t h e
  ma tern itv h om es ar e joint uit h f ac ilit ies f o r m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n .
-


                                                                 Toble3
                   o{                                   in
                                             Institutions the Uniied
                                    Residentiol
    TypesondAuspices PublicChildren's                               Stqtes*
                                        1965
                               September,
                                                                                AUSPICES AND NIJMBER OF PUBLIC
                                                                                         INSTITUTIONS
                     TYPE OF INSTITUTION                                                                              Muni -      Total
                                                                             Federal        State       County                   P ubl i ca
                                                                                                                      ci pal


    Maternity homes for unmarTied girls
      Separate facilities.                                                                          2                                         2
      Fac ilit ies joint wit h inf ant o r c h i l d c a r e . .

    Institutions for dependent and neglected
    children
      Nur s er ies joint wit h m at er n i t y h o m e s . . . .
      Temporary shelters                                                                ;         4           34            5           4-5
      Institutions for dependent and neglected..                                       98        28          108           10          244

    Insti tutions for delinquen t and predeli nquent
    Aililien
    --D6Gn-tion                                                                                     8        226            a          242
                      f aci I iti e s.
       Institutions for delinquents& pre-
         d e l i n q u e n ts .                                                        2       211             cb            I         276

    Institutions for emotionallydisturbed
    c n l to re n
                                       r
       R-.s i,lenti al treatmen center s                                                          3              2                        5
       Ps y c h i a tri ci n p a ti e n tfa c i l i ti es.                             I        111              1                      119

                               children
    Institutions for handicapped
                                                                                                149              1          2           t52
                                                                 .
       F a c i l i ti e s fo r p h y s i c a l l y h a ndi capped. . .                  {       r22                         o           136

          T OT A L P U B L IC IN S T ITU TION S .... ..                             107         641          431           41       1,227

    * I nc ludes Puer t o Ric o and t h e V i r s i n I s l a n d s .
    alnc ludes
                 one ins t it ut ion of p u b l i c , b u t o t h e r w i s e u n k n o w n , a u s p i c e s n o t s h o w n i n p r e c e &
      ing det ail c olum ns .
                                                         Toble4
TypesondAuspices Voluntory
               of        Children's                   in
                                           Instifufions the United
                                  Residentiol                     Saotes*
                           September,1965
                                                                AUSPICES AND NI,\{BER OF VOLUNTARY
                                                                           IN S TITU TION S
            T YPE OF INST IT UT ION                   Prot-         Cath-                                U nspec-      Total
                                                                                Jew i sh   Sec ul ar
                                                      estanf,       ol i c                                 i fi ed   Voluntary


Maternity homes for unmarried girls
 Separate facilities.                                      56            43            2          o+            l)          170
  Fa ciliti es joint wit h inf ant or
    ch ild c ar ea                                              4        20                       t2            2                38

Institutions for dependent and
n eg lected c hildr en
   Nurseries joint with maternity
      ho mes a                                                  4        18                       72            2                'JO

   Temporary shelters                                      10             6            2          15            4                ol

   Institutions for dependent and
      neglected                                          397           273            24        e l Fl
                                                                                                               DY         1,090

Institutions for delinquent &
predelinquent children
  Dete ntion f ac iiilies .
   Institut ions f or delinquent s &
     pre delinquent s . . . .                              l)            61            1          oo            4           103

Institutio ns f or em ot ionally dis -
ffi
      Re sid ent ial t r eaLm entc ent er s . . . .        34            24           11          62           t:           141
                                                                                                                                 1a
      Psvchi at r ic inpat ient f ac ilit ies . . .                       3            3          11                             al



Institutio ns f or handic apped c hildr en
                                                           16            ,1t)          2          68            6           128
      Facilities f or phv s ic ally handi-
        ca pp ed                                                q
                                                                         19            a        162             o           202

          TOTAL VO LTI NTARY
          INS TI TUTI O NS . . .                         545           503            48        770          101          r, 967


*I nc lude sP u e rtoR i c o a n d th e V i rs i n Isl ands.
aFigures for these two categorieswould be identical except for the fact that two of the
 maternityhomesare ioint with facilities for mentallv retardedchildren.
                                                        Tobl e 5

            Au s p i c e so f C h i l d re n ' sR e s i denti olInsti l uti onsi n the Indi vi duqlS toi es
                                                         S eptember,   1965

                                                            A U S P IC E S A N D N U MB E R OF IN S TITU TION S
                           STATE
                                                           P ubl i c        Vol untar y        Propri etary     Toi aIa


Alabama                                                           10                 27                   1              39
Alaska                                                                               21                                  26
Arizona                                                          42                  i^                                  73
Arkansas.                                                        10                   lo                                 26
Cali forni a .                                                  104                  91               250               446
Colorado                                                         13                  29                 8                 DU
C o n n e c ti cu t                                              13                  22                 I
Del aw are.                                                                           7                 4                  18
D.C.,                                                                  6                                                  23
                                                                  qK
Florida                                                                                                 t2              i 00
Georgia.                                                                              /1
                                                                                                         2                oa
                                                                       a              5                                  72
Hawaii.
Idaho. .                                                               4              7                                  11
Il ii noi s                                                                         107                   v             161
Indi ana                                                          ,12                39                   4                lo
Iowa. . .                                                         11                 26                   2
Kansas                                                            l5                                                      4l
K e n t u c ky.                                                   30                  13                  1
L o u i s i a na                                                  20                  48                                  68
Maine. .                                                           6                  I2                 I                1(l

Maryland                                                          23                  ?o                 2                OJ
                                                                  ()t
M a s s a c hu se tts......                                                           50                t2                 87
Michigan                                                                              62                 8                r22
M i n n e s o ta                                                  93                  26                  s               Dd
M i s s i s sip p i.                                              l2                                                      26
M i s s o u ri                                                    3l                                      6               88
Montana.                                                          10                  13                                  ol

N e b r a s ka .                                                  l1                  28                                  42
Nevada                                                             I                   2                 6                18
N e w H a m p sh ir e                                                   {             l4                 1                19
N e w J e r se y                                                  33                  D ,1              12                99
N e w M e xico                                                    .19                 26                 1
N e w Y or k                                                      .19               t6 l                                254
N o r t h C ar o lin a ....     .                                 26                                     I4                tl

North Dakota                                                            I              8                                  10

Ohio ..                                                           99                  69                22                190
Oklahoma                                                          31                  do                 3                 7Q
Oregon.                                                            1a                19                                    13
P e n n s y l va n i a                                            55                168                 41                26.1
 P u e r t o Rico                                                 12                   ID                1                 28
R h o d e Isla n d                                                 6                  72                 2                 20
S o u t h C ar o lin a ......                                     10                  22
 South Da.kota                                                    10                  27                   I
 T e n n e s se e                                                 23                                       4               tc
 Texas .                                                          46                125                                   195
Utah . .                                                          1.1                 4                    5              oq

 Vermont                                                                {            10                                    14
 V i r g i n Isla n d s                                            2                  1                                     3
 Virginia                                                         24                                       ;               77
 W a s h i n g to n                                               30                                       5               82
 W e s t V i r g in ia                                            13                  22                                   J3
 W i s c o n si n                                                  1,7                                   to               100
 Wyoming                                                                6                  5                               11
    T O T AL     INST IT UT IONS.   ...                      1.221               r. 967                ) b- z       3. 763


t n c l u d e s 1 3 in stitu tio n s o f p r iva te , b u t otherw i se unknow n, auspi ces not shon'n i n precedi ng
  d e t a i l co lu m n s.
                                                                          Toble6
                          of
                     Types Children's        Institutions rheIndividuol
                                    Residenliol         in           Stotes
                                                  1965
                                         September,

                                                                  T YPE A N D N LIN ,IB E ROF IN S TITU TION S
                 STATE                     lvlat.        Dep. &                      D e-       E mot.     It{ent.    P hys.
                                                                           D eten.                                             Total
                                           Ho m e        Negl.                       l i nq.    D i st,    Rrded      H and.

A l a b a ma                                         3           ll             3           4                    3         I           39
A I a ska .                                          1         20                1          1         ;           1                    26
A ri zo n a                                         3          50               2           4         2          7         5
A rka n sa s.                                        1         13                1          5         I          1         {       26
Ca l i fo rn i a                                    I          .lh             38         59        3E        210         26      ,14
                                                                                                                                    6
Co l o ra d o                                       2          26               z           5        4           5         4       50
C o n n e cti cu t                                  2          10               '1          4        6          12         6       +4
De l a n 'me .                                       I          5               1          2         1           5         3           16
D.C..                                               3           8               1           I        5           2         3        23
 Florida                                            7          29              20          5         6         !3         l0       100
Georgia.                                            2          da               6          3                     3         8           al
Hawaii,                                              1                2         1          3          '|         1         3       t2
Idaho . .                                            1                                      1                    1         3       11
lll inois                                           I          AA
                                                                                7         22       1;          i8         72      161
Indi ana                                            5          39               6          ti       8            7         4           IJ
Iowa.,,                                             )          20                          2        7            4         4       42
Kansas                                              2          16               5          4        I            4         6       4l
Kentucky.                                           .4
                                                               -lh              I          I        1            3         a       74
Louisiana.                                          7          31               3                   2          12          8       68
Maine..                                             1          11                         2         3            i         t       19
Ntaryland                                           3          i6               1        11        10            8         8       DI
\ ' l a s s a c h u s e tts., . . .. ...            ll         10               2        l1        28          18                  87
l\{ichigan                                          6          32              21        13        20          22         8       t22
Mi nnesota                                          4           5               2         I         8          20        10        D6
Mississippi.                                        2                                     3                     2         5        26
l{issouri
N{ontana.
                                                    7
                                                    1
                                                              10                1         6         l;         10         S        88
                                                                                                                                   oc
                                                               12               1         3           1          1        4
Nebraska.                                           ,)        20                1         3          2           8        6        42
Nevada                                                          I               2         4                      3                     l5
N e w H a m p s h i r e .......,                                I                         I         3            J        3        19
New Jersey.                                                   32                ;        10         I          l9        I4        99
New Mexico                                          I         62                2         3          1          3         5
New York                                       22            113               10        22        27                    25       254
N o r t h C a r o l i n a , ........            3             36                6         7         4          14
North Dakota                                    2               5                         2         1           2         3            10
Ohio . .                                       r2             88               1E        16        1t          33        12       190
Oklahoma                                        3             40                1         8         4                              70
Oregon.                                         3               I               4         8         6            a        6        43
Pennsylvania                                   r2            t1 2              22        26        11          61        20       264
Puerto Rico                                     1                                                               2
Rhode Island
S o u t h C a r o l i n a ......,.,
                                                1
                                                               la
                                                               8                ?         6
                                                                                          2          I          3
                                                                                                                          2
                                                                                                                          5
                                                                                                                                   28
                                                                                                                                   20
                                                1             22                          5                     2         3        aa
South Dakota                                    I             18                          4         1            4        5        tt
Tennessee
Texas .
                                                5
                                               14
                                                              41
                                                              99
                                                                                t
                                                                                6         I
                                                                                            a       3
                                                                                                   12
                                                                                                               10
                                                                                                               22        34
                                                                                                                                   rc
                                                                                                                                  lv D
Utah. ..                                                                        3         1         1           2         4        23
                                                                  ,7
Vermont.                                            1                                     t         2           1         2
Virgin Isl ands                                                       1          1        1                                             3
Virginia.                                       ;             eo                8         8          4         10         I        tl
Washington                                      I                               I        72          5          6         6        82
West Virginia                                   4              l5               3         5          1          1         3
W is c o n s i n                                5             43                2                               8         3       100
Wyoming                                                                                     2        2          1          1       11
   TOTAL
   I N S T I T U T IONS......                272          t. a lD            247       400       315         701               3, 763
                                                         Tobl e 7

            T y p e s o f Pu b l i c C h i l d re n ' sR esi denti olInsti tuti onsi n the Indi vi duolS tores
                                                        September,    I965

                                              TYPE AND NUMBER OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS
             ST AT E                M at.    D ep. &                  De-          Flmot       Ment.
                                                          D eten.
                                                                                                       P hys.    Total
                                   IIome      N egl .                l i nq.       D i st.     Rtded   H and.    P ubl i c

Alabama                                                                                            1        .)           10
A l a ska.                                           I           t             I           1       1
A ri zo na                                        ,) D          ,              I                   1        e           42
A rka n sas.                                                   I                        I          I        3           10
C a l i fo rni a                                    1         38           I            4          6        6          r04
C o l o rado                                        3                      'l
                                                                                        2          2        1
C o n n ecticut......                                                      2            2          4                     1t
De l a war e .                                                   I         2            I          1        2
D.C..                                                1           1         1            2                   I                 o
F l o r i da                                        c         20                        1          4        2
Georgi a                                            2           o          'I
                                                                                                   1        2            l4
Harvai i                                                        I                          1       1        i
Idaho. .                                                                   I                       1        2
I I I i n o is                                     o                       7            g          b                     47
lndi ana                                          1a            6                       3          3        /            32
Iowa. . .                                          5                                    ,          2                     14
K a n s as                                         2            5          2            I          4        A
                                                                                                                         18
K e n t ucky.                                     16                                    I          2                     30
L o u i si a n a                                   1            3           .1          2                                20
Maine. .                                           I                        2           1          1        1                 t)
IVtaryland                                         I           I          l0                       3                     23
M a s sa ch u se tL s. . . .                                   2          ll           2           6                     24
Michigan                                            ;         21            4         10           8        a
                                                                                                                         ol
M i n n e so ta                                                2            8          2           o                     2e
M i s s i ssip p i                                 3                        2                      2                     72
Missouri                                          l0            ,l                      6          4        2            31
I \ { o n ta n a .                                 3            I                       I          I        2            10
N e b r aska                                       3            1          2            2          3                     14
N e v a da                                         3            2          3                       1                      I
N e w f l6 p p 5 6 it....                                                  I               I       1        I
N e w Jsp sg r .......                            3             o          a               D       6
N e w M e xico ......                            ;16                       3               1       2                     49
N e w Yo r k                                      3             J         l0          IJ          t2        A
                                                                                                                         4g
N o r t hCa r o lin a ....                        1             6          7            3          4                     26
N o r t hDa ko ta .....                           2                            I                   2        2                 T
Ohio. . .                                                     18          10            4          5        a            99
O k l a ho m a                                    lo           I                        2          3        I
                                                                                                                         31
Oregon.                                            2                       A
                                                                                                   I                     II
P e n n sylva n ia .. . ..                         6          22          10                       o                     Di)
P u e r to Rico ......                  1          3            D                                           I            t2
R h o d e Isla n d . ....
S o u t hCa r o lin a ....
                                                   I                       2                       i                      6
                                                   3                       4                                1            10
S o u t h Da ko ta .. . . .                        4                       I                      2         a            10
T e n n esse e                                     8            2          b            2         2
Texas .                                           13            o                       6         6         8            46
Utah. . .                                           o           3              1        1          I                     14
V e r mo n t.                                                                  1        1          1        1             4
V i r g i n Isla n d s . .. .                                   I              I
Virgini a.                                                      8              I        i         2                      24
W m h in g to n                                                 q
                                                                          12            2         4         3            30
W e s t Vir g in ia .....                           3                      4               I      1         1            13
W i s c o n sin                                     1                      4               5      3         z            17
W y o min g                                         1                                      I      I         I                 o

   T OT AL PUBL IC
   INSTITUTIONS .                       2       289          242       276           t24         152     136        1,221




                                                            10
                                                      Toble8
              of
         Types Volunfory
                       Children's                   in
                                         Institutions the Indiviriuql
                                Residentiol                        Stotes
                                         1965
                                 Sepfember,

                                            TYPE AND NUMBER OF VOLTINTARY INSTITUTIONS
            STATE                 M a t,     Dep &              De-         Emot.         M ent.       P hys,             Total
                                                     D eten.
                                  Ho m e     NegI.             Ii nq.       D i st.       Rtded        Hand.            Voluntary


Alabama                                3        17                                                                                  27
Alaska                                 1        to                                    I                                             2l
Ari zona .                             3                                ;             1                         ;                   24
Arkansas.                              t        1a
                                                                        I                                   1                       16
Californi a.                           I        30                      8        2l            11          72                       91
Colorado                               2        19                      2         2             1           3                       29
Connecticut                            2         I                                3             1                                   22
Del aware.                              I        o                                                              1
D.C. ..                                3                                             3             2                                t7
Florida                                6        26                                   3             I            8                   52
Georgia                                2                                                                                            47
Hawaii.                                 1        2                                                              2                        l)
Idaho. .                                1                                                                           I

Il linois                              I        69                               1;                7                            107
Indiana                                5        26                                   c                                           39
Iowa . .                                        ID                                                              I                26
Kansas                                 2        14                                   3
Kentucky.                              I        30                                                                                  43
Louisiana                                       30                      1                          ;                                48
Maine. ,                               1        10                                   1                                              t2
Ma^ryland                              3        1i                      I                          1            a
                                                                                                                                    32
M a s s a c h u se tts....,,           5        t0                               24                1       10                       CU
Michigan                               6        27                  s            10                o        4                       62
Minnesota.                                                              1         6                o        4                       26
M i s s i s s i p pi.                  2        t1                      1                                                           l4
Missouri                               6        30                      1                          2                                ol
Montana.                               1         I                      I                                       2                   13
Nebraska.                                       t7                      1                          D            3                   28
Nevada                                                                  1                          I
N e w H a m p sh ir e .....                      9                                                 1                                74
N e w J e r s ey.                     6         28                  :                              4            I                   ad
N e w M e x i co                      I                                                                                          26
New York                             22        110                 l2                8             I       27                   187
N o r t h C a r o lin a ......        3         28                                   1             3                                dr
North Dakota                          2          3                  1                I                      I                        8
Ohio. . .                            12         29                  6                a
                                                                                                            8                       69
Oklahoma                              3         24                  3                1             2        3                       do
Oregon.                               3                             4                                       3                   19
P e n n s y l v an ia                12        106                 t6                                      lr                  168
P u e r t o R i co                              1z                                                          t                   .15
Rhode Island                          t          o
                                                                                     I             1        2                   12
S o u t h C a r o lin a ......        1         19                  1                                       1                       ,t
South Dakota                          1         14                  3                1             1        1                   27
Tennessee                             5                             1                1             3        4
Texas .                              14         86                  1                2             8       14                  125
Utah. . .                                        2                                                          2                            /
Vermont                                1                                             I                      1                   10
V i r g i n I s l a n d s......                  1                                                                               1
Virgini a.                            ^
                                      t)        31                  i                i                      R                   47
W a s h i n g t on                    I         32                                   2             1        3
W e s t V i r g i n ia                1         ID                  I                                       2                   22
Wisconsin                             )         to                  3                I                          I               oa
Wyoming                                          4                                    1                                                  5

   TOTAL
   V O L U N T ARY
   I N S T I T UT IONS ...          208      1 163        D      103          l J6           128         202                 l,967




                                                         11
                                                           Tobl e 9

       T y p e s o f Pro p ri e to ry h i l d re n ' sResi denti oll nsti futi onsi n i he Indi vi duolS totes
                                    C
                                                      September,1965

                                        T YPE AND N U MB E R OF P R OP R IE TA R Y                    IN S TITU TION S
          STATE                      M a t.   De p . &                   D e-         E mot.       l\len t.   P hys.
                                                         D eten.                                                         Total P ro-
                                     Ho m e   Ne g l.                   l i nq.       tJrsl-       R tded     H and.      prr eta.ry


Alabama                                                                                                  I                             I
AIaska.
Ari zona                                            1                                          I         5                         7
A r k a n s a s.
Cali f orni a                                       ;                             2        12         zzl;         S            250
Colorado                                            6                                                    2                        8
C o n n e c t i cu t                                                                           I                   I              g
Del aware.                                                                                               +                        4
D.C..
Florida                                                                                                10                         12
Georgi a                                                                                                           2
Hawai i.
Idaho. .
IIIinoi s                                                                                                5         :2              ;
Indi ana                                                                                                 4                         I
Iowa. . .                                                                                                z                         z
Kansas
Kentucky.                                                                                                1                             I
Lou i si ana
Itlaine. .                                                                                                                         I
Maryland                                                                                                 t                         2
N { a s s a c h u se lts. . .                                                                           l1                        1:
IMichi gan                                                                                                                         5
M i n n e s o ta .                                                                                       b          1              I
I \ { i s s i s s i pp i
Missouri                                  I                                                              4         1               6
Monta,na.
N e b r a s k a.
Nevada                                              6                                                                              6
N e w H a mp sh ir e ...        ..                                                                       1                         1
N e w J s l s sy.                                   I                                                    I                        T2
N e r v N { e xico                                  I                                                                              1
New York                                                                                       3        1A                        1a

N o r t h C a r o lin a .......                                                                          ,                        t1

N o r t h D a ko ta
Ohio . .                                                                                               21                         22
Oklahoma                                                                                       1         :                         3
Oregon                                                                                         1        6                          7
P e n n s y l va n i a                                                                         2       39                         11
P u e r t o Rico                                                                                                                   1
R h o d e I s la n d                                                                                     1          1              2
S o u t h C a ro lin a .......
South Dakota                                                                                             I                             1
T e n n e s s ee                                                                                         I                             .1
Texas .                                                                                        I         7        l2              q2
Utah. . .                                           4                                                    1                             5
Vermont.
V i r g i n I sla n d s
Virgi nia                                           i                                                    5                         o
W a s h i n g to n                                  3                                          I         I
\ V e s t V i r gin ia
W i s c o n s in                                  27                          r8                         1                        46
Wyoming

    TOTAL
    PROPRIETARY
    I N S T I TUT IONS ....               I       63                         2l            30        416                        562




                                                                   L2
               APPEI{DD(


Development the Centerts Master List of
            of
    Children' s Residential Institutions
  Dev elopnent o f th e C e n te rrs Ma s te r Ltst       of C hi l drenrs    R esi denti al    Insti tuti ons


           The data presented tn thts report are sumlartes derived froo a master llst
  of t ns t lt ut lo n s ,    a l i s t c o n p i l e d b y the C enter for U rban S tudtes for use l n i ts
  research.          The master list is intended to be a cornplete enrroeration of chlldrenrs
  lns t lt ut ions      a s o f Se p te n b e r, 1 9 6 5 and, as w i l l ehortl y be docunented, i s cer-
  t ainly t he o o s t c o mp l e te l l s t s o fa r avai LabLe. N everthel ees, the exact nuubers
  of lnstltutlons           reported--lrhether            the total number or the nuober of a particular
  klnd of tnstitutlon--are                not merely functions of the completeness of the count.
  The numbers rePorted are aLso, and perhaps more importantly,                            affected by the nay
  ln whlc h c h i l d re n rs tn s ti tu ti o n s       w ere defi ned, counted and cl assi fi ed.    It i s,
  t her ef or e' e s e e n tl a l to b e fa n i l l a r     w i th the procedures fol l ow ed i n devel opi ng
  t he lls t ,     t n o rd e r to l n te rp re t c o rrectl y any stati sti cs    based on i t.     The neces-
  sary background ls presented here.

Baslc Procedures
         T he s ta rti n g P o l n t a n d f1 n a 1 authori ty for the C enterts l i sti ngs    of chi l -
 dr enr s r es id e n tL a l i n s ti tu ti o n s w e r e the i ndi vi dual states (pl us the Oi stri ct   of
 Colunbla, Pu e rto R i c o a n d th e v i rg i n rsl ands).             rn N ovember, L964, a standard
 lnqulr y was s e n t to th e S ta te D tre ctors of C hi l drenrs S ervi ces (or thei r equi va-
 lent s ) whlc h a s k e d ra m o n g o th e r th i n g s, for:

         . . . r es t d e n ti a L i n s ti tu tl o n s    a n d agency group homes for chi l dren,
        wit h t h e e x c e p ti o n o n l y o f p u rel y educati onal i nsti tuti ons,        offi ci al
        detention and correctional                        institutions,  and private foster homes or
        extended foster homes. Apart from these, the study covers public,
        voluntary and proprietary                       institutions    providlng shelter care or
        t r oat me n t fo r c h i l d re n v a ri o u s L y referred to as depri ved, dependent,
        neglecte d , d e l tn q u e n t, ma l a d J usted, emoti onal l .y di sturbed, nental l y
        i1l, m e n ta l l y d e fe c ti v e o r p h ysi cal l y handi capped--i rrespecti ve          of
        the authority under whlch they are established or the nanea by which
        t hey a re k n o w n ....

                For the purposes of our study, may we ask your cooperation                         as
        f ollqr s :

                   1 . P l e a s e s e n d u s th e most recenE l l sti ngs of al l chi l d-cari ng
        f ac llt t ie s    a s d e s c ri b e d a b o v e , l i censed by your Department for the
        S t at e o f

          . . . . 6. Finally,         l f y o u a re i n a posi ti on to do so, w oul d you pl ease
        s upply a l i s ti n g      o f fa c i l i tte s rel evant to our study that are not
        Lic ens e d ,!y y o ,t. F o r i n g ta n c e , state, county and Muni ci pal faci l i ti es
        are usually exenpt fron licensing provisions, while in various states a
        f ew s f th e fa c i .l i ti e s    w e a re i nterested i n may be l i censed by other S tate
        Departxnents, such as Education, tlealth, Mental lleaith, etc.                    rf you are




                                                         15
               not able to 6 u PP 1 y a c o mp te te L i s ti ng of these exempted i nsti tutl ons,
               would you be kind enough to lndicate the other State Departuents to
               whic h we s h o u l d w ri te .

      As replies came ln from the state child care agencies,                                       they were checked
a gains ! all av a l l a b l e d i re c to ri e s       o f chi l drent s resi denti aL            i neti tutl ons knol cn
to t he pr ojec t . r     T h e n a ti o n a l .d i re c to ri es    used w ere:

               u. s . c hild re n rs Bu re a u ti s tl n g      o f soci aL w el fare rnsti tutl ons   for
                  chlldren,        1.964 (unpublished) (incLudes public and voluntary facll-
                  ities for dependent and neglected children,                      publ-ic and voluntary
                  r es ident i a l   tre a tme n t c e n te rs , vol untary i nsti tuti ons      for del i n-
                  quent children and voluntary n'ternity                    homes for unwed mothers)

               Child Wel-fare League of America Directory                       of Member Agencies,
                 L963-64

               Dir ec t or y o f C a th o l i c In s tttu ti o n s i n the U ni ted S tates,         Lg6O
                  ( but ha n d -a n n o ta te d fo r th e p ro ject to l ate 1964)

               Lut her an H e a l th a n d W e l fa re D i re c t ory,        1964

               Nat ionaL c o u n c i l    o n c ri me a n d D e l i nquency D i rectory        of D etenti on
                 Homes, L964

               U. S . Child re n rs B u re a u D i re c to ry of publ i c         Trai ni ng   S chool s
                  S er v ing D e l i n q u e n t C h i l d re n , 1 964

               P or t er S a rg e n t D i re c to ry   fo r h (c e pti onal    C hi l dren,    1958, 1965

               Dir ec t or y o f C a th o L i c Sp e c i a l F a c i l i ti es and P rograms i n the U ni ted
                 S t at es f o r H a n d i c a p p e d C h i l d re n and A dul ts, L965

               Nat ional r n s ti tu te      o f M e n ta L H e a l th Li sti ng of publ i c and pri vate
                M ent al H o s p i ta l s    a n d rn s ti tu ti o n s for the Mental l y R etarded, Lg64

               Nat ionaL As s o c i a ti o n fo r M e n ta l Heal th D i rectory of R esources for
                M ent ally I1 1 C h i l d re n i n th e U n i ted S tates, L964

               U. S . Child re n rs B u re a u L i s tl n g o f R esi denti al        Treatment C enters for
                  E m ot ion a l l y D i s tu rb e d C h tl d re n , 1952.

               A m er ic an A s s o e i a tl o n o n M e n ta l D efi ci ency Li sti ng of S tate and
                  P r iv at e T ra i n i n g S c h o o l s a n d H omes for the R etarded, L962, 1965

l si . , " "
          c om plet i o n o f th e p ro j e c trs o a s ter l i st,      tw o addi ti onal nati onal di rec-
 tor ies hav e be e n c a l l e d to o u r a tte n ti on:          D i rectory of Jew i sh H eal th and
 W elf ar e A genc i e s , N a ti o n a l A s s o c i a ti o n on S ervi ce to U nmarri ed P arents D i rec-
 tor y of M at er n i ty H o m e s .




                                                                    16
         F lor enc e c ri tte n to n       L i s ti n g    o f F l orence cri ttenton       H o,mes
                                                                                                  for U nw ed
            M ot her s , 1 9 6 5

         A m er ic an H o s p i ta l As s o c i a ti o n     L i sti ng   of H ospi taLs,    1964

         A s s oc iat io n o f R e h a b i l i ta ti o n     C e n ters D i rectory   of R ehabi l i tati on
            F ac ilit ie s ,  L964

         A m er ic an An n a l s o f th e D e a f D i re ctory            of school s for the D eaf, 1965

         A m er ic an F o u n d a ti o n fo r      th e B l i n d D i rectory    of A genci es S ervi ng
            B Lind P e rs o n s , t9 6 5

L n addit ion, c it y a n d s ta te d i re c to ri e s           of w el fare resources w ere checked i n a
L e s s s y s t er nat ic fa s h i o n , w h e n e v e r th e y w ere obtai nabl e.

          T he c hild w e l fa re i n fo rma n ts i n the vari ous states then recei ved a l etter
l i sting     t he insti tu ti o n s      w h i c h th e y h a d not reported, as cul l ed from the di rec-
to ri es , wit h a re q u e s t fo r i n fo rm a ti o n about thei r current status.                               A t the same
ti m e, any r em ai n i n g q u e s ti o n s a b o u t th e l i censi ng, auspi ces or type of servi ce
p rov ided by ind i v i d u a l i n s ti tu ti o n s           w e r e rai sed.    C oncurrentl y, i nqui ri es about
sp ec ializ ed f aci l i ti e s        fo r c h i l d re n --p s ychi atri c      faci l i ti es,      i nsti tuti ons    for the
me n t ally r et ar de d a n d fa c i l i ti e s         fo r p h ysi cal l y handi capped or chroni cal l y i 11
ch i l dr en- - or     ab o u t a n y o th e r fa c i l i ti e s      reported to be i n thei r area of responsi -
bility       er er e s en t to Sta te D e p a rtme n ts of publ i c H eal th and/or Mental H eal th,
w h e r e t hes e f aci l i ti e s     h a d n o t b e e n fu l 1y covered by the chi l d w el fare i nformant.
Si n ilar s upplem e n ta ry i n q u i ri e s w e re a l so occasi onal l y made to other S tate D e-
Pa r t m ent s s uper v i s i n g p u b l i c i n s ti tu ti o n s      or to C ounty and C i ty D epartments to
w h i c h t he lic ensi n g o f s o m e i n s ti tu ti o n s           w as del egated. Fi nal l y, a suppl ementary
se r ies of inquir i e s to a l l re g i o n a l o ffi ces of the U .S . B ureau of Indi an A ffai rs
p rov ed nec es s ar y ' i n o rd e r to i d e n ti fj              and cl ari fy   the status of chi l drenr s i .n-
sti tut ions        loc ate d o n In d i a n re s e rv a ti o ns or operated for Indi an chi l dren by the
Fe der al gov er nm e n t. U s u a l l y , to s a v e t i me and to make the task easi er, these
supplementary inquiries were accompanied by a provisional                                         listing      of the rele-
va n t f ac ilit ies       a l re a d y k n o w n to th e p r oj ect, w i th a request for correcti ons and
a d d it ions .      G en e ra l l y , s e v e ra l ro u n d s o f correspondence w i th each i nformant w ere
re quir ed t o c omp l e te th e i r l i s ti n g s .

         W hen t his c o rre s p o n d e n c e c l o s e d , every state had suppl i ed l i sti ngs    and re-
sp o nded t o a1L fo 1 1 o w -u p c o rre s p o n d e n c e, al though occasi onaL i tems about l i cens-
i n g' aus pic es o r ty Pe w e re m i s s i n g fo r some i ndi vi dual i nsti tuti ons.            The process
o f c om piling t he L i s t h a d , h o v e v e r, e x t ended over ei ght months, so that i ndi vi d-
u a l S t at e Lis t s w e re c u rre n t a s o f ra th er w i del y di fferent dates.            In addi ti on,
so o e f ac ilit ies     h a d b e e n a d d e d to th e m, as new di rectori es became avai l abl e, w i th-
o u t c hec k ing wi th th e s ta te s .          Finally,        there w ere some i nconsi stenci es i n w hat
so rt s of f ac ilt t ie s     w e re i n c l u d e d i n o r excl uded from the l i st,       because of di f-
fe re nc es in S t a te d e fi n i ti o n s      a n d p ra c ti ces--so that, for exampl e, essenti al l y
i d e nt ic al c hildre n rs fa c i l i ti e s      mi g h t b e l i sted as an i nsti tuti on   by one state,
b u t c les s if led a s a fo s te r h o n e a n d n e ver l i sted by another. In an effort to
se cur e unif or m ity fro m s ta te to s ta te for both the basi c coverage of the l i st and
th e dat e f or wh i c h i t c o u l d b e re g a rd e d as current, as w etL as an i ntenti on to




                                                               L7
permlt each state a revlen of every institution                 attributed   to it, eeol-flnal
l is t lngs of a s ta te rs i n s ti tu ti o n s w e re sent to every i nformant l n that state,
late August, 1965, with a request for flnal checking within three lreeks. The
egs ent lal por ti o n s o f th i s re q u e s t l re re:

            Y ou m a y fl n d th a t o u r l i s t of faci l i ti es     di ffers from the l i st
      y ou helpe d u s c o m p i l e i n a n y o f the fol l ow i ng     respects:

      1.   lle ha v e te n ta ti v e l y  a d d e d to our l i st any faci l i ti es of the
           types we initially            inquired about which have come to our
           attention     (from dlrectorles            or other sources) since our last
           correspondence wlth you.

      2,    I n o rd e r to s e c u re u n i fo rmi ty nati onal l y i n the types of
            f ac ili ti e s    i n c l -u d e d , w e h a v e tri ed to i ncl ude al l resi denti al
            f ac ili ti e s     (l i c e n s e d o r u n l i censed) w hi ch care for as rnany as
            s ix c h i l d re n , e v e n th o u g h th ese faci l i ti es     nay be cl assi fi ed
            as foster homes or group homes in your area.

      3.   A gain fo r re a s o n s o f n a ti o n a l uni formi ty, w e have tri ed to
           lnc lu d e fa c i l -i ti e s    c a rl n g fo r i ndi vi dual s up to the age of
           t\renty-one, even though some of these facilities                       may thus
           care only for lndividuals who are beyond the age limits of
           t t c hl l d rr, a s d e fi n e d i n y o u r chi l d care statutes.

      4.    I n a n e ffo rt to s a v e y o u ti me, w e di d not ask you to l i st
            t em p o ra ry s h e l te r, d e te n ti o n , or publ i c j uveni l e correcti onal
            f ac ll i ti e s , b u t h a v e a tte m p t ed to add these to our l i st from
            av all a b l e n a ti o n a l d i re c to ri e s.

      5.    I n a n e ffo rt to b e c o n s i s te n t about our requested excl usi on
            of I t p u re l y e d u c a ti o n a l tr re s td enti al faci l i ti es, w e have tri ed
            t o in c l u d e th o s e b o a rd i n g s chool s w hi ch provi de any apprecl abl e
            am o u n t o f th e l r s e rv i c e s e tther to dependent and negl ected
            c hil- d re n o r to c h i l d re n w i th speci al probl ems (such as the
            em oti o n a l l y d i s tu rb e d , m e n ta l l y retarded, physi cal l y handi -
            c app e d , e tc .), e v e n i f th e servi ces are not provi ded on a
            y ear -a ro u n d b a s i s .

                If you find that \re have not consistently                       and completeLy covered
      the above types of faciLities,                       we would very much appreeiate your com-
      plet ing th e l i s t.        Q o n v e rs e l y , i f you note that w e are sti l l       i ncl udi ng
      f ac ilit ies      th a t a re n o l o n g e r i n operati on or not provi dl ng resi denti al
      c ar e of c h i L d re n , w e h o p e y o u w i ll del ete them for us. A ny errors i n
      nam e and a d d re s s o f i n s ti tu tl o n s            shoul d al so be cal l ed to our atten-
      tion.        Fina11y, we very much need your correction and completion of our
      inf or m at io n a b o u t 1 9      c l a s s l fi c a t i on    of each i nsti tuti onrs type, aus-
      pic es , li c e n s i n g s ta tu s a n d b u l l di ngs, on w hi ch our future sarrpl i ng of
      ins t it ut io n s    depends.




                                                        18
 A L1 but t wo o f th e s ta te s re s p o n d e d to thi s request, usual l y w i th sone ehanges
 ln t heir Li s ts .       So me fo l l o w -u p c o r respondence w as agai n requi red to ctari fy
 s ugges t ed c h a n g e s , i n d i c a te d c o rre cti ons w ere rnade, and the proj ect master l i st
 was c los ed a s fi n a l a n d c u rre n t a s of earl y S eptember, 1965.

Probleus of Definition                and Classification
            A s ind i c a te d a b o v e , th e re w a s, i ni ti al Ly,       no attempt to defi ne for the
  s t at es wha t w a s m e a n t b y a c h i l d re n rs i nsti tuti on.             A l most every state al ready
  had its own definttion--usua11y,                           in terms of the nr.rmberand kinds of children
  c ar ed f or a n d th e s e rv i c e s p ro v i d e d --and coul d not readi l y oP erate w i th a new
  def init ion,         e s p e c i a l l y o n e th a t d i d vi otence to establ i shed di vi si ons of admi n-
  is t r at iv e    r e s p o n s i b i l i ty .  In a n y case, the vast mej ortty of chi l drenrs i nsti -
  tutions would be recognized as such under any usage so that the P1g!!ca!                                          prob-
                                                                                    '                             states
  lem was one of setting uniform limits and then encouraging the individual
  t o f ill      in th e b o rd e rl i n e fa c i l i ti e s         excl uded under thei r oqm defi ni ti ons.       As
  a pr ac t ic al       s o l u ti o n , th e s e l i n i ts    l rere set broadl y, so as never to excl ude a
  f ac lllt y     r e c o g n i z e d b y a s ta te a s an i nsti tuti on,        and w i th the aw areness that
  ov er - lnc lus i v e n e s s c o u l d b e c o rre c t ed at l ater stages of the proj ectfs research
  but under - re p o rti n g c o u l d n o t.               By the concl usi on of the l i st compi l ati on, then,
  ev er y s t at e h a d b e e n a s k e d to re p o rt every faci l i ty             i t cl assi fi ed as a chi l drenrs
  ins t it ut ion,        p l u s e v e ry a d m l n i s tra ti vel y   and physi eal l y separate.faci l i ty     (even
  a war d       of a h o s p i ta l ) s e rv i n g o n l y persons under 21 years of ager and provi di ng
  r es ldent ial        c a re fo r a s ma n y a s s i x such persons, w i th the excepti on of:

         a.    M e d i c a l fa c i l i ti e s    fo r a cute or short-term             care (i ncl udi ng   new -born
               nu rs e ri e s )

         b.    Sr.rmrer camps

         c.    P u re l y e d u c a ti o n a l b o a rd i ng school s, as previ ousl y            speci fi ed.

           A s ide fro m th e p ra c ti c a l c o n si derati ons, E he w orki ng defi ni ti on    of chi l -
  dr ent s ins t i tu ti o n s     a d o p te d h a d g r ow n out of the proj ectrs ori entati on   tow ard
  c hild c ar e .      S ta te d b ri e fl y ,z       th e proj ect began by di recti ng attenti on to al l
  f ac il. it ies  p ro v i d i n g re s i d e n ti a l   care of chi l dren aw ay from home, i rrespecti ve
  of whet her g ro u p c h i L d c a re l ra s th e pri mary purpose of the faci l i ty           or i nci dental

  I
  - I n pr ac t ice , a n e x c e p ti o n h a d to made to the age Li mi tati on,          i n the case of
    f ac ilit ies      fo r th e rn e n ta l l y re ta rded and resi denti al    school s (though not other
    f ac ilit ies )     fo r th e p h y s i c a l l y h a ndi capped. For these faci l i ti es,    i nsti tuti ons
    s er v ing a m i x e d c h i L d a n d a d u l t cl i entel e w ere i ncl uded w hen, as w i th the
    s c hools , c h i l d re n c o n s ti tu te d th e bul k of the resi dent popul ati on or w hen, as
     is f r eque n tl y th e c a s e w i th fa c i l i t i es     for the mental l y retarded, admi ssi ons
     ( t hough n o t re s i d e n t p o p u l a ti o n ) w ere l i mi ted to or predomi nantl y chi l dren.
    I ns t it ut ion s    k n o w n to b e s o l e l y for adul ts w ere al w ays excl uded.
   a
  ' T he pr ojec trs o ri e n ta ti o n          to l ra rd chi l d    care w i l l   be di scussed more ful l y    in a
     s ubs equen t re p o rt.




                                                                      19
to its provision of sone other service.                         Wlthin this area of broad concern, some
delinitation        rtas imposed by the fact that the research is centrally                          concerned
wi th t he f unc t io n a l p l a n n i n g a n d d e s i g n of physi caL faci Li ti es        for group resi -
d e nt ial c hild c a re :       a t th e o n e e x tre n e, fami l y homes do not usual l y rai se
p roblem s of pLa n n i n g a n d d e s i g n o f fu n cti onal l y-appropri ate         group faci l i ti es;     at
the other extreme, institutions                   which serve persons who happen to be in the child-
h o o d ages as an u n d i ffe re n ti a tg d      p a rt of thei r total cl i entel e do not usual l y
p rov ide c hildr en rs fa c i l l ti e s .r       Es s e n ti al l y,   for the proj ectrs purposes, a chi l d-
rent s lnstitution          is regarded as a faciLity                  administratively     more courplex than a
foster fanil.y or group home and adoinistratively                           at leasu as distinct        as a physi-
ca 1ly - s epar at e c h i l d re n rs s e c ti o n o f a l arger i nsti tuti on,       w i thi n w hi ch chi l dren
are living apart from their parents for whatever reason.

          Since this usage ls broader than most, some explanation may be in order.
Fi rs t ,   t he adm l n i s tra ti v e l y u s e fu l d e fi n i ti on   that l i mi ts chi l drents i nsti tuti ons
to t hos e whos e c e n tra l fu n c ti o n i s c h i L d care or, i n more operati onal terms, to
those operated by a child welfare agency (or licensed or otherwise supervised by
a st at e c hild w e l fa re s e rv i c e ) s i rn p L y e nsures that there w i l L be no comparabi l l ty
o r unif or m it y fro m s ta te to s ta te o r e ven w i thi n states.                  A l though, there i s a
uarked relationehlp             between function and auspices in this sense, nevertheless
th er e ar e nany e x c e p ti o n s .      In s ti tu ti o n s     performi ng essenti al l y the same functi on
ma y be c onduc t e d u n d e r s o c i a l w e L fa re , educati onat, correcti onaL, psychi atri c,
n e dic al or ot he r a u s p i c e s . A n d , i rre s p ecti ve of ei ther functi ons or ati spi ces,
th es e s ir oilar in s Ei tu tl o n s m€ tyb e l i c e n sed or supervi sed by equal l y di verse di vi -
si o ns of t he s e v e ra l s ta te s .       E x c q p t for studi es of admi ni strati ve practi ce, thi s
approach is sinply inappropriate.'

          M or e im por ta n t, th o u g h , a re c u rre nt trends i n group chi l d care, w hi ch are
b L u r r ing bot h a d mi n i s tra ti v e a n d o th e r once cl ear-cut di sti ncti ons.       A t one ti me,
ch ildr enr s t ns t i tu ti o n s    c o u l d b e d e fi n e d i n terms of sharp di fferences i n prac-
ti ces :      t her e w e re , o n th e o n e h a n d , c h i Ldrenrs i nsti tuti ons   w hi ch provi ded l ong-
term care to children without fanilies                         or homes of their own, children who were
wa rds of t he s ta te o r i n th e 1 e g a l c u s tody of publ i c and vol untary soci al agen-
ci e s .     O n t he o th e r h a n d , th e re l re re e chool s, camps, hospi tal s and other speci al
se rv ic eg, whic h p a re n ts m a d e u s e o f fo r the benefi t of thei r chi l dren, but w i th-
out surrendering custody or losing contact with them; these were temporary ar-
rangements, wlth the children returning home periodically,                            and often an expensive

1
-Per haps t he m o s t d e fi n i ti v e          i l L u s tra ti o n      of the l atter extreoe i s provi ded by
  th e f ield of c o rre c ti o n a l         i n s ti tu ti o n s .        In 1960, the C ensus reported more per-
  sons under 21 y e a rs o f a g e re s i d e n t i n ordi nary j ai 1s, pri sons end reformatori es
  th an t he nuobe r re s i d e n t i n p u b L i c c o rrecti onal                faci l i ti es for j uveni l es--46,527
 a s ov er agains t 3 7 ,2 4 0 , Ye t, th e p re sence of the " under-2l ' group w oul d hardl y
  j us t if y    t he de fi n i ti o n o f p ri s o n s a s chi l drenrs i nsti tuti ons.
2 sa " a"
              dif f er enc e s i n d e fi n i ti o n ,       l tc e n s i ng and standards w i Ll be the subj ect of
 a s ubs equent r e p o rt o f th e p ro j e c t, the materi al s for w hi ch provi de the basi s
 for sunnrary statements about state practices made in this discusgion.




                                                            20
pr iv ilege.   N o n e o f th e s e d i s ti n c ti o n s     i s parti cul arl y   val i d today: chi l dren
come and go between their own hws                          and institutions       for dependent and neglected
children, naternity          hones for unwed mothers provide only temporary care, residen-
tial treatment centers provide intensive therapy and often charge substantial
fees . W it h th e w i d e -s p re a d a c c e p ta n ce by the chi l d care fi el d that an i nsti tu-
tionaL placement should provide sofiE necessary service not obtainable through a
family placement, general child care institutions                            have moved toward the class of
tr eat m ent or s p e c i a l s e rv i c e fa c i l i ti e s     from w hi ch they coul d once be cl earl y
d istinguished .

        T he t heo re ti c a l p re mi s e s o f th e proj ect thus argued for i ncl usi on of the
full gam ut of c h i l d re n rs g ro u p re s i d e nti al    faci l i ti es, w hatever thei r suppos-
e dly c ent r al p u rp o s e . M o re p ra c ti c a l consi derati ons l ed to the excl usi ons pre-
v ious ly not ed : c h i l d re n r s s h o rt-te rm medi cal faci l i ti es,,    w here the acuteness of
the iLlnes s a p p e a re d to l e a v e l i ttl e      room for the more usual aspects of chi l d
c ar e; and s t rIu n e rc a mp s a n d b o a rd i n g school s (defi ned as narrow l y as possi bl e),
t o whic h t he ti rn e a n d re s o u rc e s o f the proj ect coul d not extend.

         llit hin th e d e fi n i ti o n       o f c h i l d re nrs i nsti tuti ons  fi nal l y  used, there w ere
st ill     oc c as io n a l p ro b l e ms o f c o u n ti n g .      In practi ce, i f a l arge i nsti tuti on       had
s ev er al br anc h e s a t d i ffe re n t         l o c a ti o n s and each w as capabl e of i ndependent oper-
at ion as a s e p a ra te i n s ti tu ti o n ,            e a c h one w as counted ag a separate i nsti tuti on,
pr ov ided, of c o u rs e , th a t th e e x i s te n ce of branches w as know n to us. S omew hat
s im ilar ly ,    if a l a rg e h o s p i ta l c o mp l ex contai ned a separate servi ce for physi -
c a1ly handic a p p e d c h i l d re n a n d a n o th er chi l drenrs resi denti al              servi ce for,e.g.,
ment ally ilL c h i l d re n , e a c h s ra s c o u n t ed separatel y.             A nd, as i s made cl ear i n
t he dat a, t he p ro j e c t fo l L o w e d th e C hi l drents B ureau practi ce of counti ng a mater-
nity home that provides care both to pregnant girls and to infants (beyond the
inr nediat e neo n a ta l p e ri o d ) a s tn o fa c i l i ti es.            The physi cal separateness of the
f ac ilit ies     wa s th e b a s i c c o n s l d e ra ti o n, so w i th the excepti ons j ust noted, most
mult i- f unc t ion       i n s ti tu ti o n s  w e re c o u nted as one i nsti tuti on,        w i th the mul ti -func-
tion a pr oble m fo r c l a s s i fi c a ti o n .

        W it h m in o r e x c e p ti o n s ,   th e re w a s al so no attempt to provi de the states w i th
def init ions     o r c ri te ri a      fo r   th e c l a s si fi cati on of i nsti tuti ons    i nto types.   In-
s t ead, eac h s ta te w a s a s k e d         to c l a s s i fy i ts or^mfaci l i ti es,    accordi ng to i ts un-
der s t anding o f q u i te c m o n l y           u s e d c a tegori es.t   A s presented to the states i n
t he f inal c he c k i n g p ro c e s s ,      th e s e w e re:

       Maternity        home

        J oint   m a te rn i ty   a n d i n fa n t   h o me, materni ty   secti on

I
-T his pr oc edu re w a s u s e d b o th b e c a u s e of the proj ectrs l nterest i n compari ng
 s t at e pr ac t ic e s a n d b e c a u s e th e i n fo rmati on needed to cl assi fy faci Li ti es          more
 unif or m ly \ t a s n o t c o n s i s te n tl y a v a i l a bl e.      In l ater stages of research, the pro-
 jec t will ob ta i n th e i n s ti tu ti o n s r            s el f-cl assi fi cati ons and w i l l devel op an em-
 pir ic ally    ba s e d , u n i fo rm c l a s s i fi c a ti o n     of i ts ow n.




                                                               2L
        Joint     maternity            and infant               hone, infant          section

        T em po ra ry s h e l te r          (n i x e d s h e L t er and detenti on              cl assi fi ed     here)

        I ns t it uti o n    p ri m a ri l y fo r d e p endent and negl ected chi l dren (boardtng
              s c h o o l s w i th s o n e c a re o f dependent and negl -ected al so cl assl fted
             here)

        Det ent i o n fa c i l i ty

        P r iv at e    i n s ti tu ti o n         p ri ma ri l y      for     (pre-)del i nquent     chi l dren

        P ublic       juvenile         c o rre c ti .o n a l         faci l i ty

        Res ide n ti a l       tre a tme n t c e n te r for emoti onal l y                   di sturbed    chi l dren

        P s y c hia tri c      i n p a ti e n t      fa c i l i ty      for chi l dren

       I ns t it uti o n      fo r me n ta l l y re ta rd ed                  (chi l dren)

       I npat ie n t fa c i l i ty           fo r p h y s i c a l l y        handi capped and/or chroni cal l y           i 11
           c hild re n


T his c las s if i c a ti o n    o f ty p e s o f i n s ti tuti ons      i tsel f contai ns tw o of the three i n-
s t anc es in w h i c h th e s ta te s w e re a s ked to accept the proj ectrs arbi trary cl assi -
f ic at ion r uli n g s ,     th e o th e r o n e b e i n g the cl assi fi cati on     of l arge fostei homes,
whic h r t er e re P o rte d i n re s p o n s e to the rrsi x-or-uore-chi l drenrt ci i teri on,         and
whic h ar e c l a s s i fi e d ,    a c c o rd i n g to the ki nd of chi l dren cared for,as ttpropri etary
ins t it ut ions t t    fo r d e p e n d e n t a n d n e g l ected chi l dren, for (pre-)del i .tqu" nt
f or m ent ally re ta rd e d c h i l d re n , e tc .                                                     " ti tar" .r,

      I n ot he r i n s ta n c e s , w h e re m u l ti p l e functi ons w ere reported for an i nsti tu-
t ion and lt w a s l e ft to th e p ro j e c t to resol ve them, the fol l ow i ng rul es w ere
applied, s ub j e c t to th e s ta te s r fi n a l revi ew :

       a.     A n i n s ti tu ti o n    re p o rte d a s combi ni ng care of dependent and negl ected
              c hi l d re n w i th te m p o ra ry s h el ter, detenti on, care of del i nqueni chi l dren
              and /o r c a re o f e m o ti o n a l l y di sturbed chi l dren w as cl assi fi ed as an i n-
              s t lt u ti o n    fo r d e p e n d e n t a n d negl ected chi l dren.

       b.     A n i n s ti tu ti o n     re p o rte d a s combi ni ng care of emoti onal l y di sturbed
              c hil d re n w i th c a re o f me n tal l y retarded chi l dren w as cl assi fi ed      as an
              ins ti tu ti o n       fo r e mo ti o n a l L y di sturbed chi l dren.

       c.    A n i n s ti tu ti o n   re Po rte d a s cari ng for both mental l y retarded and physi -
             c alL y h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d re n or as one servi ng chi l dren w i th mul tl pl e
             han d i c a p s w a s c l a s s i fi e d v ari ousl y. If the emphasi s nas on physi cal




                                                                               22
            care--as nith the care of crlb or non-ambulatory ca6e8, the faclllty                          waa
            classifled     as one for the physically                handlcapped. If the enphasls ras
            on brain damage, the faclllty                 was classlfied     as one for the renta11y re-
            tarded.    If there was no other basls for deciding, facllltles                       eupervleed
            by the state mental health agency were claeslfied                     as faciLitles     for the
            rnentally retarded, while those supervised by the state heaLth or publlc
            healt h a g e n c y w e re c l a s s l fi e d as faci l i ti es for the phyei cal l y handl -
            c apped .

Theee details have been provided because they have an obvious bearlng oo the
nunbers of different      types of institutions            reported.  Yet, they represent only
the exceptional instances, relatively               few in nuober, where arbltrary       resolution
w ae r egulr ed. F o r th e mo s t p a rt, i n s tl tutl ons   nere assi gned to sl ngl e categor-
ies, and, for the most part, the category to which a given lnstltution                     belonged
was unequivocal.

        In much the same \ray, there are two instances where the classifications
assigned by the states themselves contain some ambiguity, because of the lack
of co'r"nondefinitions             among the states.         Although these sources of uncertainty
1 n c las s if ic at io n d e s e rv e fu rth e r c o ment, thei r i mportance can easi l y be exag-
g er at ed, unles s i t i s n o te d th a t th e y , too, are basi cal l y probl ems i n the di vi -
d ing lines betw e e n c a te g o ri e s a n d d o not affect the cLassi ftcati on     of the bul k
o f t he f ac il- it ie s w l th i n e a c h c a te g o ry .

            By far the more important of the tlro instances of ambiguity in classificatton
\das created by the singling out frou general child care institutions                                          of the
somewhat more specialized categories of institutions                                primarily        for (pre-)delin-
q u ent c hiLdr en a n d , e s p e c i a l l y ,       th o s e pri mari l y for emoti onal Ly di sturbed chl l -
dren, Probably nowhere else in the institutional                               child care fieLd are ldeas more
l n f Lux ; s om e s ta te s a re i .n p ro c e s s o f devel opi ng obj ecti ve standards for di s-
ti n guis hing t h e s e fa c i l i ti e s --p a rti c u l a rl y ,     those cl assi fi ed as resl dentl al
tre at m ent c ent e rs ; a fe w a l re a d y e mp l o y such cri teri a;              sti l l     others do not gen-
e r ally ac c ept th e d i s ti n c ti o n ,         b u t i n cLude these i nsti tuti ons          w i th those for de-
pendent and neglected children.                         Since a consensus has yet to eoerge, states
wer e us lng wid e l y d i s p a ra te s ta n d a rd s i n cl assi fyi ng           faci l i ti es       i nto these cate-
g o r ies .       T her e i s l i ttl .e q u e s ti o n th a t some of the faci l i ti es           here cl assi fted by
o ne s t at e as r e s i d e n ti a l      tre a tme n t c e n terS w oul d not be accepted as such by
cer t ain ot her s ta te s , o r th a t s o m e s tates have i ncl uded w i thi n i nsti tuti ons                       for
d e pendent and n e g l e c te d c h i l d re n fa c i l .i ti es      w hl ch other states w oul d regard as
res ident ial         t r e a tme n t c e n te rs .   W i th respect to the unrel i abi Li ti es              of cl asei fl -
cat ion der iv ing fro m th e s e s ta te d i ffe r ences,                  the C enterrs fi gures are at l east
o n a par wit h th e re p o rti n g i n th e s tandard stati sti cal                    seri es on chi l d w el fare
p ublis hed by t h e C h l l d re n rs Bu re a u , w h i ch al so rel i es on subj ecti ve state cl ass-
 i fi c at ions . '

I
-Since the project generally rechecked with the state concerned whenever the
 st at e had c la s s i fi e d a fa c i l i ty d i ffe rentl y from i ts cl assl fi cati on i n the di -
 rectories used, there may have been some movement toward greater consistency
 bet ween s t at e s i n th e C e n te rrs d a ta .




                                                               23
          ' T he
                  se c o n d , a n d fa r l e s s s e ri ous, ambi gui ty i s i n the cl assi fi cati on             of i n-
  s t it ut ional      fa c i l i ti e s s p e c i fi e a l l y  for chi l dren w i th brai n danage, cerebral
  pals y , epil e p s y a n d th e l i k e .             So oe states cl assi fi ed    these faci l i ti es    w i th i n-
  s t it ut ions     fo r th e m e n ta l l y re ta rd e d, w hi l e others assi gned them to the category
  of institutions                for the physically             handicapped. No attempt rras made to impose
  unif or m it y u p o n th e s e c l a s s i fi c a ti o n s,      and, i n any case, faci l i ti es       of thi s ki nd
  ar e a v er y s me l L p ro p o rti o n o f e i E her category.

E v aluat ion o f th e C e n te rr s M a s te r L i st
           B ey on d a d o u b t, th e C e n te rrs master l i st of chi l drenrs i nsti .tuti ons  i s not
  complete, even within the terms of its own ground ru1es.                         In commonnith every
  lis t ing    t h e p ro j e c t h a s e x a mi n e d , i t may best be descri bed as ragged at i ts
  edges :

                 At the Loser limit,                 the attempt nas nade to have states fill                 in mar-
          ginal fa c i L i ti e s    n o t c l -a s s i fi ed as i nsti tuti ons    i n thei r j uri sdi cti ons   be-
          c aus e o f th e n u mb e r o r a g e o f the chi l dren served, but i t cannot be expected
          t hat th e s ta te s h a v e fu l l y d one so.r           In some i nstances, w here the faci l i -
          t ies i n q u e s ti o n w e re c l a s s i fi e d   as foster homes and the sel -ecti on and
          s uperv i s i o n o f fo s te r h o m e s fu1Ly del egated to l i censed chi l d w el fare agen-
          c ies , i t w a s i m p o s s i b l -e fo r the state to make a compl ete report.                   More gen-
          er ally ,     i t i s u n re a s o n a b l e to suppose that state agenci es w i l l know of and
          be ab l e to re p o rt a l l o f th e faci l i ti es           speci fi cal l y defi ned as outsi de
          t heir a u th o ri ty .

                   At th e o th e r 1 i m i t, th e r e i s probabl y under-reporti ng of those speci al
           facilities        for sick or handicapped children that occupy quarters within a
           lar ge r i n s ti tu ti o n --fo r         e x a mpl e, a chi l drents secti on i n a tubercul osi s
           hos pi ta l , o r a l o n g -te rm c h ro ni c care \rard for chi l dren i n a general hos-
           pit al,     o r a c h i l d re n rs w i n g i n a psychi atri c hospi tal , and so on. A gai n,
           t hes e w e re s p e c i fi c a l l y      i n q u i red about, but not every state agency had the
           det ai l e d k n o w l e d g e o f th e s tru cture of each hospi tal to be abl e to report
           t hem fu l l y .     T h e l i k e l i h o o d i s, therefore, that the master l i st contai ns the
           bet t er k n o w n , b u t n o t a 1 L , o f these t' part-i nsti tuti onsrr.

    'It
         mu st b e ac k nowledged, als o,             that the atterpt            to extend the statest            limit   has
    b rou gh t int o t he lis t        s om e f ac ilit ie s       that probably          should not be classified          as
    child ren rs    ins t it ut ions .       The f ac t i s t h a t a d e f i n i t i o n      in terms of the number
    o f ch ildre n   s er v ed has quit e dif f e r e n t            irnplications        when used in state regula-
    tio ns an d when int r oduc ed           int o r es e a r c h i n d e s p i t e      of state definitions.           That
    is to say , t her e is s om e t endenc y t o a d j u s t                 the nurnber of children         served to the
    type o f f ac ilit y         one wis hes t o op e r a t e ,        so that facilities          serving exactly        the
    same n umb er of c hildr en           m ay well- h a v e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t    qualities    and characters,
    d ep en din g on whet her t hey ar e ope r a t i n g               in states which classify           that size fa-
    cility     as an ins t it ut ion       or in t h o s e w h i c h r e g a r d t h e m a s f o s t e r h o m e s .   At a
    la ter    stage in it s r es ear c h,         t he p r o j e c t    will   have the data to apply its orsn
    mo re comp lex c r t t er ia       t o def ining         childrenrs       institutions       and will    eliminate
    th e false inc lus ions .




                                                            24
To put it m ore b ro a d l y , th e re i s e v e ry l i kel i hood that the C enterrs master l i st
u n der - r epor t s w h e re v e r th e p ro j e c trs c oncepti ons, defi ni ti ons    and categori es are
a t v ar ianc e wi th c o n v e n ti o n a l u s a g e o r the preconcepti ons of our i nformants.
O m is s ions at t r i b u ta b l e to s u c h " v i ta l mi sunderstandi ngstr are parti cul arl y    Li kel y
w henev er - - as w i th th e b o a rd i n g s c h o o l s w e sought to l ncl ude--there w as no di rec-
to r y lr es our c e fo r th e p a rti c u l a r     ty p e of faci l i ty from w hi ch to l aunch i nqui r-
1 es .

           I n t he f a c e o f th e s e l i mi ta ti o n s ,    i t i s equal l y beyond a doubt that the
Cent er r s lis t o f c h i l d re n ts i n s ti tu ti o n s           i s, currentl -y, the most compl ete l i st-
i ng in ex is t en c e .          In th e fi rs t p l a c e , i t encompassesa broader range of chi l -
d rent s f ac ilit ie s         th a n a n y 1 -i s ti n g h a s previ ousl y attempted. More i mportant, i t
i nc or por at es e v e ry re l e v a n t i n s ti tu ti o n        l i sted i n any of the more speci al i zed
d i r ec t or ies    c h e c k e d a n d mu s t, th e re fo re, be at l east as i ncl usi ve of any parti -
cu lar c at egor y o f c h i l d re n rs i n s ti tu ti o n s            as i s each speci al Lzed di rectory.    A c-
tu al- ly , s inc e d i re c to ri e s      o v e rl a p a n d no tw o of them contai ns compl etel y i denti cal
l i st ings      f or a g i v e n c a te g o ry o f fa c i l ity,          the use of al l of them ensures that the
CenE er r s m as t e r l i s t i s m o re i n c l u s i v e of each category of speci al i zed i nsti tuti on
th an is any on e o f th e d i re c to ri e s .

       T hes e as s e rti o n s a re s u p p o rte d b y the stati sti cs    of chi l drents i nsti tuti ons.
Al t hough dif f ere n c e s i n th e ti m e p e ri ods to w hi ch di fferent        sets of data refer,
a l ong wit h dif fe re n c e s i n th e d e fi n i ti o n  of seemi ngl y i denti cal categori es, di f-
fe r enc es in r e p o rti n g a n d o th e r p ro c e d ural vari -ati ons, pl ace certai .n l i mi tati ons
o n c om par abili ty , th e g e n e ra l te n d e n cy i s cLear. For exampl ez:


lra
         ,o"" with ou t s ay ing t hat         any f ac iliti e s     there may be operating            without   the
    k no wled ge of t he s t at es and         wit hout     any directory            listings    are not included.
    On ly a ccess to c onf ident ial           Cens us , S o c i a l S e c u r i t y     and Internal  Revenue in-
    forrn atio n co uld s upply t his          def ic ienc y      or estimate          its size.
?
-T he s our c es o f d a ta c i te d a re :
     Cens us : U. S. C e n s u s o f Po p u l a ti o n:          1960, Fi nal        R eport P C (2)-8A .    Inmates of
       I ns t it ut io n s , Table 13, page 13.
        NCHS : Nat i o n a l C e n te r fo r H e a l th Stati sti cs. D eveLopmentand Mai ntenance of
         a Nat ion a l In v e n to ry o f H o s p i ta l s and Insti tuti ons,  (P ubl i c H eal th S ervi ce
         P ublic at i o n N o . 1 0 0 0 , Se ri e s 1 , N o. 3.) February, 1965.
        CB : Unpub l i s h e d ta b l e s u p p l i e d b y D i vi si on   of R esearch, C hi l dren' s       B ureau.
        A A I " I D: m e ri c a n As s o c i a ti o n o n M e n tal D efi ci ency,
                   A                                                                  D i rectorv   of R esi denti al
           F ac ilit ies       fo r th e M e n ta l l v R e tarded, 1965.
        CUS : T he p re s e n t re p o rt    o f th e C enter for U rban S tudi es.
    I n gener al, C h i l d re n rs Bu re a u a n d C enter for U rban S tudi es data i ncl ude P uerto
    R ic o and t he Vi rg i n Is l a n d s , w h e re a s the others do not.               C hi l drenrs B ureau fi g-
    ur es s y s t er na ti c a l l y e x c l u d e p ro p ri e ta r y fac{1i ti es, w hi ch are i ncl uded i n the
    t ot als f r om a l l o th e r s o u rc e s . Wh e re no data are shom, comparabl e fi gures
    v r er e not av ai l a b l e i n th e s o u rc e s u s ed.




                                                                  25
                                                                                               Number
  Twe of Facilitv                     Source              Da t e               Total         PubIic                 Voluntary

  Maternity hones                    Cens us         Apr il,       1960           108
  for unmarried                      l,lCHS          Sept. ,       1 9 63         178
  girls                              CB              J an. ,       L964                                                      t94
                                     CUS             Sept . ,      r965           2I2                                        208

  Institutions  for                  Cens y s        Apr il,       I 960       1,493              16l-
  dependent and                      NCHS-           Sept . ,      1963        1,134
  neglected                          CB ,            J an. ,       L964                           t54                       I,150
  child ren                          c US'           Sept . ,      t965        1,515              289                       1,163
                                                                                  'I OC
   Detention                         Cens us         Apr il,       1960
   fac ilities                       CUS             Sept . ,      r965           247

   Institutions   for                Cens us         Apr il,       1960           454             358
   (pre-) delinquents                CB              J an. ,       t964                                                       68
   (excluding deten-                 CUS             Sept . ,      1 9 65         400             276                        103
           tion)
   Institutions   for                Cens us         Apr il,       I 960          o)z
   (pre-) delinquents                NCHS            Sept . ,      r963           511
   (includiug deten-                 CUS             Sept . ,      19 6 5         647
           tion)

      Institutions  for               CB             J an. ,       1964 ...                         64                        86
      emotionally dis-                CUS            Sept . ,      1965 ...                       LZ4                        141
      turbed children

   Institutions        for           c ens ps 3      Apr il,       1960 ...       720             447
   mentally                          AAID-           Nov.,         1964 ...       414             138
   retarded                          CUS             Sept . ,      1965 ...       701             L52

      Institutions     for
      phys iea11y                     Cens us 5      Apr il,       1960 ...       282             160
                                      CUS            Sept . ,      1965 ...       373             136
      handicapped
I
-It  is not clear whether the NCHSfigures                            incLude temporary shelters                        as do the
 oth ers.
t
-The total and pubtic figures reported by the Center for Urban Studies include
  100 Federal Indian boarding schools and related facilities not included by the
  other reporting sources.
-Cen su s fig ure s inc Lude f ac ilit ies        s er v i n g a d u L t s o n l y , a s w e l l a s s e p a r a r e
 wa rds for th e r ent aLly r et ar ded in r nul t i - f u n c t i o n         hospitaJ.s. Discussion makes
 clear that Gensus procedures vrere more likely to lead to nultiple                                       coun!ing of
 the sare institution          than were those used by the Center for Urban Studi.es.
4Ateti""o
             Assoclation on Mental Deflciency figures include facilities                                      serving
 ad ults o nly, as well. as ins t lt ut ions           pr o v l d i n g a n y c a r e t o t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d ,
 irrespective      of primary function.            MIvIDreports thar the figure of 138 repre-
 se nts all p ublic ins t it ut ions        t hen ope r a t i n g , b u t t h e r e s i d u a l - o f 2 7 6 p r i v a t e
 institutlo ns     r epr es ent s dir ec t or y f . is t in g s o n L y - - t h a t i s , t h e r e p l i e s r e c e i v e d
 from an initial        rnail.ing to 491 private institutions.                      The Center for Urban
 Studies lists 549 private instltutions                     for the mentally retarded in operation,
 de sp ite its nar iower def init ion          of t he c a t e g o r y .       It is likely that the three
 se ts of figu r es ar e not s t r ic t ly      c om pa r a b l e .
5The Census figures are a report of hornes and schools for the physically handi-
 capped and do not include the chronic hospital facilities                                contained in the
 Ce nte rrs flgu r es .


                                                                26
                                                                                                  t U .S. GOYIl l l l l l    ? l l Xtl l G   OFFIC I i l ta t   O- l a t- Oo a

								
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