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Lecture Notes - Horticulture _ Agriculture

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MMW 1 Lecture Notes

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									                    Making of the Modern World 1:
                         Prehistory and the Birth of Civilization
                                 Professor Scott L. Vandehey
                                     Fall 2008, Track D




                      “Horticulture & Agriculture”
                                     Oct. 31st, 2008


Bonus Points
  • Museum Romp / Scavenger Hunt
  • 15 points before Dec. 1
  • 10 points after Dec. 1
  • http://anthro.ucsd.edu/mmw/MuseumRomp.html
  • Visit any MMW1 professor’s office hours to receive scavenger hunt sheet

Overview of the day
  • Onka and his pigs
  • Multiplex relationships
  • The Hopi
  • How can societies organize themselves without a central leader?
  • Why is kinship so darn important?
  • What’s culture got to do with it?


Ongka’s Moka
   • Social Organization
     – Big man
     – Status
     – Reciprocal gifts
     – No laws or government
  • Convincing speeches
  • Moka
     – Gift giving w/ interest
     – Pigs & labor
     – Not just about pigs



Types of Relationships
   • Simplex relationship
     – One social status for each participant
     – No further interest
     – Most often in societies with organic solidarity
   • Multiplex relationship
     – Multiple social links between participants
     – Relationships carry added significance
     – Can create conflicting loyalties
     – Can also create peace making
     – More often in societies with mechanical solidarity
   • Relationships in small-scale societies are almost all multiplex


The (historical) Hopi
  • Northern Arizona
  • Small permanent villages of ¡Ö 500
  • No centralized authority
  • Short growing season
  • Elevation = cold
  • Dependant on rainfall for irrigation
     – Drought
     – Flash floods



Surviving a Bad Year
  • Storage of extra corn
  • Migration
  • Temporary slavery
  • Starvation
     – Old
     – Babies
  • Cooperation hugely important even in good years

Hopi Kinship, part 1
   • Household
     – Uxorilocal (wife-dwelling)
     – Multiple married pairs joined together by senior woman
     – Single economic unit
   • Lineage
     – Group descended from common female ancestor
     – Matrilineal
   • Clan
      – Group descended from long passed ancestor (possibly mythical)
      – Named after animal
      – Span multiple villages
      – Exogamous
     – Own all land
   • Pharitry
      – Alliance of several clans
      – Not kin-based


Cross-cutting Ties
  • Households and Clans cross-cut each other
  • Households and Pharitries cross-cut
  • Conflicting loyalties
     – Not want to betray either side
     – Ensures cooperation


Conflicting Loyalties
  • Can pass information between both groups
  • Serves to keep people tied together
  • But…
  • Can also lead to conflicting expectations

Overcoming Conflicting Loyalty
  • Harsh natural environment
  • Performance of ceremonies to ensure a productive crop
  • Clans “own” ceremonies
  • Clans rely upon each other to perform ceremonies


Conforming to Cooperate
  • Pay attention to the value Hopi place on cooperation
  • Pay attention to how the Hopi instill this common value.

								
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