History of discrimination in Canada by xiq51311

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									History of discrimination in
          Canada
My country was built on the backs
         of other men.
         Discrimination of Chinese
 • The first federal Chinese Exclusion Act in 1885
   imposed a head tax on Chinese immigrants of
   $50,
     – increased to $100 in 1900
     – and to $500 in 1903. (This amounted to about two years' wages)
     – From 1886 to 1923, more than $22 million were
       collected in head tax payments.
 • In 1923 the Chinese Immigration Act came into
   force, bringing about the almost total
   prohibition of Chinese immigration to Canada.
     – repealed in 1947, entry of Chinese remained
       restricted under more general rules relating to
       persons of "Asiatic race".
Report on Systemic Racism and Discrimination
In Canadian Refugee and Immigration Policies Canadian Council for Refugees
1 November 2000 http://www.web.net/~ccr/antiracrep.htm
 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3695/is_199604/ai_n8748787
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Head_Tax_Recipt.jpg
    Discrimination against Japanese
 • In 1907 a Canadian government delegation to
   Japan concluded a "gentlemen’s agreement"
   whereby the Japanese government would
   voluntarily limit emigration of Japanese to
   Canada to 400 persons a year. During the
   Second World War, 22,000 Japanese
   Canadians were expelled from within a hundred
   miles of the Pacific, thousands were detained,
   and at the end of the war, "repatriation" to Japan
   was encouraged. 4,000 people left, two thirds of
   them Canadian citizens.
Report on Systemic Racism and Discrimination
In Canadian Refugee and Immigration Policies Canadian Council for Refugees
1 November 2000 http://www.web.net/~ccr/antiracrep.htm
In Our Own Backyard- A Snapshot of Discrimination in Canada
by Dale Hall March 2006
http://www.georgebrown.ca/Admin/hr/hra/newsletterMarch2006.pdf.
                      Canadian naval officers at
                      Esquimalt, British
                      Columbia, confiscate a
                      Japanese Canadian
                      fisherman's boat in 1941.
                      During World War II the
                      Canadian government
                      confined thousands of
                      Japanese Canadians and
                      seized their assets.
                      National Library of Canada




encarta.msn.com/media_461551169_761555666_-1_...
            People of Indian origin
 • In 1908 the Canadian government adopted an Order in
   Council imposing a "continuous passage rule" which had
   the effect of excluding from immigration people who
   could not make a direct journey to Canada. One of the
   main targets of this measure was prospective immigrants
   from India, since there was at the time no direct voyage
   from India. In 1914 a group of 376 Indians challenged
   this restriction, arriving in Vancouver on board the
   Komagatu Maru. After two months in the harbour and an
   unsuccessful court challenge, they were forced to return.



Report on Systemic Racism and Discrimination
In Canadian Refugee and Immigration Policies Canadian Council for Refugees
1 November 2000 http://www.web.net/~ccr/antiracrep.htm
   Continuous journey requirment
 • The goal of excluding certain racialized groups was in
   part accomplished through the rigid enforcement of
   seemingly neutral immigration, health and financial
   requirements. For example, the "continuous journey" rule
   was strictly applied against Asians in the early 20th
   century, but not against Europeans. At the beginning of
   the 1920s, during a period of deep hostility towards
   Eastern Europeans, the rule was also enforced for a
   while against Europeans.



Report on Systemic Racism and Discrimination
In Canadian Refugee and Immigration Policies Canadian Council for Refugees
1 November 2000 http://www.web.net/~ccr/antiracrep.htm
                                Jews
 • During the years when the Nazis were in power
   in Germany (and immediately afterwards),
   Canadian immigration policy was actively anti-
   Semitic,
 • The result was that Canada’s record for
   accepting Jews fleeing the Holocaust is among
   the worst in the Western world.
 • Canadian policy towards Jewish refugees was
   summed up in the words of one official:
                "None is too many".
Report on Systemic Racism and Discrimination
In Canadian Refugee and Immigration Policies Canadian Council for Refugees
1 November 2000 http://www.web.net/~ccr/antiracrep.htm
                               Blacks
 • Although in the 19th century Canada represented
   freedom for some black Americans escaping slavery
   through the underground railroad,
 • in the 20th century immigration of persons of African
   origin was actively discouraged.
     – A 1911 Order in Council prohibited "any immigrant belonging to
       the Negro race, which race is deemed unsuitable to the climate
       and requirements of Canada".
         • achieved through measures such as penalties imposed on railway
           companies that distributed transportation subsidies to blacks,
         • requirement for additional medical examinations,
         • the hiring of agents to actively discourage black Americans from
           coming to Canada.

Report on Systemic Racism and Discrimination
In Canadian Refugee and Immigration Policies Canadian Council for Refugees
1 November 2000 http://www.web.net/~ccr/antiracrep.htm
 • In June 1919 the entry of Doukhobors, Mennonites and
   Hutterites was prohibited on the ground of their "peculiar
   habits, modes of life and methods of holding property".
   The prohibition lasted until 1922 in the case of
   Mennonites and Hutterites, longer for Doukhobors.
 • Until the 1960s, Canada chose its immigrants on the
   basis of their racial categorization rather than the
   individual merits of the applicant, with preference being
   given to immigrants of Northern European (especially
   British) origin over the so-called "black and Asiatic
   races", and at times over central and southern European
   "races".

Report on Systemic Racism and Discrimination
In Canadian Refugee and Immigration Policies Canadian Council for Refugees
1 November 2000 http://www.web.net/~ccr/antiracrep.htm
        CURRENT POLICIES WITH
         DIFFERENTIAL IMPACT
 • Requirement that refugees produce "satisfactory identity
   documents" in order to be granted permanent residence
     – This requirement negatively affects certain groups of
       refugees: — Refugees who come from countries where identity
       is not traditionally established through official documents
       (notably African countries)
     – Citizens of countries where there is no government authority that
       can issue the documents
     – Groups who are less likely to possess such documents such as
       youth, women or people from rural areas




Report on Systemic Racism and Discrimination
In Canadian Refugee and Immigration Policies Canadian Council for Refugees
1 November 2000 http://www.web.net/~ccr/antiracrep.htm
Indian Act, first passed in 1876.
• The goal:
  – the destruction of Native culture and the
    assimilation of Native people into white
    society.
• The solution to what was called "the Indian
  problem"
  – was simply to make a whole race of people
    disappear


    http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3695/is_199604/ai_n8748787
             Residential schools
• By 1920, it was compulsory for Indian parents to give
  up their children for education in these residential
  schools.
   – Children as young as three were forced to live apart from the
     security of their families.
• The children were constantly told about the
  worthlessness of the society from which they had been
  "rescued."
   – Former students recall how countless times they were told they
     were dirty and lazy and no good.
• The worst sin a child could commit was to speak his or
  her own language. The punishment for this was severe.
   – At Thunderchild School it could mean 100 lashes of a whip.
     Think about that for a moment -- one hundred lashes.
                               Nowadays
• 52% of primary school students speak
  English as a second language
• the PRC has supplied the biggest number
  of Canadian immigrants since 2000,
  – averaging well over 30,000 immigrants per
    year, totaling an average of 15% of all
    immigrants to Canada. This wave, however,
    dropped to only 8,000 a year in 2004.
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Chinese_immigration_to_Canada
                        Recently
• The murders of Helen Betty Osborne and Felicia
  Solomon are two of the cases highlighted in a
  new report by Amnesty International –
  – Stolen Sisters: A human rights response to
    discrimination and violence against Indigenous
    women in Canada.
• 1996 Canadian government statistic
  – Indigenous women between the ages of 25 and 44,
    with status under the Indian Act, were five times more likely than
    all other women of the same age to die as the result
    of violence.

       http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR200012004
'Systemic discrimination' against
•     native prison inmates
  'Aboriginal people are routinely disadvantaged once
 they are placed into the custody of the correctional
 service.' - Correctional Investigator Howard Sapers
 – Ottawa (18 Oct. 2006) - Canada's national ombudsman for federal
   prison inmates says Canada is guilty of "systemic discrimination"
   against aboriginal offenders.
 – The number of aboriginals in prison climbed 22% between 1996 and
   2004,
      • while the general population dropped 12%,
      • For women native prisoners, the numbers were even more
         dramatic, rising 74% over the same period.
      • Among all prisoners, aboriginals now account for 18.5% of
         federal inmates, but only 2.7% of the Canadian population.
 – Public Safety Minister Stockwell Day, the minister responsible for the
   prison system, was quick to criticize the report after it was made public.
 – ''I visited personally a number of federal institutions and have spent time
   with aboriginals themselves individually and in groups in the
   institutions,'' he told MPs in the Commons. ''I am confident in the
   professionalism of the people who work for Corrections Canada.''

                   www.nupge.ca/news_2006/n18oc06a.htm
www.lawrencemacaulay.ca/Parliament.html
www.lawrencemacaulay.ca/Parliament.html
www.lawrencemacaulay.ca/Parliament.html
www.lcc.gc.ca/about/2004_dis_paper_4-fr.asp

								
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