LANDFORM REGIONS OF CANADA • Canada is divided into seven landform regions: • Western Cordillera • Interior Plains • Canadian Shield • Great Lakes - St.Lawrence Lowlands • Appalachians • Arctic and Hudson Bay Lowlands • Innuitian Mountains The Western Cordillera • From West to East, the Western Cordillera is composed of three sub-regions, each one running from north to south • The West Coast Mountains on the Pacific coast • The Interior Plateaux in the middle • The Rockies, bordering and crossing in to Alberta Google Earth Vancouver Island Coastal Mountains The West Coast Mountains • VERY TALL PEAKS • VOLCANIC • MANY FIORDS • IN SOME AREAS, THE SEA OFFERS THE BEST WAY TO GET AROUND • COMMUNITIES IN VALLEYS ON SHORELINES WEST COAST MOUNTAINS • Subduction zone • Oceanic plate sliding under continental plate • Prone to earthquakes WEST COAST MOUNTAINS • SOME VOLCANOES MORE RECENT THAN OTHERS • MOUNTAINS COVERED IN LUSH FORESTS WEST COAST MOUNTAINS • INDUSTRIES TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE RESOURCES AND LANDFORMS OF THE AREA • WHISTLER ATTRACTS A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF …. WEST COAST EXTREME • WHY WOULD EARLY SETTLERS HAVE FOUND THIS REGION DIFFICULT TO CROSS? • WHAT WOULD DISCOURAGE SETTLERS FROM REMAINING IN THIS REGION? THE INTERIOR PLATEAUX • A HIGHLAND FLAT AREA • THE INTERIOR OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IS A MIXTURE OF MOUNTAIN RANGES AND HIGH FLATLAND AREAS INTERIOR PLATEAUS • DESCRIBE TWO THINGS ABOUT THIS LANDSCAPE USING THE IMAGE TO THE LEFT The Interior Plateaux • EVEN THOUGH IT IS IN THE MOUNTAINS, THERE ARE A NUMBER OF WELL KNOWN COMMUNITIES WHERE PEOPLE FARM AND RANCH • PLACES SUCH AS PENTICTON, KELOWNA AND GOLDEN BC ARE IMPORTANT COMMUNITIES The Interior Plateaux • Tourism is a big industry • What types of tourist activities would take place here? The Rockies THE ROCKIES • CANADA’S LARGEST MOUNTAINS • WHAT WOULD YOU TELL A FRIEND ABOUT ROCKIES’ VEGETATION AND CLIMATE? • IF THE CAMERA POINTS NORTH, WHAT TIME OF DAY IS IT IN THE 2nd PICTURE? Lake Louise • This is one of Canada’s most favoured tourist spots - Chateau Lake Louise • What is the flat surface in the foreground? • What are the almost straight lines on the mountain slopes? Unlike flat regions, mountains are known for fast-flowing rivers which gouge steep valleys in the landscape In what ways do the climate and vegetation change as you go up the mountainside? The Rockies are home to many alpine glaciers • A narrow channel of ice which slides down a mountain. • Snow accumulates at the top of the glacier/ melts at the bottom • Where would you expect the deepest ice? • What season is shown in this image? Interior Plains The Interior Plains (Prairies) • Once the bed of a huge sea between the Canadian Shield and the Rockies • Mostly flat • Composed of sedimentary rocks • Highly suitable for farming where climate offers the right conditions The Interior Plains A typical huge prairie farm. The Prairies • Known for its relatively dry climate Vegetation on the Interior Plains • Is this ‘parkland’ or ‘grassland’ • What type of vegetation would you expect to see farther north where it is colder and damper? The Interior Plains Economy • Agriculture is one of the most important activities in the Interior Plains • What other major resource activity takes place there? Transport on the Prairies Canada’s wheat basket requires many kilometers of rail lines to deliver wheat to Vancouver, Hudson Bay and Thunder Bay Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield • Largest region in Canada • Among the oldest known rocks on the planet • Formed by volcanic activity, therefore mostly igneous rock • Cold winters, warm summers, precipitation all year give it a distinctive type of vegetation CANADIAN SHIELD • Stretches from Arctic to Great Lakes, from Mackenzie delta to Atlantic • Soils are thin - a poor choice for agriculture in most places TYPICAL FEATURES OF THE CANADIAN SHIELD • What does the vegetation tell you of the location of this part of the Shield? • Name two typical features of the Shield shown by this picture Canadian Shield wildlife Vegetation on the Shield • White patches reveal the extraction of resources on the Shield. • What resource is being extracted? Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Lowlands Great Lakes St. Lawrence Lowlands • Most southerly and smallest landform region of Canada • Newest landform region • Formed by the action of glaciers scraping away and re-depositing material on the landscape • Consists of lakes, valleys and rolling hills Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Lowlands • Why would landforms of this region favour large scale settlement? • Densely populated • Many of Canada’s largest cities • What is meant by the term ‘high density’? Gt. Lakes - St. Lawrence Lowlands Southern Ontario Farming • Much of this region is taken up with dairy farming • What products are created in dairy farming? • Why is dairy farming important to this area? Other features of this region • The image shows a popular part of Southern Ontario. • Why is southern Ontario a popular tourist destination? The Appalachians APPALACHIANS • How would you describe to a friend the land in this image? • This is part of the Cabot Trail on Cape Breton Island The Maritimes • While the Atlantic provinces have relatively poor economies, still many people want to live there. • What features of Atlantic life would encourage people to live there? Nova Scotia • The flatter land next to the sea reveals the location of the old shoreline New Brunswick • Compare this landscape to southern Ontario • What is similar and what is different? ARCTIC AND HUDSON BAY LOWLANDS • Usual to think the Arctic has few if any plants • During which two months would you expect to see the most Arctic growth? The Arctic - the most varied Canadian region • This is the Brodeur peninsula of Baffin Island • Describe the shape of the land, the amount and type of vegetation, the amount of water present Brodeur Peninsula - Baffin Island • These are called Hoodoos • Do you think these were formed by wind, waves or rivers? Baffin Island Greenshield Glacier • Continental glaciers or icefields Shark Fjord • This valley was carved out by a narrow band of glacial ice cutting into the plateau on either side Labrador - Torngat Mountains Ayr Lake - Baffin Island • Very remote to most Canadians • Some mining industries are leaving a permanent mark on the landscape District of Mackenzie District of Mackenzie • What season is this? • What evidence is there that this area experiences warm summers? • Describe the nature of soil in this region District of Mackenzie • Why would these features be called ‘kettles’? • Where do these ‘kettles’ drain out?
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