America Moves Toward War by aua56698

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									America Moves Toward War

 The U.S. Response to WWII and
     its eventual involvement
When war broke out in Europe,
 what was the US response?
  FDR stated neutrality, but at the
  same time he knew action would
    eventually have to be taken.
 Timeline of Events leading to US
        entrance into WWII
• September 8, 1939
  – FDR calls Congress into a special session to revise
    the Neutrality Acts.
  – The Neutrality Acts had been passed in 1935 which
    outlawed sales of arms or loans to nations in war or in
    civil war.
  – At this time, FDR asked to allow American arms to be
    sold to warring nations if they paid cash and shipped
    them in their own ships.
  – After six weeks, Congress passed FDR’s request.
 Was the Nation staying
       neutral?
“ I do not believe that we can become an
     arsenal for one belligerent without
      becoming a target for another.”
               -Senator Arthur Vandenberg

What steps would the US take in the next
  few months to make it less neutral?
 Timeline of events leading to US
          entering WWII
• Spring to Summer 1940
  – Even with cash and carry in effect, allied
    forces continual to fall in Europe.
• September 1940
  – Japan, Germany, and Italy signed a mutual
    defense treaty, known as the Tripartite Pact,
    and are referred to as the Axis Powers.
  – This pact was similar to the alliances of WWI.
Why was this a good strategy
 for the Germans to adopt?

   This meant that if the US decided to
   enter WWII, it would have to fight on
         two fronts, not just one.
 Timeline of events leading to US
          entering WWII
• September 1940
  – FDR steps up his aid of military equipment to
    Britain.
  – Under this program, the US gave Britain ships
    to borrow in exchange for leases on their
    bases in other parts of the world.
  – At the same time, FDR asks congress to
    increase defense spending, which they
    approve in addition to instituting a draft.
 Timeline of events leading to US
          entering WWII
• November 1940
  – FDR re-elected to a third term with 55 % of
    the vote.
  – Shortly afterward, the President begins to
    prepare the nation for war, stating that we
    would need to be the “great arsenal of
    democracy.”
Should we have been involved
         in WWII?
   Didn’t we learn our lesson from
                WWI?
   What made it different this time?
 Timeline of events leading to US
          entering WWII
• Winter 1940
  – Britain runs out of money to purchase arms
    from the United States.
  – FDR proposes a new program, known as
    lend-lease.
  – Under this provision, the US would lend or
    lease arms and other supplies to any country
    “whose defense was vital to the United
    States.”
  Timeline of events leading to US
           entering WWII
• Spring 1941
  – Although isolationists fought lend-lease, Congress
    passes the provision with an initial appropriation of $7
    billion, eventually spending $50 billion.
• June 22, 1941
  – Hitler ignores peace treaty with Soviet Union and
    invades with 3 million troops. Lend-lease is
    eventually extended to the Soviet Union as well due
    to their scorched earth policy of warfare.
  Timeline of events leading to US
           entering WWII
• Spring 1941
  – To stop shipment of arms, the Germans once again
    deploy U-Boats into the Atlantic Ocean, usually in
    groups of 15-20 known as Wolf Packs.
  – In five weeks alone in 1941, the Germans
    successfully sank 1.2 million tons of British shipping.
• June 1941
  – FDR orders the US navy to protect lend-lease
    shipments as far as Iceland and to attack U-Boats in
    necessary for self-defense.
 Timeline of events leading to US
          entering WWII
• August 1941
  – Congress authorized the draft for another 18
    months, with high isolationist opposition.
  – FDR and Churchill meet secretly off of
    Newfoundland and agree to the Atlantic
    Charter.
  – The document spelled out what the goals of
    Britain and the US would be after the end of
    WWII.
    Atlantic Charter Provisions
• No territorial expansion
• No territorial changes without consent of
  inhabitants
• People should be allowed to choose their form
  of government
• Free trade among nations
• Encourage international cooperation
• A secure peace based on freedom from want or
  fear
• Disarmament of aggressors
• A permanent system of general security
Thus, had FDR and Churchill
    learned from WWI?
  How was this similar to Wilson’s
           14 points?
  Timeline of events leading to US
           entering WWII
• September 4, 1941
  – German U-boats fire on the USS Greer, and FDR
    responds by commanding that US shoot German
    ships on sight.
  – This move essentially started the naval war between
    the US and Germany
• Fall 1941
  – 26 nations sign the Atlantic Charter, now known as
    the “Declaration by the United Nations.” These 26
    nations become known as the Allies, counterpart to
    the Axis.
  Timeline of events leading to US
           entering WWII
• Fall 1941
  – As shipping incidents increase, the US senate
    repeals the ban against arming merchant
    ships, making us one step closer to war.
 What was happening on the other
       side of the ocean?
• While the US seem preoccupied with
  Germany, Japan was increasing to build
  up its war machine.
• By July of 1941, Japan had invaded
  Manchuria, China, Indochina, and many of
  the outlying islands except for those
  occupied by the United States.
• By now, tensions were mounting between
  these two nations.
  Timeline of events leading to US
           entering WWII
• July 1941
  – As the Japanese entered Indochina, the US
    responded by cutting off trade with Japan, imposing
    an embargo.
  – At the heart of this embargo was oil, which Japan
    needed for its war machine.
• October 1941
  – Japanese general Hideki Tojo becomes prime
    minister of Japan, promising to attempt peace with
    the Americans, but to go to war if they failed.
  Timeline of events leading to US
           entering WWII
• November 5, 1941
  – Japan sends a peace envoy to Washington, but at the
    same time orders the Japanese navy to prepare for
    an attack on the US.
• Late November, 1941
  – US intelligence breaks Japanese code, discovering
    that an attack was likely on the United States by
    Japan, but it was unknown when or where this would
    occur.
  – FDR issues a war warning to forces in Hawaii, Guam,
    and the Philippines while peace talks continued.
 Timeline of events leading to US
          entering WWII
• December 6, 1941
  – US intelligence intercepts another Japanese
    message that instructed the peace envoy to
    reject all American peace proposals.
  – FDR fears war is likely
• December 7, 1941
  – Japanese air forces attack Pearl Harbor.
  – After about two hours, Japan lost 29 planes
    while the US lost 18 ships, 350 planes, and
    about 2400 soldiers.
 Timeline of events leading to US
          entering WWII
• December 8, 1941
  – FDR addressed a joint session of Congress,
    asking for a resolution of war against Japan.

								
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