Printable fact sheet on Salmonellosis,an infection with Salmonella by lkw13335

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									Salmonellosis
Last Reviewed: June 2008

Since October 1, 2008, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) has been collaborating with the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to investigate
an ongoing multi-state outbreak of human infections due to Salmonella serotype Typhimurium. Analysis of
data collected by CDC and public health officials in multiple states, comparing foods eaten by ill and well
persons, has suggested consumption of peanut butter as a likely source of this outbreak.

An investigation by the Minnesota State Department of Health has identified King Nut creamy peanut butter as
a source of Salmonella infections among many ill persons there. King Nut is produced by the Peanut
Corporation of America in Blakely, Georgia. This facility is now recalling peanut butter and peanut paste made
after July 1, 2008. In many instances, the peanut butter and peanut paste is further distributed to
manufacturers to be used as ingredients in many nationally-distributed products, including crackers, cereal,
candy and ice-cream.

A list of products known to be recalled can be found at:


    z http://www.fda.gov/oc/opacom/hottopics/salmonellatyph.html


Based on this information, the CDC, FDA, and NYSDOH are recommending that consumers:


    z Do not eat products that have been recalled and throw them away in a manner that prevents others
      from eating them.

    z Postpone eating other peanut butter containing products (such as cookies, crackers, cereal, candy and
      ice cream) until information becomes available about whether that product may be affected.


The NYSDOH continues to conduct surveillance for cases of Salmonella infection matching the outbreak strain,
and to examine case exposures to peanut butter and other peanut butter-containing products in New York
State. Updates on the nation-wide investigation (including New York) of illnesses associated with the outbreak
strain of Salmonella Typhermurium can be found on the CDC website at:
http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/typhimurium

Persons who think they may have salmonellosis based on the information described in this fact sheet are
advised to consult their health care providers.

What is salmonellosis?
Salmonellosis is an infection with bacteria called Salmonella, which generally affects the intestines and
occasionally the bloodstream. It is one of the more common causes of diarrheal illness with an estimated
several thousand cases occurring in New York State each year. Most cases occur in the summer months and
can be seen as single cases, clusters or outbreaks.

Who gets salmonellosis?
Any person can get salmonellosis, but it is diagnosed more often in infants and children. Young children, the
elderly, and the immunocompromised are the most likely to have severe infections.

How are Salmonella bacteria spread?
Salmonella are spread by eating or drinking contaminated food or water or by contact with infected people or
animals.
What are the symptoms of salmonellosis?
People infected with Salmonella may experience mild or severe diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever and
occasionally vomiting. Bloodstream infections can be quite serious, particularly in the very young or elderly.

How soon after exposure do symptoms appear?
The symptoms generally appear one to three days after contact with Salmonella bacteria.

Where are Salmonella found?
Salmonella can be found in raw or undercooked meats and eggs, unpasteurized milk and cheese products .
Foods can also be contaminated by Salmonella bacteria during preparation or processing. Other exposures
may include contact with infected animals, especially poultry, swine, cattle, rodents and pets, such as reptiles
(iguanas, snakes, lizards and turtles), chicks, ducklings, birds, dogs and cats. Previous outbreaks of
Salmonella in New York State have been associated with peanut butter, frozen pot pies, eggs, pet foods and
turtles.

How long can an infected person carry Salmonella?
An infected person can carry the bacteria for a few days or several months. People who have been treated
with oral antibiotics and younger people tend to carry the bacteria longer than others.

Do infected people need to be isolated or excluded from work or school?
Most infected people may return to work or school when their diarrhea has stopped. Food workers, health care
personnel and children in daycare must obtain the approval from the local or state health department before
returning to their normal work activities.

What is the treatment for salmonellosis?
Salmonella infections usually resolve in five to seven days and often do not require treatment unless the
patient becomes severely dehydrated or the infection spreads from the intestines. Those with severe diarrhea
may require rehydration, often with intravenous fluids. Antibiotics are usually not necessary unless the
infection spreads from the intestines.

How can salmonellosis be prevented?

   1.   Always handle raw poultry, beef and pork accordingly:
             {	 Wrap fresh meats in plastic bags at the market to prevent blood from dripping on other foods.
                Refrigerate foods promptly; minimize holding at room temperature.
             {	 Never place cooked food on an unwashed plate that previously held raw beef, poultry, pork,
                fish or seafood.
             {	 Cutting boards and counters used for beef, poultry, pork, fish or seafood preparation should
                be washed immediately after use to prevent cross contamination with other foods.
             {	 Avoid eating raw or undercooked meats. While the juice color will usually change from red to
                gray when the meat is fully cooked, it is not a reliable test to assure it is safe to eat.
             {	 Always check the temperature with a meat thermometer. Foods that reach the temperatures
                listed below or higher are fully cooked.
                 Chicken      165° F
                 Hamburger 160° F
                 Pork         150° F
                 Hot dogs     140° F
                 Leftovers    165° F
                 Eggs         145° F
                 Other foods 140° F

             {	 To check the temperature of the meat, insert the thermometer into the center of the meat,
                which is the least cooked part. For checking hot dogs, go from the end of the hot dog to the
                center. Be careful not to pass through the meat and touch the cooking surface or you will get
                a false high temperature reading.
               {	 Further advice on food preparation and disease prevention is available at
                  http://www.nyhealth.gov/environmental/indoors/food_safety/barbecue.htm
   2.	   Avoid eating raw eggs or undercooking foods containing raw eggs. Raw eggs may be unrecognized in
         some foods such as homemade hollandaise sauce, Caesar and other homemade salad dressings,
         tiramisu, homemade ice cream, homemade mayonnaise, homemade eggnog, cookie dough and
         frosting.
   3.	   Avoid drinking unpasteurized milk.
   4.	   Wash fruits and vegetables before eating.
   5.	   Encourage careful hand washing before and after food preparation.
   6.	   Wash hands (especially children) immediately after handling reptiles, having contact with pet feces or
         handling pet food or treats.
   7.	   Do not keep reptiles as pets in homes with immunocompromised persons or young children.


Revised: June 2008

								
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