Essay A Score _____________
Why do people lived in Orient different from the people lived in America? Is it
because the culture backround difference? or Is it matter in landscape? According to
Clyde Kluckhohn, professor of anthropology at Hardvard University, he defines culture
as the creation of human beings. The differences among the world's people are in their
customs, language, history, literature, and so on. The similarities among the world's
people are we put cloths on when we feel cold, we eat meals when we're hungry and
we sleep in bed. Many of these acts are not due to accidental or caused by supernatural
force. It's the pattern not to our own making, but to the human behavior.
Sometimes we're not intent to act or think, but our basic survivability tell us to put
on cloths when we feel cold, and eat when we're hungry. The culture separates the
West customs from East customs. People think differently, speak different language,
and eat differently are all base upon on their culture. I think Professor Kluckhohn gives a
positive thesis about human beings.
From my own experience I know America is far different than Taiwan. In Taiwan,
neighbors are more dependable on each other. Not like America, neighbors mines in
only their business. Americans are open and liberal. But in Taiwan, people are shy and
People think, feel and behavior are deeply depended on their culture. Not
because the weather is different or having different instincts.
Essay B Score _____________
Human Beings and their Behavior
There are many views of Kluckhohn that explains human behavior. Kluckhohn
quotes anthropologist: "because people were brought up that way", which he believes to be
shrewd common sense. As children, we are building our behavior. So it is not the way we
are brought up, it is the culture we are raised in. Each specific culture has its history and
literature that expresses life activities.
An Example of cultural differences is a persons maritual statis. Americans believe
haveing more than one spouse is abhorrent. Other cultures that believe in haveing more
than one spouse probably don't have a high divorce rate as Americans do. Even though
having 2 or 3 spouses may seem like a sin, in a way it is really a blessing.
In spite of peoples cultural differences, Kluckhohn states peoples biological
equipment is about the same. Such as birth, illness, old age, and death. All people undergo
the same experiences. The pattern of day each culture must have a simular way. The ways
are probably a little different. But the cleaning of the body and eating should be the same.
In the newspaper, about a week ago, there was an article about a young girl refusing
to dissect a frog because of cultural beliefs. To others this may seem incompotent, but to
her it was a sin. The girl was asked to dissect this frog in her science class and if she didn't
she would receive a failure notice. Others should try and accept her belief instead of giving
her a choice of doing the dissection or failing the class. This is an example of the "either-or"
Kluckhohn stated. He says a compromise between nature and the special form of nuture we
call culture is abstract.
The reader can agree with Kluckhohn's conclusion on human behavior. The cultural
differences justify differences in human thinking. Each cultures history builds the peoples
character to believe their culture is true. The human biology and natural laws evolve from
the inner human nature of all of us. Kluckhohn justifies this and helps the reader's
comprehension of human behavior.
Essay C Score _____________
"What constitutes culture?" is a controversial question to which many
anthropologist must respond. Culture, as defined by Clyde Kluckhohn, is human nature,
the way of life of a people. Each culture differs from the rest because it deals with a
different people in a different social environment. Each is defined by generations of
ancestors who have set the boundaries of social custom.
I agree with Kluckhohn's view that culture is the result of an individual's
upbringing, for I have had the experience of being exposed to two vastly different
cultures. When I immigrated to the United States from Vietnam in 1975, I was caught in
the midst of two vastly different worlds - the strict, rigid social ideals of my Oriental
background, and the carefree, relaxed American lifestyle. Somehow, I must try to
achieve a balance of these two worlds.
The American culture was at first an enigma to me. I was just an observer on the
edge, looking in. I was intimidated by these Americans who were so forward and
outspoken, who were so uninhibited in their speech and action. Contrasted to this is my
strict upbringing, which greatly emphasized the "virtues" of meekness and quiescence. I
was aghast at the relationship between American children and adults, who converse
and interact with each others as friends and equals; I was always expected to respect
my elders, to only listen and obey. These differences in American and Vietnamese
cultures were not predestined by God, nor do they arise from biological or
environmental differences. They result from different ideas and values, different social
legacies each group has inherited from its people.
The past twelve years in the United States have radically changed my life, for
time has redefined the way I think, feel, and behave. I am no longer hovering on the
edge, for I am now an American who has adapted American customs and the American
way of life. Yet I still retain Oriental customs and values that have been instilled in me in
early childhood. These two cultures have permanently become a part of my self. I am a
product of the American and Vietnamese cultures, for I have been brought up by these
Essay D Score _____________
Kluckhohn explains the differences and similarities among people of the world as
culture. Culture, in this instance, spans a variety of areas. To begin with, culture is the
way a person was raised. In addition, it's the values a person was taught. Finally,
culture is related to man's biological needs. Habits that a person is taught as a
youngster will influence the rest of his life.
Societies have a tendency to have distinct habits that their people live by, First,
education is one example. To explain, in some areas of the world children are sent to
school until they are 18 and in others they are never educated. Second, what people eat
is part of their culture. In Italy people eat pasta on the other hand in Israel people eat
fallafels. Finally, a person's dress is influenced by which society he lives in. To further
explain, in the U.S. women wear anything from dresses to pants, but currently in Iran
women wear dresses only and must wear a veil to cover their face. Certain societies
have values that influence their people.
Different civilizations have distinct social values. First, marriages are treated
differently. In the U.S. most women feel that polygamy by a man isn't acceptable.
Women feel jealous and furthermore it is illegal. On the other hand, a woman of Koryak,
Siberia, would not comprehend how a woman could be so selfish and so unwanting of
another woman in the house as to wish to restrict her husband to one mate. Certain
countries also have religion while others don't. For example, in the U.S.S.R. atheism is
the way of the State; in many Mid-East countries Mohammed is worshipped and the
Koran is a sacred book. Third, bigotry is not something people are born with, but are
taught. Little children play with anyone regardless of color, sex, or religion. Unfortunatly,
adults become jealous or dislike a person, and instead of disliking the individual, they
will dislike the individual's race, religion, sex, or anything else they can find to dispise.
The adults will then teach the children their beliefs and the hatred becomes a never
ending chain. Similarities are shown by the fact that man has biological functions that
can't be ignored.
Men of all societies can't ignore nature. To start, all men have the same life cycle.
This cycle is that all men are born and all men eventually die. Furthermore, no matter
what one puts on the body, a man is still a man and a woman is still a woman. In other
words, men and women in all societies usually have a tendency to have strong desires
towards each other. These desires can be physical or emotional, but they are usually
evident. Finally, all men are limited by "mother nature." Certain societies might have a
different skin color than another, but all men are limited in what they can eat and
personal tools. Certain men cannot eat steel while others can. Furthermore, the only
man that is known to fly is Superman, and he has yet to come off the movie screen.
Kluckhohn's explanation of the differences and similarities between the world's peoples
appears very logical. People are influenced by habits they were raised by. Furthermore,
what ideas humans are taught bears an impact on their lives. Finally, all men are limited
by their own physical being.
Essay E Score _____________
In a world where everyone has experienced the Vietnamese people are shocked when they
"the same poignant life experiences, such as birth, realize that some Americans go to the opposite
helplessness, illness, old age, and death," it is extreme and not wear anything at all. Such indiscreet
incredible to think of the number of ways that peoples action is never tolerated in their culture. Even though
can go through these events in life. It is most common their clothes are simple, the Vietnamese people
that their attitudes and responses are influenced by always make sure that their bodies are covered. The
their environment and society. As Clyde Kluckhohn women would never be found wearing anything that
had explained in "Mirror for Man", the best would reveal their bodies in an improper fashion. The
explanation for any human action is the "concept of way that the Vietnamese and American people dress
culture." One cannot clearly define this idea, but is very much determined by their ways of thinking.
through the comparison of two different groups of A very important factor which is influenced
people hopefully one can better understand the by culture is marriage. In both societies, this is the
meaning of culture. By comparing Vietnam and the time when a man and a woman come together and
United States, two very contrasting nations, one can become one. The process for the wedding, however,
see the force behind the concept of culture in shaping is different. The Vietnamese people place an
people's lives. emphasis on parents' approval, and therefore the
In terms of education, the similarities parents play an important role in their children's
between the two countries are few. Both aim at marriage. Sometimes they even act as the
improving their people's lives, and yet the method in matchmakers. In the United States, however, the
which this is achieved differs greatly. Vietnam, a small children are left to make their own decisions. They
country with a large population, has to make do with meet someone they like, fall in love, and get married.
the lack of technology. It stresses hard work rather Sometimes they go through this process without
than the use of machines. Children are encouraged to consulting their parents. Very often, they would go to
do math mentally rather than depend on calculators. places like Reno to marry quickly and have no second
As a result, the Vietnamese people do not consider it thoughts about what their parents might have to say.
a sacrifice that they should lead a hard life. Also, their For some of them, it does not matter what others
education emphasizes morality rather than think as long as they are happy with their decisions.
independent thinking. Therefore, most Vietnamese Again, the differences are results of different ways of
children would never think of leaving their families thinking.
before marriage, unlike the Americans, who would As can be seen, people's actions and
leave for college right after high school or move out of thoughts are influenced by their cultures. The
their parents' house to live with friends. The differences between Vietnam and the United States in
Americans would also prefer to make their lives as such areas as education, dress styles, and marriage
easy as possible, which means that rather than are results of the way they were raised. Their different
adding mentally, they would turn to an adding behaviors can be traced back as early as their first
machine or a computer. Their two ways of thinking education and then along the way as they are
differ as a result of different education methods. growing up. They are all born being the same, but
One can also see how culture causes people because they are taught different sets of rules, their
to be different in their dress styles. In Vietnam, it is attitudes and responses to things in life are different.
acceptable to wear clothes similar to pyjamas out in A Vietnamese person would not be so unless he
the street. Yet in America, one cannot do this. One behaves in certain ways. He can become as
has to dress properly, which means that pyjamas is American as an American by birth as long as he is
worn at night and to bed only. However, it is educated like an American.
incomprehensible to the Vietnamese why the
Americans have to dress so well to go to sleep, why
they have to wear nightgowns or pyjamas with fancy
designs. They do not understand why it is important
to put on a robe when one eats breakfast. Most of all,
Essay F Score _____________
Why do men do the things they do? Professor an apartment and got settled into their prospective new
Kluckhohn attempts to explore, define and explain the jobs. My cousin Sammy and his German wife Heidi
answer to this complex question in one brief passage. moved in with us and stayed for about two and a half
He reasons that we are all given the same basic months.
biological "tools" at birth, so it should follow then, that we The first culture clash regarded meals. Being a
should all behave in similar ways. But, because of traditional Filipino household with very close family ties
"culture", defined as "the total life way of a people", we meant that everyone had to come together for meals.
do not react to similar situations in exactly the same My mother felt it was her obligation to provide breakfast
way. Culture is the main reason we can not explain and dinner for both her family and houseguests. The first
other people's actions "in terms of biological properties." few nights we all sat down to diner together. One
Professor Kluckhohn proceeds to explain evening my cousin told my mother that Heidi was
cultural differences and similarities through some beginning to feel obligated to come to dinner and, if it
experiences of his own. First he parallels an American was all right, if my mother would please stop making
woman's view of polygamy to a Koryak woman's. Then them have their meals with us. My mother got a little
he shares an anecdote of an American man who was upset and asked me how Heidi could be so rude. Mom
raised as a Chinese. Lastly, he tells a tale of a woman was just doing what she had been taught when she was
serving rattlesnake sandwiches to her guests. After each young and Heidi, not being used to our culture, felt
example he points out that it is a persons upbringing and stifled.
way of life that dictates how he or she will act in or react For Filipinos it is very important that you
to a given situation. respect your elders. This could come in the form of the
I am in total agreement with Professor entire family greeting them at the door when they came
Kluckhohn's views. I found his passage to be very to visit or just letting the head of the house know if you
interesting reading because it put into words views and were going out. My cousin never failed to let us know
ideas I had formulated through dealing with people of whether he was leaving or not but his wife had a
other nationalities. It also pointed out that a body doesn't tendency to come and go as she pleased. Coming in at
make a man, a mind does. How the mind is trained and late hours or leaving without a word may be viewed by
nurtured will decide what the man is and how he thinks. some as normal, but to Filipinos raised in the Philippines
it was a direct attack at the respect elders deserved.
I am what some would call a "people-person." I We've had other people stay with us but they had
love being with new people and learning about what always been first or second generation Filipinos who
makes them "tick." I have been lucky enought to travel knew of our ways and abided by them. Having someone
through Europe and the Orient so I have seen first hand with a totally different upbringing live with us taught us
whether East does meet West or not. But the place lessons in tolerance and open-mindedness. We learned
where I learned the most about people and the way they not to judge by our standards but understand and accept
live would have to be right here at home - Southern someone else's way of life.
California. Living here in an area with a rich ethinic
mixture has opened my eyes to things like: the Filipino No one may ever be able to answer Professor
tendency to eat with a spoon and fork while Americans Kluckholn's question of "why?" completely. People are
tend to use mainly the fork, the Oriental's tight family ties always changing and growing. Past experiences,
and the growing rate of American divorces, etc. The traditions, values and beliefs will always dictate how a
mixture of traditional Filipino parents and growing up in person will react to something, but because no two
California has given me a chance to glimpse how some people are alike there isn't any way one can be
cultures go hand in hand while others clash violently. absolutely sure. Dealing with other cultures requires
tolerance, patience and openmindedness, for it can be
My first real look at how cultures can clash difficult and frustrating. Yet to me it is one of the most
came when I was about twelve. A cousin of mine had intriguing subjects on earth and should be well worth
just married and, having just come from the Philippines, trying if only for the experience of it.
was wondering if they could live with us until they found