EDSEL M. LLAVE INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF TERMS DISCUSSION PROPER CRITICISMS OF TESTING Invasion of Privacy Creation of Anxiety and Interference with Learning Permanent Categorization of Students (Tracking) Penalizing Bring and Creative Students Discrimination Against Minority Students Measurement of Limited and Superficial Aspect of Behavior ETHICAL TESTING PRINCIPLES Confidentiality Test Security Authorized Evaluators Test Publication ETHICAL TESTING PRACTICES UNETHICAL TESTING PRACTICES People make decisions. Decisions are often based on test results. Test : In Retrospect Achievement Test—is an examination that is designed to assess what a person has already learned. (Encarta 2009); (Standardized) tests constructed by test construction specialists, usually with the assistance of curriculum experts, teachers, and school administrators, for the purpose of determining a student’s level of performance relative to the performance of other students of similar age and grade. (Kubiszyn 2000) Assessment—answers the question, “how much change has occurred?,” thus it implies comparing of two instruments. (Reganit 2004) Ethical—a norm that is consistent with agreed principles of correct moral conduct. (Encarta 2009) Learning—is the acquisition of knowledge and skill through education (Encarta 2009). Legal—is something permissible established under the law, or by common law or legislation. (Encarta 2009). Social—is relating to the way in which people in groups behave and interact. (Encarta 2009) Standardized Test—is a test with a systematic sampling of performance under prescribed directions and administration. (Reganit 2004) Test—is a tool or a device to gather data or evidences needed for evaluation. (Merriam’s Dictionary) CRITICISMS OF TESTING Invasion of Privacy For sure there is no invasion of privacy when the subjects are told how the test results will be used and the subjects volunteer. CRITICISMS OF TESTING Invasion of Privacy When children are involved, invasion of privacy is somewhat more complex. Legally, the school functions in loco parentis, in the place of parents. Teachers as parent- substitute. Construct and use test prudently. CRITICISMS OF TESTING Invasion of Privacy For Anatasi’s (1982), the following must be considered: Purpose of testing Relevance of information Informed consent Confidentiality CRITICISMS OF TESTING Invasion of Privacy For Chase (1976) and 1974 Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (Buckley Amendment) TEACHERS CANNOT: post grades of students. display the works of their students as an example of good and bad work. CRITICISMS OF TESTING Invasion of Privacy TEACHERS CANNOT: permit students to grade or correct any other student’s paper. ask students to raise their hands to determine if they answered correctly or incorrectly to any item. CRITICISMS OF TESTING Invasion of Privacy TEACHERS CANNOT: distribute test papers in a manner that will permit other students to observe the scores of others. assume that letters of recommendations requested by students will be kept confidential. CRITICISMS OF TESTING Creation of Anxiety and Interference with Learning Feldhusen’s study (1964): 80% of his respondents stated that tests helped them to learn more. Fiske (1967) found out that teachers and administrators favor testing especially achievement test. CRITICISMS OF TESTING Creation of Anxiety and Interference with Learning Kirkland (1971) on how tests affect students: Mild degree of anxiety usually facilitates learning, whereas higher level of anxiety hinders learning in most cases. The less able student incurs a higher level of anxiety from testing than those capable ones. CRITICISMS OF TESTING Creation of Anxiety and Interference with Learning Being familiar with the type of test to be administered reduces anxiety. Highly anxious students do better than less anxious one on measuring rote recall. They perform less well, however, on test requiring flexibility in thought. CRITICISMS OF TESTING Creation of Anxiety and Interference with Learning Test anxiety increases with grade level. Although there appears to be no relationship between sex and anxiety among elementary school children, junior high school girls indicate that they experience more anxiety than do boys at comparable levels. CRITICISMS OF TESTING Creation of Anxiety and Interference with Learning Anti-Anxiety Pills: Emphasize test for diagnosis and mastery rather than as a means of punishing students who fail to life up to the expectations of the teachers or parents. Avoid a “sudden death examination.” (Passing or failing is a function of one test only) CRITICISMS OF TESTING Creation of Anxiety and Interference with Learning Write personal notes on each examination paper encouraging students to keep up the good work or exert more effort. Be sure each item has “face validity.” Items measure some important aspect of life as perceived by the students. Avoid unannounced examinations. CRITICISMS OF TESTING Creation of Anxiety and Interference with Learning Schedule personal conferences with students as often as possible to reduce anxiety and to redirect learning where necessary. Emphasize more on strengths, lesser on deficiencies. CRITICISMS OF TESTING Creation of Anxiety and Interference with Learning Do not emphasize competitive examinations when some students are unable to compete. Treat each student’s grades confidentially. Allow students to choose among activities of equal instructional value. CRITICISMS OF TESTING Permanent Categorization of Students (Tracking) Measurement instruments are infallible? Performance is unmodifiable? CRITICISMS OF TESTING Permanent Categorization of Students (Tracking) Measurement instruments are infallible? Performance is unmodifiable? Penalizing Bring and Creative Students Insensitive to typical but defensible responses. Of course, there are some items that are vague, but this is an exception rather than a rule. CRITICISMS OF TESTING Discrimination Against Minority Students Measurement of Limited and Superficial Aspect of Behavior A commonly recurring criticism of tests is that they cannot measure the most important human traits, such as love or motivation among others. CRITICISMS OF TESTING ETHICAL TESTING PRINCIPLES Confidentiality Who shall have access to the test results? Confidentiality can be breached in the following instances: Where there is clear and immediate danger to the student, the teacher may inform only other professionals or authorities. CRITICISMS OF TESTING ETHICAL TESTING PRINCIPLES Confidentiality If the students will benefit by talking to other professionals concerned with the case. If the student gives permission for confidential communications to be reported to others. CRITICISMS OF TESTING ETHICAL TESTING PRINCIPLES Confidentiality Test Security No standardized tests should be left unsecured. Authorized Evaluators Test scores and interpretations should be available to individuals who are qualified to use them. CRITICISMS OF TESTING ETHICAL TESTING PRACTICES Informed test. (date, coverage, nature and implication of test) feel free to explain the mechanics of taking a test motivate students to do well (positive expectations) secure materials CRITICISMS OF TESTING ETHICAL TESTING PRACTICES adequate proctor (ideal ratio: one proctor for 30 students) examine results and determine areas of students’ weaknesses modify the curriculum as a result of standardized achievement testing only if the teacher can demonstrate that the change conforms to overall school objectives to modify the curriculum solely for the purpose of increasing scores is unethical CRITICISMS OF TESTING UNETHICAL TESTING PRACTICES Tutor policy. Scores on standardized tests can only be interpreted when the tests are given exactly the same way they are to the norm or comparison group. Don’t examine the content of standardized tests to determine what is to be taught in their classroom. CRITICISMS OF TESTING UNETHICAL TESTING PRACTICES Standardized tests for teaching examinations no good. Similarly, it is unethical to use standardized tests as instructional materials. Not ethical to exclude some students from participation in testing, even though the teachers expect them to do poorly. CRITICISMS OF TESTING UNETHICAL TESTING PRACTICES It is not ethical to alter the directions, time limits and scoring procedures. It is improper for teacher to try to improve pupil performance by developing items parallel to those on standardized tests. Examinations are not contests and should not be treated as such. No ranking and contests. CRITICISMS OF TESTING UNETHICAL TESTING PRACTICES Not good also to exclude the whole class for they are low achievers. It is not ethical to neglect the instruction of one student just to increase the test scores of other pupils. The goal of education is the maximum achievement of each pupil, not the attainment of high-test scores.
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