; TESTS
Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out
Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

TESTS

VIEWS: 64 PAGES: 35

ETHICAL ISSUES, STANDARDS

More Info
  • pg 1
									EDSEL M. LLAVE
   INTRODUCTION
   DEFINITION OF TERMS
   DISCUSSION PROPER
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Invasion of Privacy
   Creation of Anxiety and Interference with
    Learning
   Permanent Categorization of Students
    (Tracking)
   Penalizing Bring and Creative Students
   Discrimination Against Minority Students
   Measurement of Limited and Superficial
    Aspect of Behavior
   ETHICAL TESTING PRINCIPLES
   Confidentiality
   Test Security
   Authorized Evaluators
   Test Publication
   ETHICAL TESTING PRACTICES
   UNETHICAL TESTING PRACTICES
People make decisions.
Decisions are often
 based on test results.
Test : In Retrospect
   Achievement Test—is an examination that is
    designed to assess what a person has already
    learned. (Encarta 2009); (Standardized) tests
    constructed by test construction specialists,
    usually with the assistance of curriculum
    experts, teachers, and school administrators,
    for the purpose of determining a student’s
    level of performance relative to the
    performance of other students of similar age
    and grade. (Kubiszyn 2000)
   Assessment—answers the question, “how
    much change has occurred?,” thus it
    implies comparing of two instruments.
    (Reganit 2004)
   Ethical—a norm that is consistent with
    agreed principles of correct moral conduct.
    (Encarta 2009)
   Learning—is the acquisition of knowledge
    and skill through education (Encarta 2009).
   Legal—is something permissible
    established under the law, or by common
    law or legislation. (Encarta 2009).
   Social—is relating to the way in which
    people in groups behave and interact.
    (Encarta 2009)
   Standardized Test—is a test with a
    systematic sampling of performance under
    prescribed directions and administration.
    (Reganit 2004)
   Test—is a tool or a device to gather data or
    evidences needed for evaluation.
    (Merriam’s Dictionary)
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Invasion of Privacy
   For sure there is no invasion of privacy when
    the subjects are told how the test results will
    be used and the subjects volunteer.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Invasion of Privacy
   When children are involved, invasion of
    privacy is somewhat more complex. Legally,
    the school functions in loco parentis, in the
    place of parents. Teachers as parent-
    substitute.
   Construct and use test prudently.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Invasion of Privacy
   For Anatasi’s (1982), the following must be
    considered:
   Purpose of testing
   Relevance of information
   Informed consent
   Confidentiality
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Invasion of Privacy
   For Chase (1976) and 1974 Family Educational
    Rights and Privacy Act (Buckley Amendment)
   TEACHERS CANNOT:
   post grades of students.
   display the works of their students as an
    example of good and bad work.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Invasion of Privacy
   TEACHERS CANNOT:
   permit students to grade or correct any other
    student’s paper.
   ask students to raise their hands to determine
    if they answered correctly or incorrectly to
    any item.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Invasion of Privacy
   TEACHERS CANNOT:
   distribute test papers in a manner that will
    permit other students to observe the scores
    of others.
   assume that letters of recommendations
    requested by students will be kept
    confidential.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Creation of Anxiety and Interference with
    Learning
   Feldhusen’s study (1964): 80% of his
    respondents stated that tests helped them to
    learn more.
   Fiske (1967) found out that teachers and
    administrators favor testing especially
    achievement test.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Creation of Anxiety and Interference with
    Learning
   Kirkland (1971) on how tests affect students:
   Mild degree of anxiety usually facilitates
    learning, whereas higher level of anxiety
    hinders learning in most cases.
   The less able student incurs a higher level of
    anxiety from testing than those capable ones.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Creation of Anxiety and Interference with
    Learning
   Being familiar with the type of test to be
    administered reduces anxiety.
   Highly anxious students do better than less
    anxious one on measuring rote recall. They
    perform less well, however, on test requiring
    flexibility in thought.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Creation of Anxiety and Interference with
    Learning
   Test anxiety increases with grade level.
   Although there appears to be no relationship
    between sex and anxiety among elementary
    school children, junior high school girls
    indicate that they experience more anxiety
    than do boys at comparable levels.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Creation of Anxiety and Interference with
    Learning
   Anti-Anxiety Pills:
   Emphasize test for diagnosis and mastery rather
    than as a means of punishing students who fail
    to life up to the expectations of the teachers or
    parents.
   Avoid a “sudden death examination.” (Passing or
    failing is a function of one test only)
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Creation of Anxiety and Interference with
    Learning
   Write personal notes on each examination paper
    encouraging students to keep up the good work
    or exert more effort.
   Be sure each item has “face validity.” Items
    measure some important aspect of life as
    perceived by the students.
   Avoid unannounced examinations.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Creation of Anxiety and Interference with
    Learning
   Schedule personal conferences with students
    as often as possible to reduce anxiety and to
    redirect learning where necessary.
   Emphasize more on strengths, lesser on
    deficiencies.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Creation of Anxiety and Interference with
    Learning
   Do not emphasize competitive examinations
    when some students are unable to compete.
   Treat each student’s grades confidentially.
   Allow students to choose among activities of
    equal instructional value.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Permanent Categorization of Students
    (Tracking)
   Measurement instruments are infallible?
   Performance is unmodifiable?
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Permanent Categorization of Students
    (Tracking)
   Measurement instruments are infallible?
   Performance is unmodifiable? Penalizing
    Bring and Creative Students
   Insensitive to typical but defensible
    responses. Of course, there are some items
    that are vague, but this is an exception rather
    than a rule.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   Discrimination Against Minority Students
   Measurement of Limited and Superficial
    Aspect of Behavior
      A commonly recurring criticism of tests is
    that they cannot measure the most
    important human traits, such as love or
    motivation among others.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   ETHICAL TESTING PRINCIPLES
   Confidentiality
   Who shall have access to the test results?
   Confidentiality can be breached in the
    following instances:
   Where there is clear and immediate danger to
    the student, the teacher may inform only
    other professionals or authorities.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   ETHICAL TESTING PRINCIPLES
   Confidentiality
   If the students will benefit by talking to other
    professionals concerned with the case.
   If the student gives permission for
    confidential communications to be reported
    to others.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   ETHICAL TESTING PRINCIPLES
   Confidentiality
   Test Security
     No standardized tests should be left
    unsecured.
   Authorized Evaluators
     Test scores and interpretations should be
    available to individuals who are qualified to
    use them.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   ETHICAL TESTING PRACTICES
   Informed test. (date, coverage, nature and
    implication of test)
   feel free to explain the mechanics of taking a
    test
   motivate students to do well (positive
    expectations)
   secure materials
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   ETHICAL TESTING PRACTICES
   adequate proctor (ideal ratio: one proctor for 30
    students)
   examine results and determine areas of
    students’ weaknesses
   modify the curriculum as a result of standardized
    achievement testing only if the teacher can
    demonstrate that the change conforms to
    overall school objectives
   to modify the curriculum solely for the purpose
    of increasing scores is unethical
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   UNETHICAL TESTING PRACTICES
   Tutor policy. Scores on standardized tests can
    only be interpreted when the tests are given
    exactly the same way they are to the norm or
    comparison group.
   Don’t examine the content of standardized
    tests to determine what is to be taught in
    their classroom.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   UNETHICAL TESTING PRACTICES
   Standardized tests for teaching examinations
    no good.
   Similarly, it is unethical to use standardized
    tests as instructional materials.
   Not ethical to exclude some students from
    participation in testing, even though the
    teachers expect them to do poorly.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   UNETHICAL TESTING PRACTICES
   It is not ethical to alter the directions, time
    limits and scoring procedures.
   It is improper for teacher to try to improve
    pupil performance by developing items
    parallel to those on standardized tests.
   Examinations are not contests and should not
    be treated as such. No ranking and contests.
   CRITICISMS OF TESTING
   UNETHICAL TESTING PRACTICES
   Not good also to exclude the whole class for
    they are low achievers.
   It is not ethical to neglect the instruction of
    one student just to increase the test scores of
    other pupils. The goal of education is the
    maximum achievement of each pupil, not the
    attainment of high-test scores.

								
To top