4th general writing regulation

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					Writing and General
Regulation
     THE GOOD NEWS



 You only have to write ONE thesis



At the end, you will have a BCs, MSc,
             or PhD degree
       THE BAD NEWS


•Writing a thesis is hard,
painful work

•It’s unlike   any   other
document
   Why Write a thesis ?

• It’s the union card for academia

• In the process, you will learn
    1.How to research
    2.How to write

• You get to be graduated student

• It will introduce you / your research to a wider
audience

• It will make you famous
• It will radically change science
You write a research thesis to inform your
readers of:

• Importance of the topic.
• Your research questions
• What you did to answer the questions
• Your findings
• Your interpretations of the findings
General in formatting
    requirement
General in formatting
    requirement
General in formatting
    requirement
General in formatting
    requirement
General in formatting
    requirement




              Note
Sequencing and numbering


           Not Numbered



Numbered


                 Numbered



                     Roman Numbers start with (iii or iv)



            Numbered (1,2,3)
   Sequencing and numbering


                        Numbered (continue after
Introduction)

               Numbered (continue after
    Introduction)


         Numbered (continue after Introduction)

                                      Numbered (continue
                after Introduction)

                                      Numbered (continue after
                    Introduction)
                                    Thesis Structure

                                        6
    1                                                                         11
                                 Acknowledgments,
Title Page                            Other                               Discussion

           2
                                                 7                                     12
        Abstract
                                        List of Abbreviation                       Reference

               3                                       8
        Table of content                         Introduction                                  13
                                                                                            Appendix
                         4                                     9
                   List of figure                     Material and
                                                       Method
                             5                                       10
                       List of tables                              Results
Dissertation title




  The purpose of this dissertation




Study group & supervisors names


 Department
• Names should be
  arranged in
  Alphabetical order.
• Title and all other
  information should
  began with a
  capital litter (each
  word).
                                       Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                                       Ministry of High Education
                                        Umm Al-Qura University
                                        Makkah Al-Mukkramah
                                          Faculty of Medicine
                               Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology



Causative Bacterial Agents and the Most Frequently Used Antibiotics in Urinary Tract Infections, a
                                     Case-Control Study


    A dissertation submitted to fulfil the requirements of the degree of Bachelor in Laboratory
                                     Medicine September, 2006

                                          Study Group
                                     Ahmad Hassanin Qasem
                                    Saeed Mohammad Kabrah

                                            Supervisors
                                        Dr. Sami Hammady
                                       Dr. Ghassan Nouman
Organized in the order in
which the parts appears

   Most be in the same
format through out the list

 Indicate page numbers
 where each part starts
Ordered also according to
 the order of presenting

Table and figure list should
 be in two different pages

  Number should show which
table number in which chapter
   and in which subheading
   • Table and Figures




• Tables should provide the most effective
  means for recognizing extensive
  numerical data
• Data shown in one figure should not be
  duplicated in another one
• Should be self explanatory
• Use Roman numerals to number tables
• Placed appropriately in text
• Should have appropriate heading
  (italicized)
   The hydrodynamics of dolphin drafting by Daniel Weihs, Faculty of
Aerospace Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa
32000, Israel. Abstract: Background Drafting in cetaceans is defined as
the transfer of forces between individuals without actual physical
contact between them. This behavior has long been surmised to explain
how young dolphin calves keep up with their rapidly moving mothers. It
has recently been observed that a significant number of calves become
permanently separated from their mothers during chases by tuna
vessels. A study of the hydrodynamics of drafting, initiated in the hope
of understanding the mechanisms causing the separation of mothers
and calves during fishing-related activities, is reported here. Results
Quantitative results are shown for the forces and moments around a
pair of unequally sized dolphin-like slender bodies. These include two
                                                                            • It is a brief summary of the
                                                                              research article, thesis, or
major effects. First, the so-called Bernoulli suction, which stems from
the fact that the local pressure drops in areas of high speed, results in
an attractive force between mother and calf. Second is the
displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the
water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water
behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass. Thus,
the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas. Utilizing
these effects, the neonate can gain up to 90% of the thrust needed to
                                                                              any in-depth analysis.
                                                                            • It is used to quickly
move alongside the mother at speeds of up to 2.4 m/s. A comparison
with observations of eastern spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) is
presented, showing savings of up to 60% in the thrust that calves
require if they are to keep up with their mothers. Conclusions A
theoretical analysis, backed by observations of free-swimming dolphin
schools, indicates that hydrodynamic interactions with mothers play an
important role in enabling dolphin calves to keep up with rapidly moving
adult school members.
                                                                              ascertain paper’s purpose.
                                                                            • It appears at the beginning
                                                                              of a manuscript, and act as
                                                                              a point of entry.
   The hydrodynamics of dolphin drafting by Daniel Weihs, Faculty of
Aerospace Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa
32000, Israel. Abstract: Background Drafting in cetaceans is defined as
the transfer of forces between individuals without actual physical
contact between them. This behavior has long been surmised to explain
how young dolphin calves keep up with their rapidly moving mothers. It
has recently been observed that a significant number of calves become
permanently separated from their mothers during chases by tuna
                                                                             Must not exceed 150 words
vessels. A study of the hydrodynamics of drafting, initiated in the hope
of understanding the mechanisms causing the separation of mothers               for thesis or 350 for
and calves during fishing-related activities, is reported here. Results
Quantitative results are shown for the forces and moments around a
pair of unequally sized dolphin-like slender bodies. These include two
                                                                                     dissertation
major effects. First, the so-called Bernoulli suction, which stems from
the fact that the local pressure drops in areas of high speed, results in
an attractive force between mother and calf. Second is the
displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the
water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water
behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass. Thus,
the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas. Utilizing
these effects, the neonate can gain up to 90% of the thrust needed to
                                                                            Contain brief summary
move alongside the mother at speeds of up to 2.4 m/s. A comparison
with observations of eastern spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) is
presented, showing savings of up to 60% in the thrust that calves
require if they are to keep up with their mothers. Conclusions A
theoretical analysis, backed by observations of free-swimming dolphin
schools, indicates that hydrodynamic interactions with mothers play an
important role in enabling dolphin calves to keep up with rapidly moving
                                                                                Explanatory and
adult school members.
                                                                                  conclusions
                                                                            No Abstract title on top
                                                                                 of the page
   The hydrodynamics of dolphin drafting by Daniel Weihs, Faculty of
Aerospace Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa
32000, Israel. Abstract: Background Drafting in cetaceans is defined as
the transfer of forces between individuals without actual physical
contact between them. This behavior has long been surmised to explain
how young dolphin calves keep up with their rapidly moving mothers. It
has recently been observed that a significant number of calves become
permanently separated from their mothers during chases by tuna
vessels. A study of the hydrodynamics of drafting, initiated in the hope
of understanding the mechanisms causing the separation of mothers
                                                                            The body double-spaced
and calves during fishing-related activities, is reported here. Results
Quantitative results are shown for the forces and moments around a
pair of unequally sized dolphin-like slender bodies. These include two
                                                                             with the same margins
major effects. First, the so-called Bernoulli suction, which stems from
the fact that the local pressure drops in areas of high speed, results in
an attractive force between mother and calf. Second is the
displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the
water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water
behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass. Thus,
                                                                              The body must be
the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas. Utilizing
these effects, the neonate can gain up to 90% of the thrust needed to
move alongside the mother at speeds of up to 2.4 m/s. A comparison
with observations of eastern spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) is
                                                                               double-spaced
presented, showing savings of up to 60% in the thrust that calves
require if they are to keep up with their mothers. Conclusions A
theoretical analysis, backed by observations of free-swimming dolphin
schools, indicates that hydrodynamic interactions with mothers play an
important role in enabling dolphin calves to keep up with rapidly moving
                                                                             No page number for
adult school members.
                                                                                  abstract
   Abstract
    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a general term that refers to a condition where one or more structures in
the urinary system become infected by pathogens that overcome the natural defence mechanisms of the
urinary system. UTI is a special problem in the elderly. The incidence of UTI is higher in females than in
males due to many factors such as shortness of the urethra. UTI is usually caused by bacteria, about 85%
of the cases, although some viruses, fungi, and parasites can infect the urinary tract as well. These
bacteria are usually back flow from the intestine or vagina. Most antibiotics used in the treatment of
urinary tract infection are ciprofloxacin, augmentin, and nitrofurantoin.
    STUDY DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY, this Case-Control study examined patients at Al-Noor (404
patients), and Hera (126 patients) hospitals between 20th February, 2004 and 29th January, 2006. Among
these, patients with bacterial UTI were considered as case-patients and patients diagnosed with other
UTI, were considered as control-patients.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS, the overall, hospital incidence rate of UTI in the two hospitals
studied was 1.6% at Al-Noor hospital out of 25,000 patients and 0.7% at Hera hospital out of 18,000
patients during the period of the study. The incidence difference between genders was observed at ratio of
five women to four men. In addition, marital status shows high incidence of UTI in married patients than
unmarried one in ratio of four to one. Moreover the risk factor of UTI is increase in diabetic patients.
    Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas areginosa are the most causative agents founds. Most of patients
were treated with gentamycin (19.5%) and ciprofloxacin (10.3%) as first choice before the culture and
sensitivity results. But most of patients was treated with ciprofloxacin (34.1%) and augmentin (13.1%)
after the results of culture and sensitivity.
• It is a statement of
  faith that all work
  has been done by
  the authors
  themselves.
    Declaration

    We hereby declare that we are the authors of this
dissertation, and all work herein was performed by us.
This dissertation is original and has not been submitted
for any other qualification.



    Ahmad H. Qasem            Saeed M. Kabrah
• It is expression of
  gratitude for
  assistance in
  creating a literary
  or artistic work.
                                                             Moral support
Supervisor(s) and anyone who helped
you:                                        Conceptual or
•    technically (including materials,          peer                          Financial
     supplies)                               interactive                      support
•    intellectually (assistance, advice)   communication
•    financially (for example,
     departmental support, travel
     grants)                               Instrumental or
                                                                              Editorial
                                              technical
                                                                              support
                                               support

                                                             Presentational
                                                                support
    Acknowledgements
     We most acknowledge Dr. Sami Hammady and Dr. Ghassan Nouman for
their help and support to complete this project. We are most grateful to them for
their continuous guidance, endless support, and encouragement.
          We thank all of the staff at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital and Hera
General Hospital, for their great help and wonderful support in our data
collection.
          We thank the women and men in our lives, our parents who suffered
more than anyone in the past years and planted the seed of education in us at a
very early age. We thank them for believing in us, and for their love and support
we express our warm appreciation. We also thank our brothers and sisters for
their love and kind support.
• It is a shortened
  form of the word or
  phrase.
• The Abbreviation
  represent the word
  itself.
• It is a piece of
  literature to justify
  the importance of
  the topic
                State your
                 research
   Apply a      question/
theoretical     hypothesis      Review
/conceptu                      relevant
     al                        research
 framewor                         and
    k (if         Most          identify
applicable     important      gaps/flaws
      )
              points of an
              introduction
                              Operation
 historical        are:       ally define
backgroun
                                  your
     d
                               variables
                 Argue for
                significanc
                  e of the
                   topic
 What others did to solve the problem

• Review important relevant sources
• Identify
   – Theoretical framework
   – Variables
   – Methodological or conceptual
     gaps/flaws of previous research
• Leads to your research
  question/hypothesis
•Methodology


  Population studied            •Description of your materials,
  (Subjects/Participants(       procedure, theory.

    Sample processing           •Calculations, technique,
  (procedure and Measurement)   procedure, equipment, and
                                calibration

      Data analysis             •Limitations, assumptions, and
                                range of validity.

     Research Design
Subjects \ Participants

• Demographics
  –   Age
  –   Gender
  –   Location
  –   Race
  –   Socioeconomic status
• Number (sample size)
• Adequacy of sample size
• Maintain confidentiality
      PROCEDURE


• Describe how the data were
  collected
• Describe each step in sequence
• Provide enough details for
  replication
     MEASURMENTS


• Identify all variables in the study
• Describe how the variables are
  operationalzed or measured
• Briefly address validity and
  reliability of the measurement
  instruments (if applicable)
     Research Design

• Discuss appropriateness of the
  design for the research question
• Address validity
  – internal validity
  – external validity
                    • Results


                                                                      •The results are actual statements of
3.2 Candida infection rate at different gestation ages                observations, including statistics,
The gestation ages were classified as first trimester, second
trimester, and third trimester. Out of 338, only 136 were             tables and graphs.
infected pregnant women, 17 of the infected pregnant women
were in the first trimester, 24 pregnant women were in second
trimester and 78 pregnant women were in third trimester had           •Indicate information on range of
infection with Candida.                                               variation.

                                                                      •Mention negative results as well as
                                                                      positive. Do not interpret results -
                                                                      save that for the discussion.

                                                                      •Use S.I. units (m, cm, kg, W, etc.)
                                                                      throughout the thesis.
     Figure 3.7: Candida infection rate at different gestation ages
                                                                      •Break up your results into logical
                                                                      segments by using subheads
            •Discussion


4.5 The relationship between gestation age and
infection in pregnant women                            •Start with a few sentences that
Yeast infections were more common during
pregnancy than any other time in a womans life,        summarize the most important
especially during the third trimester of pregnancy.
Out of 338 pregnant women in our study, 136 were       results.
infected with VVC, 12.5% (17/136) of them were
in the first trimester, 17.6% (24/136) in the second
trimester, and 57.3% (78/136) were in the final
third trimesters which was the largest group, this     •The discussion section should
may be attributed to hormonal changes that occur
during pregnancy. In Bulgaria, study had been
following up with 179 pregnant women; they had
                                                       be a brief essay in itself
estimated that about 28.4% of all women were
getting vaginal yeast colonization in the third
trimester (Nikolov, et al. 2006).
                      :
What you think your findings mean
• Summarize and interpret the
  results
• Answer your research question
• Discuss your findings in the
  context of previous research
• Discuss implications
• Identify limitations
           •Discussion
Answering the following questions:
What are the major patterns in the observations?
What are the relationships, trends and generalizations among the results?
What are the exceptions to these patterns or generalizations?
What are the likely causes (mechanisms) underlying these patterns resulting
predictions?
Is there agreement or disagreement with previous work?
Interpret results in terms of background laid out in the introduction - what is the
relationship of the present results to the original question?
What is the implication of the present results for other unanswered questions in
earth sciences?
What are the things we now know or understand that we didn't know or understand
before the present work?
What is the significance of the present results: why should we care?
        •Conclusion

• What is the strongest and most important statement that you can
make from your observations?

• If you met the reader at a meeting six months from now, what do
you want them to remember about your study?

• Refer back to problem posed, and describe the conclusions that
you reached from carrying out this investigation, summarize new
observations, new interpretations, and new insights that have
resulted from the present work.

• Do not repeat word for word the abstract, introduction or
discussion.
 •Recommendation



Further research to fill in gaps in our
           understanding.

Directions for future investigations on
         this or related topics
       • Reference

•      Cite all ideas, concepts, text, data that are not your own
•      If you make a statement, back it up with your own data or a
       reference
•      all references cited in the text must be listed
•      Cite single-author references by the surname of the author (
       followed by date of the publication in parenthesis )
..... according to Hays (1994)
…. population growth is one of the greatest environmental concerns
facing future generations (Hays, 1994).
•      Cite double-author references by the surnames of both authors
       (followed by date of the publication in parenthesis)
e.g. edward and Hays (1994)
•      Cite more than double-author references by the surname of the first
       author followed by et al. and then the date of the publication
e.g. kevein, simon and Hays would be:
kevein et al. (1994)
            •Appendix

Include all your data in the appendix.
                                                      Reference
                                                       data and
•   Reference data/materials not easily               materials

    available (theses are used as a
    resource by the department and
    other students).
•   Tables (where more than 1-2
                                          Tables or                    List of
    pages).                                figures    appendix       equipment
•   Calculations (where more than 1-2
    pages).
•   You may include a key article as
    appendix.
•   List of equipment used for an                     calculations
    experiment or details of
    complicated procedures.

				
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