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									                       WEB-BASED DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
                         AS KNOWLEDGE REPOSITORIES FOR
                        KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

                                                    Yuri Boreisha
                                      Minnesota State University Moorhead, USA

                                                Oksana Myronovych
                                         North Dakota State University, USA

              Problem solving and learning processes conducted on the basis of contemporary Web-
              based DSS provide for development and enhancement of knowledge management
              systems. Knowledge objects form the foundation of the conceptual approach to the
              knowledge management based on the contemporary Internet technologies and
              knowledge accumulated in DSS.

              Keywords: knowledge management systems, decision support systems.

1   INTRODUCTION                                           popularity,      particularly     with      businesses.
                                                           Collaborating on projects with co-workers across the
      Knowledge management (KM) has become an              world is easier, since information is stored on a Web
important theme as managers realize that much of           server instead of on a single desktop.
their firm’s value depends on ability to create and               Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) are Web
manage knowledge. To transform information into            applications that offer the responsiveness, “rich”
knowledge a firm must use additional resources to          features and functionality approaching that of
discover patterns, rules, and context where the            desktop applications. RIAs are the result of today’s
knowledge works [1-3].                                     more advanced technologies (such as Ajax) that
      Knowledge that is not shared and applied to the      allow greater responsiveness and advanced GUIs.
practical problems does not add business value.                   Web services have emerged and, in the process,
Today people can share their knowledge in three            have inspired the creation of many Web 2.0
primary ways. Organizational information systems           businesses. Web services allow you to incorporate
(IS) that store, manage, and deliver documents are         functionality from existing applications and Web
called content management systems (CMS). With the          sites into your own applications quickly and easily.
arrival of modern communications technology,                      Web 2.0 companies use “data mining” to extract
people can share their knowledge via collaborating         as much meaning as they can from XHTML-encoded
knowledge management systems (KMS). In addition            pages. XHTML-encoded content does not explicitly
to content management and collaboration, the               convey meaning, but XML-encoded content does. So
knowledge can be shared via expert systems.                if we can encode in XML (and derivative
Comprehensive discussion of important dimensions           technologies) much or all of the content on the Web,
of knowledge, the knowledge management value               we’ll take a great leap forward towards realizing the
chain, and types of KMS can be found in [2, 3].            Semantic Web.
      Web 2.0 companies use the Web as a platform                 Many people consider the Semantic Web to be
to create collaborative, community-based sites (e.g.,      the next generation in Web development, one that
social networking sites, blogs, wikis, etc.). The Web      helps to realize the full potential of the Web – the
has now become an application, development,                “Web of meaning”. Though Web 2.0 applications are
delivery, and execution platform [4].                      finding meaning in the content, the Semantic Web
      Software as a Service (SaaS) - application           (heavily depended on XML and XML-based
software that runs on a Web server rather than being       technologies) will attempt to make those meaning
installed on the client computer – has gained              clear to computers as well as humans [5].
      These trends in the Web Science – the new            combination of internally developed taxonomies and
science of decentralized information systems –             search engine techniques.
provide for new opportunities in the KM.                         Organizations acquire knowledge in a number
      In this paper we consider contemporary               of ways, depending on the type of knowledge they
Decision Support Systems (DSS) as knowledge                seek. Once the corresponding documents, patters, and
repositories that can be expanded to KMS using the         expert rules are discovered they must be stored so
Web 2.0 software development technologies and              they can be retrieved and used. Knowledge storage
tools. This paper is based on a series of previous         generally involves databases, document management
authors’ publications [6-11].                              systems, expert systems, etc. To provide a return on
                                                           investment, knowledge should become a systematic
2   KNOWLEDGE     MANAGEMENT                      AND      part of the organizational problem solving process.
    DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS                               Ultimately, new knowledge should be built into a
                                                           firm’s business processes and key application
     The AI representation principle states that once a    systems.
problem is described using an appropriate                        KMS and related knowledge repositories should
representation, the problem is almost solved. Well-        facilitate the problem solving process (Figure 1).
known knowledge representation techniques include          During the process of solving problems managers
rule-based systems, semantic nets and frame systems        engage into decision making, the act of selecting
[12].                                                      from alternative problem solutions.
     KM refers to the set of business processes                  The different levels in an organization
developed in an organization to create, store, transfer    (strategic, management, and operational) have
and apply knowledge. KM increases the ability of the       different decision-making requirements. Decisions
organization to learn from its environment and to          can be structured, semi-structured or unstructured.
incorporate knowledge into business processes. There       The structured decisions are clustered at the
are three major categories of KMS: enterprise-wide         operational level of the organization, and
KMS, knowledge work systems (KWS), and                     unstructured decisions at the strategic level.
intelligent techniques [2, 3].                                   Management information systems (MIS)
     Enterprise-wide KMS are general purpose,              provide information on firm performance to help
integrated, firm-wide efforts to collect, store,           managers monitor and control the business, often in
disseminate, and use digital content and knowledge.        the form of fixed regularly scheduled reports based
Such systems provide databases and tools for               on data summarized from the firm’s transaction
organizing and storing structured and unstructured         processing systems (TPS). MIS support structured
documents and other knowledge objects, directories         decisions and some semi-structured decisions.
and tools for locating employees with experience in a            DSS combine data, sophisticated analytical
particular area, and increasingly, Web-based tools for     models and tools, and user-friendly software into a
collaboration and communication.                           single powerful system that can support semi-
     KWS (such as computer-aided design,                   structured and unstructured decision making [3, 13,
visualization, and virtual reality systems) are            14].
specialized systems built for engineers, scientists, and        The main components of the DSS are the DSS
other knowledge workers charged with discovering           database, the user interface, and the DSS software
and creating new knowledge for a company.                  system (Figure 2). The DSS database is a collection
     Diverse group of intelligent techniques (such as      of current data from a number of applications and
data mining, neural networks, expert systems, case-        groups. Alternatively, the DSS database may be a
based reasoning, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, and      data warehouse that integrates the enterprise data
intelligent agents) have different objectives, from a      sources and maintains historical data.
focus on discovering knowledge (data mining and                 The DSS user interface permits easy interactions
neural networks), to distilling knowledge in the form      between users of the system and the DSS software
of rules for a computer program (expert systems and        tools. Many DSS today have Web interfaces to take
fuzzy logic), to discovering optimal solutions for         advantages of graphics displays, interactivity, and
problems (genetic algorithms).                             ease of use.
      It is said that effective KM is 80% managerial            The DSS software system contains the software
and organizational, and 20% technology. One of the         tools that are used for data analysis. It may contain
first challenges that firms face when building             various OLAP tools, data mining tools, or a
knowledge repositories of any kind is the problem of       collection of mathematical and analytical models that
identifying the correct categories to use when             easily can be made accessible to the DSS users.
classifying documents. Firms are increasingly using a

                               Standards                                         solutions
                             (Desired state)             Problem
                              Information                                       Constraints
                             (Current state)


                                  Figure 1: Elements of the problem solving process.

     The dialog manager is also in charge for the             and especially a time-series of internal company data
information visualization. Finally, access to the             and sometimes external data. Relational databases
Internet, networks, and other computer-based systems          accessed by query and retrieval tools provide an
permits the DSS to tie into other powerful systems,           elementary level of functionality. Data warehouse
including the TPS or function-specific subsystems.            systems that allow the manipulation of data by
     There are many kinds of DSS. The first generic           computerized tools tailored to a specific task and
type of DSS is a Data-Driven DSS. These systems               setting or by more general tools and operations
include file drawer and management reporting                  provided additional functionality. Data-Driven DSS
systems, data warehousing and analysis systems,               with Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) provide
Executive Information Systems and Spatial DSS.                the highest level of functionality and decision support
Data-Driven DSS emphasize access to and                       that is linked to analysis of large collections of
manipulation of large databases of structured data            historical                                        data.

                           Internal                                                    External
                             Data                                                       Data
                                                       Data Warehouse

                                                 DSS Software System
                                                    OLAP Tools
                                                  Data Mining Tools

                                                     User Interface
                                                   (Dialog Manager)


                                       Figure 2: Main components of the DSS.
     A second category, Model-Driven DSS, includes               Document-Driven DSS are evolving to help
systems that use accounting and financial models,           mangers retrieve and manage unstructured documents
representational models, and optimization models,           and Web pages. A Document-Driven DSS integrates
and optimization models. Model-Driven DSS                   a variety of storage and processing technologies to
emphasize access to and manipulation of a model.            provide complete document retrieval and analysis.
Simple statistical and analytical tools provide an          WWW provides access to large document databases
elementary level of functionality. Some OLAP                including databases of hypertext documents, images,
systems that allow complex analysis of data may be          sounds and video. Examples of documents that would
classified as hybrid DSS providing modeling, data           be accessed by Document-Driven DSS are policies
retrieval, and data summarization functionality.            and procedures, product specifications, catalogs, and
Model-Driven DSS use data and parameters provided           corporate historical documents, including minutes of
by decision-makers to aid them in analyzing a               meetings, corporate records, and important
situation, but they are not usually data intensive.         correspondence. Search engines are powerful
Very large databases are usually not needed for             decision-aiding tools associated with Document-
Model-driven DSS.                                           Driven DSS.
     Knowledge-Driven DSS or Expert Systems can                  Group DSS (GDSS) came first, but now a
suggest or recommend actions to managers. These             broader category of Communications-Driven DSS or
DSS are human-computer systems with specialized             groupware can be identified. These DSS includes
problem-solving expertise. The expertise consists of        communication, collaboration and related decision
knowledge about a particular domain, understanding          support technologies. These are hybrid DSS that
of problems within that domain, and skills at solving       emphasize both the use of communications and
some of these problems (AI algorithms and solutions         decision models to facilitate the solution of problems
can be used). A related concept is data mining. It          by decision-makers working together as a group.
refers to a class of analytical applications that search    Groupware supports electronic communication,
for hidden patterns in a database. Data mining is the       scheduling, document sharing, and other group
process of sifting through large amounts of data to         productivity and decision support enhancing
produce data content relationships. Tools used for          activities.
building Knowledge-Driven DSS are sometimes                       A DSS model that incorporates Group Decision
called Intelligent Decision Support methods.                Support, OLAP, and AI is shown on Figure 3.

                        Relational                                   Knowledge          Multidimensional
                        Database                                      Database             Database

                          Relational                                   Inference           Multidimensional
                           DBMS                                         Engine                  DBMS

      Writing        Mathematical
                       Models              Groupware

                                                                     Solutions                Outputs
       Periodic        Outputs from          Outputs                    and                    from
          and          mathematical            from                 explanations              OLAP
        special          models             groupware

                           Figure 3: A DSS model that incorporates GDS, OLAP, and AI.
     DSS facilitate the decision-making. Decision                     Business logic (domain) layer that implements
making is an integrated part of the overall problem                   the rules and procedures of the business
solving process. KMS should facilitate the problem                    processing.
solving process. In the next section we are going to                  View layer that accepts input and formats and
discuss how Web-enabled DSS can be integrated into                    displays processing results.
contemporary KMS.                                                      RIA have two key attributes – performance and
                                                                 rich GUI. RIA performance comes from Ajax
3   WEB-ENABLED           DECISION        SUPPORT                (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML), which uses
    SYSTEMS                                                      client-side scripting to make Web applications more
                                                                 responsive by separating client-side user interaction
     All types of DSS can be deployed using Web                  and server communication, and running them in
technologies and can become Web-based DSS.                       parallel. Various ways to develop Ajax applications
Managers increasingly have Web access to data                    are discussed in [5].
warehouses and analytical tools. To discuss the                        Web services promote software portability and
recent trends in this area the latest achievements in            reusability in applications that operate over the
the three-layer design, Rich Internet Applications               Internet. Web service is a transition to service-
(RIA), and Web services should be taken into                     oriented, component-based, distributed applications.
account.                                                         Web services are applications implemented as Web-
     Three-layer design is an effective approach to              based components with well-defined interfaces,
development robust and easy maintainable systems.                which offer certain functionality to clients via the
The corresponding architecture is appropriate for                Internet. Once deployed, Web services can be
systems that need to support multiple user interfaces.           discovered, used/reused by consumers (clients, other
Contemporary Web applications are three-layer                    services or applications) as building blocks via open
applications.                                                    industry-standard protocols. Web service architecture
     The most common set of layers includes the                  is built on open standards and vendor-neutral
following:                                                       specifications. Services can be implemented in any
     Data layer that manages stored data, usually in             programming language, deployed and then executed
     one or more databases.                                      on any operating system or software platform.

                            Internal                                                     External
                              Data                                                        Data
                                                         Data Warehouse

                                                     Web Services
                                                   provide access to
                                                 DSS Software System

                                               Ajax-Enabled Applications
                                                    Dialog Manager

                                                          Internet Users

                                              Figure 4: Web-enabled DSS.

     The service-oriented architecture (SOA) provides          consisting of different software components working
the theoretical model for all Web services. The model          together. Consuming Web services is based on open
behind Web services is a loosely coupled architecture,         standards managed by broad consortia (e.g., World
Wide Web Consortium, Organization for the                  2). RIA provide for efficient implementation of the
Advancement of Structured Information Standards,           Dialog Manager GUI for DSS. Web services allow
Web Services Interoperability Organization).               incorporating functionality from existing applications
     What makes Web services different from ordinary       and due to this providing for access to the DSS
Web sites is the type of interaction that they can         Software System through the SOA. The components of
provide. Most of the enthusiasm surrounding Web            the Web-enabled DSS are shown on Figure 4.
services is based on the promise of interoperability.           We can call a group of the following related
Every software application in the world can potentially    components a knowledge object (Figure 5). Discussed
talk to every other software application. This             techniques allow to create new Web services (based on
communication can take place across the old                the existing ones and contemporary DSS software
boundaries of location, operating system, language,        systems), and Ajax-enabled application interacting with
protocol, and so on.                                       these Web services. So we can talk about creation and
      Three-layer architecture maps well on the            modification of the knowledge objects.
structure of main components of the DSS (see Figure

                                            Data Warehouse

                                             Web Service

                                       Ajax-Enabled Application

                                       Figure 5: Structure of a knowledge object.

     Web-enabled DSS provide for expandable                built up over the years. This organizational knowledge
collections of the knowledge objects that constitute the   can be captured and stored using case-based reasoning
knowledge repository of the corresponding KMS. From        (CBR). In CBR description of the past experiences of
this point of view the knowledge objects can be            human specialists, represented as cases, are stored in a
considered as a knowledge representation technique.        database for the later retrieval when the user encounters
                                                           a new case with similar parameters. The system
4   PROBLEM SOLVING AND LEARNING                           searches for stored cases with problem characteristic
                                                           similar to the new one, finds the closest fit, and applies
    AI distinguishes two general kinds of learning. The    the solution of the old case to the new case. Successful
first kind is based on coupling new information to         solutions are tagged to the new case and both are stored
previously acquired knowledge. Typical examples            together with the other cases in the knowledge base.
include learning by analyzing differences, by managing     Unsuccessful solutions are also appended to the case
multiple models, by explaining experience, and by          database along with explanations as why the solutions
correcting mistakes. The second kind is based on           did not work.
digging useful regularity out of data; a practice often         Problem-based learning (PBL) is (along with active
refers as data mining. Typical examples include            learning and cooperative/collaborative learning) one of
learning by recording cases, by building identification    the most important developments in contemporary
trees, by training neural nets, by training perceptrons,   higher education. PBL is based on the assumption that
by training approximation nets, and by simulation          human beings evolved as individuals who are motivated
evolution (e.g. genetic algorithms).                       to solve problems, and that problem solvers will seek
    Expert systems primarily capture the tacit             and learn whatever knowledge is needed for successful
knowledge of individual experts, but organizations also    problem solving. PBL is a typical example of an
have collective knowledge and expertise that they have
application of the first type of learning in higher           Combining the main ideas of CBR and PBL the
education [11].                                          following problem solving and learning process can be
                                                         depicted as it’s shown on Figure 6.

                     User describes                                        User learns
                      the problem                                 about the knowledge objects
                                                                          that facilitate
                                                                      the problem solving

                   System searches
                     Repository of                                      Repository of
                 knowledge objects for                                knowledge objects
                   the suitable ones                                     (based on a
                                                                      Web-enabled DSS)

                   System asks user
                  additional questions
                   to narrow search

                                                                         System stores
                     System finds                                   the problem description
                   the closest fit and                                and the knowledge
                   provides access to                               object in the repository
                   knowledge objects

                 New knowledge object
                       is created to
                  better fit the problem

                           Figure 6: Problem solving and learning with knowledge objects.

5   CONCLUSIONS                                          6     REFERENCES

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