One Size Does Not Fit All An Introduction to - PowerPoint by jtc21384

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									One Size Does Not Fit All:
An Introduction to Differentiated Instruction




       Workshop 1
Take Care of Business

  Introductions
  Expectations
  Graduate Credit
  Service Agreements & Vouchers
How well do YOU know the
people around you?

   3 Facts & a Fib
       Write 3 facts about yourself
       Write 1 fib about yourself
       Circulate & talk to 5 people
       If they do not correctly
        identify the fib, they must
        sign your postcard
Workshop Outcomes

  Increased understanding of what Differentiated
   Instruction IS & IS NOT
  Add to our Instructional Strategies Toolbox
  Increased understanding of theories of
   multiple intelligence/learning styles
  Begin planning a differentiated lesson/unit for
   your own classroom
“If students don't learn the
way we teach them, we must
teach them the way they
learn.”
- Marcia Tate, Developing Minds Inc., Conyers, GA
What Is Your North Star?

    Peter H. Reynolds

    Listen to the story online
    http://www.fablevision.com/place/r
     adio/ns.html

    Read it online
    http://www.fablevision.com/northst
     ar/index.html
Differentiation IS NOT . . .
    The same as an IEP for every student
    Just another way to group kids
    Expecting less of struggling learners than of
     typical learners
    A substitute for specialized services
    Chaotic
    New
Good Differentiation IS . . .

      Varied avenues to content, process, product
      Respectful of all learners
      Proactive
      Student-centered
      A blend of whole class, small group, and
       individual instruction
      Based on students’ readiness, interests,
       and/or learning profile
Essential Questions

    Who are the students in our
     classrooms?

    What diversity impacts and
     influences curriculum and
     instruction?
Diversity in the Classroom

    ADD                   Autistic
    ADHD                  Physically Disabled
    Gifted/Talented       Multiple
    LD                     Handicapped
    Vision Impaired       English Language
    Hearing Impaired       Learners
                           Social Status
    Maturity
                           Economic Status
3 Keys to Differentiated Instruction

     Content
         What we teach students
         Materials and methods used


     Process
         Activities
         Calls on students to use key skills


     Product
         How students show what they have learned
         Should also allow students to extend what they learned
Key #1 – Adapt Content



  Refers to both materials & methods
  Accommodate students’ different
   starting points
      Some students ready for more complex or
       abstract levels
      Some students ready for independent work
Content Differentiation Examples
  Multiple versions of texts
  Variety of texts to support concept
  Interest centers
  Learning contracts
  Support systems
      Audiotapes
      Mentors
      Study partners
Key #2 – Adapt Process

    Students use key skills
      Bloom’s Taxonomy
      Multiple Intelligence Theories

    Common focus
        Vary student activities
    Teacher uses a variety of methods
Process Differentiation Examples

    Tiered Assignments
        Layered Curriculum (Nunley)
  Learning Centers
  Jig Saw Assignments
  Learning Logs
  Graphic Organizers
  Modify their environment (fidgets)
Key #3 – Adapt Product



  Culminating learning experience that
   occurs after many days or weeks of
   study
  Demonstration and extension of what
   they know, understand, and are able
   to do
Product Differentiation Examples
   Variety of assessment types
   Tiered Assignments
   Independent Study
Variables to Consider
 Readiness – in reading, math, & beyond
 Complexity & Challenge of both process
  & product
 Pace of learning and production
 Grouping practices
 Use of assessment results to inform
  teaching and learning
Guidelines for the DI Classroom
   Focus on essentials
   Attend to student differences
         NO strategy works on ALL students
   Assess often and use it to make
    adjustments/modifications
   Mutual respect
   Be flexible
   Doesn’t happen 100% of the time!!!!
Simple Ways to Start
 Add an interdisciplinary element to a
  favorite unit
 Collaborate with other teachers
 Offer students a variety of presentation
  options
 Apply Multiple Intelligence thinking to
  group/individual projects
Time For a Break
A Few Fun Strategies
  Teach In Color!
  Creature Comforts!
  Music!
Color Increases Understanding


     Using color for key
      concepts can
      increase memory
      retention up to 25%
Experiment
Memorize the Pattern
30 seconds


   Orange        Purple      Yellow           Blue

      Orange    Purple    Yellow      Blue
    Red          Pink        Black            Blue
        Red      Pink     Black       Blue

   Yellow       Orange        Red            Green
       Yellow   Orange     Red        Green
Memorize the Colors Used
30 seconds




   Purple
   Purple    Orange
             Orange   Yellow
                       Yellow    Blue
                                 Blue

    Red
    Red      Orange
             Orange   Yellow
                       Yellow   Green
                                Green

    Blue
    Blue     Purple
             Purple   Green
                      Green     Orange
                                Orange
Memorize the Pattern
30 seconds




    Orange
    Orange    Blue    Green
                      Green   Purple
                               Purple

    Purple
    Purple   Yellow   Pink
                      Pink     Red
                                Red

      Red
      Red    Orange   Blue
                      Blue    Green
                               Green
Teach in Color
              Color Code
                  Key Concepts
                  Colored Pens
                  Color with Sunshine
            Painted Essay
            Colored Acetate
                  Number chart
                  Sliding mask
                  Highlighting tape
                  Scotopic Sensitivity
                   Syndrome
A Quick Start
    “Color Code” key concepts
        Easy in modern classrooms
             White boards, Smart Boards, & computer software
        Key terms in all content areas
        Math (parts of equations)
        Language arts (parts of speech, important
         vocabulary, editing)
  Correct “with sunshine”
  Students do their own color coding
        Highlighting Tape
        Colored pens/pencils/highlighters
Word Walls in Color




            CALEB GATTEGNO
Correct “With Sunshine”

  Use yellow highlighter to identify
   incorrect answers
  Give student option to correct and
   receive partial (or whole) credit
        Key to success – require students to explain
         in writing what they did wrong and how they
         corrected the problem
Use Colored Pens/Pencils

    In writing for peer editing
        Each member of group gets a different color
        Can instantly see if everyone has contributed
           Option – students use colored pen for their own
            editing/revising
    For language study of verbs
        Color code the different tenses
        Color code the verb endings
        Color code roots/prefixes/suffixes
                        Skier
                        (to ski)


 Je  skie           Nous    skions
 Tu skies           Vous skiez
 Il/elle/on skie    Ils/elles skient
The Painted Essay
Peripherals

  Post key concepts or terms on walls
  Use bright colored paper
  At test time . . .
      Leave it up in same place
      Cover the concept with the same color
       paper
    Memory trigger for visual learners
        They can “picture” the words.
Vision & Learning

  “25% of students in grades k-6 have
   visual problems that are serious
   enough to impede learning.”
   (American Public Health Association)
  “It is estimated that 80% of children
   with a learning disability have an
   undiagnosed vision problem.” (Vision
   Council of America)
20/20 does not mean that vision is perfect!

    The 20/20 vision test does not test how well
     you see at reading distance. In fact, the 20/20
     test fails to evaluate many other important
     aspects of normal vision such as:
        Eye focusing
        Eye coordination
        Eye teaming (binocular vision)
        Eye movement
        Visual perceptual skills
        Color vision
Simple Tools

    Sliding Masks & Focus Frames
      Provides for a narrower focus
      Add colored acetate

    Book Marks & Sticky Flags
      Provides focus
      Add colored acetate

      Coded Bookmarks

      Sticky Flags
Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome

  12% of population
  Contrast problems (only 1 symptom)
      Black text on bright white paper
      Striped patterns on carpet clothes seem to
       move
      Vertical/horizontal blinds

    Leads to classroom difficulties
      Restlessness
      Difficulty staying on task
Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome

  Contrast problems (only 1 symptom)
  Strategies
       Use dull colored paper for writing
       Use colored acetate over black text on white paper

       Use a bookmark when reading to avoid losing place

    http://www.hale.ndo.co.uk/scotopic/
    http://www.irlen.com/sss_main.htm
Creature Comforts
Grades K-12


     Tolerance for sitting will ALWAYS be at
      different levels for different people.
     Even adults benefit from Fidgets or
      Movement
     Set ground rules in the classroom.
             Remove “it” if/when it becomes a toy or
              distraction
Tactile Fidgets
Grades K-12

   Paper clip
   Cellophane tape rolled backwards
    around a finger
   Pipe cleaners
   Stress balls
   Pocket Fidget (small item kept in the
    child’s pocket)
   Carpet square under desk
Visual Fidgets
Grades K-12



                  Lava lamp
                  Fish tank
                  Mobile
Nomadic Learners

     “If we build in enough movement during
      the class period, students will be less
      likely to move on their own.”

     Motion resources
       Minds in Motion
       Learning on Their Feet

  http://doe.sd.gov/oess/schoolhealth/mindsinmotion/index.asp
Ideas for the Nomadic Learner


  Mini Field Trip
  A Home Away From Home
  Music Stand Learning
  Rocking Chair Reversal
Act It Out – Visual Clues
Grades 4-12


     Vocabulary strategy for the Kinesthetic
      Learner
       Place students into groups
       Provide 60 seconds to figure out how to Act
        Out a vocabulary word
             Example – PERIMETER (walking around edge
              of room)
perimeter

  area
Involve the Senses

  See
  Hear
  Taste
  Smell
  Touch
The Role of Music
Why Music?
    Stimulates the brain
        Right side for creativity
        Activates thinking parts of the brain
  Creates a sound curtain to isolate groups
  Increases attentiveness
  Effects emotions, heart rate, mood, mental
   images of listener
  Embeds learning faster
        Alphabet song
        http://www.school-house-rock.com/Prea.html
Time For Lunch
Multiple Intelligences
  Begin With the Brain
Dots on Grids
 A              B




 C              D
Brain Principles

  The brain is a complex adaptive system.
  The brain is social.
  The search for meaning is innate.
  The search for meaning occurs through
   patterning.
  Emotions are critical to patterning.
  Every brain simultaneously perceives
   and creates parts.
More Brain Principles
    Learning involves both focused attention and
     peripheral perception.
    Learning always involves conscious and
     unconscious processes.
    We have at least 2 ways of organizing
     memory.
    Learning is developmental.
    Complex learning is enhanced by challenge
     and inhibited by threat.
    Every brain is uniquely organized.
Simple Learning Styles

    Auditory
        Learns best from listening
    Visual
        Learns best from seeing
    Kinesthetic/Tactile
        Learns best from doing
Why Visual Literacy?

    Average youth today
        By age 18 - 22,000 hours watching TV
             By age 14 has seen 12,000 murders on network
              TV programming!!!!
        By 18 – 12,500 hours in school
    Average vocabulary of 14-year-olds is
     shrinking
      In 1950 – 25,000 words
      In 1999 – 10,000 words
Visual Learner

  Images go directly to long-term memory
   in brain
  Humans process visuals 60,000 times
   faster than text
  Words processed sequentially
        Keyboard
    Images processed simultaneously
        Camera
Turn Your Paper Sideways

  Grades 2-7 (or higher if needed)
  A trick for lining up numbers when
   working with multi-digit numbers in
   columns
      TURN THE PAPER SIDEWAYS & use the
       lines as column guides
      Also provides novelty (brain trigger)
Jig-Saw Book




  Good tool for kinesthetic learners
  They can manipulate the content
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences

  Logical/Mathematical    Naturalist
  Visual/Spatial          Interpersonal
  Musical/Rhythmic        Intrapersonal
  Bodily/Kinesthetic      Verbal/Linguistic
Sternberg Intelligences

 Analytical
 Practical
 Creative
Time For a Break
Writing Intelligence Preference
Lesson Plans
     As a result of the lesson, students
      should
       Know what?
       Understand what?

       Be able to do what?

     What range of learner needs in your
      class relate to the topic?
Difficulty vs Rigor

    “ We must be careful not to assign
    more difficult tasks (tasks requiring
    more effort or time) when what we
   mean to do is challenge students with
    more rigorous tasks (tasks requiring
          more complex thought).”

                   Judith Dodge - Differentiation in Action
Assignments for Next Time
 Try a new strategy & report back to the
  group about the experience
 Begin the planning process for a lesson
  using intelligence preference
     Choose a standard (or standards) to teach
     Identify student goals for that standard

     Choose possible strategies

     Be prepared to share with the group
He Was Me
Resource - Nunley Website
    HOT TOPIC # 1: When counting, gestures help. Researchers discovered
     that when students have to count things, those that could point, nod or
     otherwise make body gestures, were faster and more accurate than those
     who were not allowed to gesture. The gesture apparently adds rhythm
     which makes counting more accurate and also aids the brain in maintaining
     place. Carlson, R. et al. (2007). Journal of Experimental Psychology:
     Learning, Memory & Cognition, Vol 33, 4
    Teacher Tip # 2: We use music for transition times in class and between
     class periods. I ask for student volunteers to bring in a CD of their choice
     for us to use for the week. No name, workshop participant, Midland,
     Michigan.

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