Electronic Business and Semantic Web Services

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					 Electronic Business and
 Semantic Web Services
           Ching-Long Yeh 葉慶隆
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
                 Tatung University
             chingyeh@cse.ttu.edu.tw
       http://www.cse.ttu.edu.tw/chingyeh
                       Content

•   Background
•   XML, XML Protocol and Web Services
•   EB Standard: RosettaNet
•   EB Standard: ebXML
•   Semantic Web: Machine Processable Web
•   Ontology Basics
•   XML-based Ontology Languages: RDFS, DAML, OWL
•   DAML-S: an Ontology for Semantic Web Services
•   Semantic Web Portals
•   Conclusions


                         EB & SWS                   2
                       Background

• WWW
   – HTML
   – HTTP
   – Mainly man-machine interaction
• Electronic Business (EB)
   – Standard XML document
   – XML Protocol
   – AP-2-AP interaction
• Semantic Web Services
   – RDF
   – Ontology
   – Web Services, agents

                             EB & SWS   3
                 What is XML?

• Extensible Markup Language
• A Syntax for Documents
• A Meta-Markup Language
• A Structural and Semantic Language, not a
  Formatting Language
• Not just for Web pages




                       EB & SWS               4
                XML Standards

•   DTD
•   Namespace
•   Schema
•   DOM
•   CSS, XSL-T, XSL-FO
•   XLink
•   XPointer



                         EB & SWS   5
XML Protocol: SOAP




      EB & SWS       6
<?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?>
<SOAP:Encelope xmlns:SOAP=http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope
               xmlns=“http://www.smallco.org/order”
               xmlns:xsi=http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance”>
  <SOAP:Header>
    <msg:MessageHeader xmlns:msg=“http://www.sterlingcommerce.com/message”>
      <msh:From>SterlingVommerce</msg:From>
      <msg:To>SmallCo</msg:To>
      <msg:Service>Purchase</msg:Service>
      <msg:Action>Order</msg:Action>
      <msg:MessageId>bbc006751</msg:MessageId>
    </msg:MessageHeader>
  </SOAP:Header>
  <SOAP:Body>
     <PurchaseOrder SOAP:encodingStyle=http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/”>
        <PartnerID>
          <Name>Small Co Enterprise</Name>
          <ID type=“D-U-N-S+4”>123456789-0456</ID>
        </PartnerID>
        <Contact>John Adams</Contact>
        <Telephone>214-340-1234</Telephone>
        <Order>
          …
        </Order>
        <ShipInfo>                                   A SOAP Message
          …
        </ShipInfo>
     </PurchaseOrder>
  </SOAP:Body>
</SOAP:Envelope>                      EB & SWS                              7
        Web Services

                    Service
                  descriptions
             Service
             registry


     Find                 Publish
WSDL, UDDI                WSDL, UDDI



 Service                   Service
requester      Bind        provider Services
                                   Service
                                 descriptions
               EB & SWS                         8
Electronic Business Architectures
                       前言
• 電子商務的發展
  – 從提供型錄式資訊服務的電子商店(B2C),演進到企業間(B2B)
    商業處理自動化。
• 企業間商業標準架構應運而生,
  – RosettaNet、ebXML、BizTalk。
                                           Company B
Company A
                                         ERP
        ERP


                                  Business processes,
 Business processes,              business documents
 business documents               Transport, routing,
 Transport, routing,                  packaging
     packaging
                       EB & SWS                         10
               不用網際網路的商業情節

Company A                        Company B
                    郵遞
                    系統


                              Company B
   Company A
                    傳真
                    電話




                   EB & SWS           11
    以瀏覽器為基礎的企業間電子商務


Company A

      ERP
                            Company B

                             顧客端
    Web server




                 EB & SWS               12
    程式對程式交談的企業間電子商務


                                           Company B
Company A
                                         ERP
        ERP


                                  Business processes,
Business processes,               business documents
business documents                Transport, routing,
 Transport, routing,                  packaging
     packaging




                       EB & SWS                         13
           B2B EC 演進


               Business process and
               document integration

     EDI


 商業應用程式間的交談,達成企業間商業交易
 建立在標準的商業流程及商業文件之上,
 因此標準的制定,便形成B2B EC的重要工作


             EB & SWS                 14
       企業間電子商務概念圖

A公司                       B公司

 後                         後
       E              E
 端     B              B
                           端
 處     前              前    處
 理     端              端    理
       系              系
 系     統              統
                           系
 統                         統

私有程序       公用程序           私有程序



           EB & SWS            15
          B2B EC標準架構

• 商業處理層                   商業處理層
 – 標準商業流程及商業文件,                   B2B EC
• 訊息服務層                           標準架構
 – 提供安全、可靠的溝通管道,以實
                          訊息服務層
   現上層的商業交談

• 各種標準
 – 水平整合: ebXML
 – 產業垂直整合: RosettaNet (資訊技術、電子零組件、及半導體
   製造業)


               EB & SWS             16
RosettaNet
          RosettaNet宗旨及任務

• 宗旨
  – Dynamic, flexible trading networks
  – Operational efficiency
  – New business opportunities
• 任務
  – 促進網際網路商業標準的合作發展及快速建置
  – 創造共通的商業語言及開放式的電子化商業程序,為全球高
    科技交易網路帶來利益及提昇演進的腳步



                    EB & SWS             18
          RosettaNet是什麼

• RosettaNet是由超過400家資訊技術業、 電子零組
  件業、及半導體製造業廠商所組成的協會,共創及推
  廣開放式的電子標準商業程序
• RosettaNet名稱是以the Rosetta Stone而得名,
• RosettaNet創造電子商務標準語言,包括商業程序及
  商業文件
  – 促成供應鏈電子化
  – 建立有彈性的交易夥伴關係
  – 降低成本、提昇產量



                EB & SWS            19
         RosettaNet標準內容為何

• RosettaNet標準是集合高科技公司的專業知識,共創
  而成的非獨占性的電子商務方案,其內容包括
  – 商業及技術字典
    • RosettaNet Business Dictionary、RosettaNet Technical
      Dictionary
  – 下層技術服務架構
    • RosettaNet Implementation Framework (RNIF)
  – 商業訊息及程序規範
    • RosettaNet Partner Interface Processes™(PIPs™)
• 以上標準規範可由www.rosettanet.org免費取得


                        EB & SWS                            20
RosettaNet的技術面
    RosettaNet的技術概念

  交易夥伴                        交易夥伴

                                收文
Trading內容
   備妥 Partner              Trading Partner


  放入信封                       解開信封


    送出                       處理內容


                EB & SWS                     22
            RosettaNet的技術構件

• Partner Interface Processes (PIPsTM)

• Dictionaries and Codes

• RosettaNet Implementation Framework (RNIF) Core




                       EB & SWS                     23
        技術構件─PIP

• 整合式的商業程序,其中規範了
 – 商業文件的結構及格式

 – 參與商業活動的交易夥伴的活動、決策、及角色扮
   演




           EB & SWS     24
                    技術構件─PIP

• 分類方式是依照高階商業功能(cluster)及次功能
  (segment)而訂
Cluster 3: Order Management
               Segment A : Quote and Order Entry
               PIP 3A1 - Provide Quote
               PIP 3A2 - Query Price and Availability
               PIP 3A3 - Transfer Shopping Cart
               PIP 3A4 - Manage Purchase Order
               PIP 3A5 - Query Order Status
               PIP 3A6 - Distribute Order Status

               Segment B : Transportation and Distribution
                           Returns
               Segment C : EB & SWS and Finance              25
          技術構件─PIP

• PIP規範是可供下載的.zip檔放在rosettanet網
  站,內容包括
 – 規格書(.doc) + 勘誤表
 – XML DTD說明商業文件的結構內容
 – 訊息使用說明
   • 編碼、定義、訊息出現次數




              EB & SWS            26
               技術構件─PIP

• 規範是遵循Open-EDI Reference Model
  (ISO/IEC 14662)的概念制定而成,包括
  – 商業運作觀點(Business Operational View, BOV)
     • 以商業角度看待商業交易
  – 功能服務觀點(Functional Service View, FSV)
     • 以技術角度看待商業交易
  – 製作架構觀點(Implementation Framework View, IFV)
     • RosettaNet下層技術服務製作的架構



                     EB & SWS                    27
PIP BOV




 EB & SWS   28
             PIPTM3A4 在BOV下的程序控制
             Table 3-3: Business Activity Performance Controls
 Role Name



               Activity Name




                                                           Acceptance
                                                           Time to Acknowledge


                                                                                  Time to Perform


                                                                                                    Retry Count


                                                                                                                  Required?
                                                                                                                  Is Authorization

                                                                                                                                     Origin and Content?
                                                                                                                                     Non-Repudiation of
                                Acknowledgment
                                   of Receipt
                               Required?
                               Repudiation
                               Non-




                                             Acknowledge
Buyer
             Create             Y            Time to
                                             2hr            24hr                 24hr               3                Y                    Y
             Purchase
             Order

             Cancel             Y            2hr           24hr                  24hr               3                Y                    Y
Buyer        Purchase
             Order


Buyer        Revise             Y            2hr           24hr                  24hr               3                Y                    Y
             Purchase
             Order

                                             EB & SWS                                                                                              29
         PIPTM3A4 FSV下的商業交易對話

    Purchase Order Request Dialog
:Buyer                                       :Seller

            1. request(:PurchaseOrderRequestAction)


              1.1. signal(:ReceiptAcknowledgement)


          2. response(:PurchaseOrderAcceptanceAction)

              2.1. signal(:ReceiptAcknowledgement)




                                EB & SWS                30
                    PIPTM3A4 IFV

           Purchase Order Request Dialog
      Table 5-1: Business Message and Communications
                        Specification




                                              Required?
                                              Signature
                                              Digital

                                                          Required?
                                                          SSL
 #           Business Message Guideline

1.      Purchase Order Request Guideline        Y         Y

1.1     Receipt Acknowledgement Guideline
                                                Y         Y

2.      Purchase Order Acceptance Guideline     Y         Y

2.1     Receipt Acknowledgement Guideline       Y         Y
                           EB & SWS                                   31
               PIPTM3A4 XML DTD

<!ENTITY % common-attributes "id CDATA #IMPLIED" >
<!ELEMENT Pip3A4PurchaseOrderAcceptance (
     PurchaseOrder ,
     fromRole ,
     toRole ,
     thisDocumentGenerationDateTime ,
     thisDocumentIdentifier ,
     requestingDocumentIdentifier ,
     GlobalDocumentFunctionCode ,
     requestingDocumentDateTime ) >
<!ELEMENT PurchaseOrder (
     deliverTo? ,
     comment? ,
     GlobalPurchaseOrderStatusCode ,
                          EB & SWS                   32
              技術構件─字典

       交易夥伴                        交易夥伴

                                     收文           字典
     Trading內容
        備妥 Partner              Trading Partner


       放入信封                       解開信封


字典       送出                       處理內容


                     EB & SWS                     33
            標準碼及字典

• 交易夥伴識別號 (DUNS®)
• 產品識別號
 – 產品編號 (GTIN)
 – 產品分類 (UN/SPSC)
 – 產品說明 (Dictionaries)




                EB & SWS   34
       標準碼及字典的使用時機

• 交易夥伴識別號(DUNS®)
 – PIPsTM 用來識別交易夥伴及其位址
• 產品識別號(GTIN)
 – PIPs用來識別產品

• 產品識別號(UN/SPSC)
 – 產品資訊類的PIP (Cluster 2) 用其來當作類別代號




                 EB & SWS            35
           Technical Dictionaries

• RosettaNet Technical Dictionary (Information
  Technology (IT) & Electronic Components (EC))
   – Organizes product descriptions into reusable atomic properties
     and relationships
   – Used to search electronic catalogs, maintain technical
     information databases, generate technical spec sheets, etc.




                         EB & SWS                           36
         Technical Components - RNIF

• RosettaNet Implementation Framework Core

• RNIF (usually pronounced R-NIF)

• RNIF 1.1 Defines RosettaNet Object (RNO),
  RNIF 2.0 Defines RosettaNet Business Message

• Specifies how to transport RosettaNet Objects and Business
  Messages between trading partners’ network applications

• (Remember those PIPsTM? This is how the Business Document
  Payload is packaged and transported.)

                            EB & SWS                           37
Technical Components - RNIF

  交易夥伴                   交易夥伴
             RNIF制定以XML及MIMI為
                          收文
   備妥內容 依據的“信封套”,以便
Trading Partner      Trading Partner
             放入商業文件
  放入信封                   解開信封


    送出                   處理內容


              EB & SWS                 38
EB Standard: ebXML
        The ebXML Framework at Work
Registry Host                                       Supplier
                                  1
Profiles
ProcessSpecifications


                                                5
          ebXML
          Registry
                                                         2




                                                               Implementation
        4
                                                3

                        6



         Customer
                               Intermediaries

                            EB & SWS                                            40
     Phases in the Use of the ebXML Framework
      Registry Host                                   Supplier
                                    1
      Profiles
      ProcessSpecifications



                ebXML
                Registry
                                                           2




                                                                 Implementation
                                                  3




               Customer
                                 Intermediaries

The implementation phase
                              EB & SWS                                            41
 Phases in the Use of the ebXML Framework
Registry Host                                  Supplier
                             1
Profiles
ProcessSpecifications


                                           5
          ebXML
          Registry




                                                          Implementation
        4




         Customer
                          Intermediaries

 The discovery phase
                        EB & SWS                                           42
  Phases in the Use of the ebXML Framework
Registry Host                                    Supplier
Profiles
ProcessSpecifications



          ebXML
          Registry




                                                            Implementation
                         6



         Customer
                                Intermediaries
     The runtime phase
                             EB & SWS                                        43
       Components of the ebXML Framework
•   Defining how public business-process must be described using the
    ebXML BPSS standard.
•   Defining the semantics of business documents that are exchanged in
    public processes using ebXML’s Core Component (ebCC) standard.
•   Definition of services and the constraints in using the services using
    Collaboration Protocol Profile (CPP) defined in the ebXML CPPA
    standard.
•   Description of the mutual agreement between the business partners –
    Collaboration Protocol Agreement (CPA) – to carry out the public
    business process. The schema for a CPA is also defined by ebXML
    CPPA standard.
•   Protocols for registering, storing, and retrieving public business
    processes and associated business documents, and CPPs using the
    ebXML Registry standard.
•   A standard way to send and receive messages between business
    partners, as defined in the ebXML Message specification.

                                 EB & SWS                                    44
                                         The ebXML standards
Business Process           Business Document


    BPSS                           CC




   Registry                        CPP



 Repository                        CPA


              Message Service


                   MS
                        EB & SWS                          45
An Agent-Mediated EB Architecture
EB & SWS   47
                                   Agent platform


                     Agent     Agent       Agent
Backend Processing




                                                                                            Backend Processing
                                                                           Business
                             Facilitator            MSH              MSH    service
                                                                           interface




                                                          EB & SWS                     48
Semantic Web
        Introduction to Semantic Web

• Facilities to put machine-understandable data on the
  Web are becoming a high priority for many
  communities.
• The Web can reach its full potential only if it becomes
  a place where data can be shared and processed by
  automated tools as well as by people.
• For the Web to scale, tomorrow's programs must be
  able to share and process data even when these
  programs have been designed totally independently.


                         EB & SWS                       50
         Introduction to Semantic Web

• The Semantic Web is a vision:
       the idea of having data on the web defined
       and linked in a way that it can be used by
       machines not just for display purposes, but for
       automation, integration and reuse of data
       across various applications
• See “W3C Semantic Web Activity,” by Marja-Riitta Koivunen, for
  more descriptions.




                            EB & SWS                           51
    The Semantic Web Layered Architecture
                                                        Trust
                                                 Proof
 Tim Berners-Lee:                               Logic
 ―Axioms, Architecture and
 Aspirations‖                                  Rules
 W3C all-working group                       Ontology           Sig
 plenary Meeting
 28 February 2001                          RDF Schema
(http://www.w3.org/2001/T                  RDF M&S
alks/0228-tbl/slide5-0.html)
                                          XML Schema
                                    XML         Namespaces
                                  URI                Unicode
                               EB & SWS                         52
   The Big
Picture of SW




                EB & SWS   53
Ontology Basics
         Why Develop an Ontology

• Reasons why developing an ontology:
   – To share common understanding of the structure of
     information among people or software agents
   – To enable reuse of domain knowledge
   – To make domain assumptions explicit
   – To separate domain knowledge from the operational
     knowledge
   – To analyze domain knowledge




                       EB & SWS                     55
                     Ontologies

• One widely cited definition of an ontology is Gruber’s
  [Gruber 1993] ―A specification of a
  conceptualization‖.




                         EB & SWS                      56
                   Ontologies
• Ontologies can be used to provide a concrete
  specification of term names and term meanings.




                       EB & SWS                    57
             What Is in an Ontology?

• For the purposes of this guide an ontology is a
  formal explicit description of
   – concepts in a domain of discourse (classes (sometimes
     called concepts)),
   – properties of each concept describing various features and
     attributes of the concept (slots (sometimes called roles or
     properties)), and
   – restrictions on slots (facets (sometimes called role
     restrictions)).
• An ontology together with a set of individual
  instances of classes constitutes a knowledge base.

                            EB & SWS                               58
A Simple Knowledge-Engineering Methodology

• There is no one ―correct‖ way or methodology for
  developing ontologies.
• Here we discuss general issues to consider and offer
  one possible process for developing an ontology.




                        EB & SWS                     59
A Simple Knowledge-Engineering Methodology

Step 1: Determine the domain and scope of the ontology

Step 2: Consider reusing existing ontologies

Step 3: Enumerate important terms in the ontology

Step 4: Define the classes and the class hierarchy

Step 5: Define the properties of classes—slots

Step 6: Define the facets of the slots

Step 7: Create instances



                               EB & SWS                  60
XML-Based Ontology Languages
                       RDF M&S

• RDF (Resource Description Framework)
   – Beyond Machine readable to Machine understandable
• RDF consists of two parts
   – RDF Model (a set of triples)
   – RDF Syntax (different XML serialization syntaxes)
• RDF Schema for definition of Vocabularies (simple
  Ontologies) for RDF (and in RDF)




                          EB & SWS                       62
                  RDF Data Model
• Resources
  – A resource is a thing you talk about (can reference)
  – Resources have URI’s
  – RDF definitions are themselves Resources (linkage, see
    requirement 1)
• Properties
  – slots, define relationships to other resources or atomic values
• Statements
  – ―Resource has Property with Value‖
  – (Values can be resources or atomic XML data)
• Similar to Frame Systems

                          EB & SWS                             63
                         A Simple Example
• Statement
   – ―Ora Lassila is the creator of the resource
     http://www.w3.org/Home/Lassila‖

• Structure
   – Resource       (subject)    http://www.w3.org/Home/Lassila
   – Property       (predicate) http://www.schema.org/#Creator
   – Value          (object)    "Ora Lassila‖

• Directed graph


                                      s:Creator
 http://www.w3.org/Home/Lassila                          Ora Lassila




                                   EB & SWS                            64
                  Another Example

• To add properties to Creator, point through an
  intermediate Resource.

                  http://www.w3.org/Home/Lassila

                            s:Creator

                                         Person://fi/654645635


                                    Name                         Email


                                Ora Lassila                  lassila@w3.org



                             EB & SWS                                         65
                           Example: Bag

•   The students in
    course 6.001        /courses/6.001
     are Amy, Tim,                                  Rdf:Bag
    John, Mary,
    and Sue                              rdf:type
                                                                          /Students/Amy
                      students
                                                     rdf:_1
                                                              rdf:_2      /Students/Tim

                            bagid1                             rdf:_3
                                                                          /Students/John
                                                                rdf:_4

                                                                           /Students/Mary
                                                                 rdf:_5

                                                                           /Students/Sue
                                     EB & SWS                                              66
                       Example: Alternative

• The source code for X11 may be found at ftp.x.org,
  ftp.cs.purdue.edu, or ftp.eu.net

         http://x.org/package/X11
                                                rdf:Alt

                                     rdf:type
                  source

                                                rdf:_1
                             altid                            ftp.x.org
                                                 rdf:_2

                                                           ftp.cs.purdue.edu
                                                  rdf:_3

                                                              ftp.eu.net
                                     EB & SWS                                  67
                         RDF Syntax I

• Data model does not enforce particular syntax
• Specification suggests many different syntaxes
  based on XML
• General form:Starts an RDF-Description Subject (OID)

<rdf:RDF>
  <rdf:Description about="http://www.w3.org/Home/Lassila">
     <s:Creator>Ora Lassila</s:Creator>
     <s:createdWith rdf:resource=“http://www.w3c.org/amaya”/>
  </rdf:Description>
</rdf:RDF>
                       Literal

                                            Resource (possibly another RDF-description)
          Properties

                                 EB & SWS                                           68
                     Resulting Graph

                 http://www.w3.org/Home/Lassila


         s:Creator                           s:createdWith



 Ora Lassila                               http://www.w3c.org/amaya




<rdf:RDF>
 <rdf:Description about="http://www.w3.org/Home/Lassila">
   <s:Creator>Ora Lassila</s:Creator>
   <s:createdWith rdf:resource=―http://www.w3c.org/amaya‖/>
 </rdf:Description>
</rdf:RDF>



                           EB & SWS                                   69
           RDF Syntax II: Syntactic Varieties
   Typing Information                     Subject (OID)
                                                                     In-Element Property



<s:Homepage rdf:about="http://www.w3.org/Home/Lassila”
                               s:Creator=“Ora Lassila”/>

       <s:createdWith>
         <s:HTMLEditor rdf:about=“http://www.w3c.org/amaya”/>
       </s:createdWith>

</s:Homepage>
                                                      rdf:type
Property           http://www.w3.org/Home/Lassila                    s:Homepage

                                                     s:createdWith
                 s:Creator

                                                                           rdf:type
                   Ora Lassila              http://www.w3c.org/amaya                   HTMLEditor
                                       EB & SWS                                            70
               RDF Schema (RDFS)


• RDF just defines the data model
• Need for definition of vocabularies for the data model - an
   Ontology Language!
• The RDF Schema mechanism provides a basic type system for
   use in RDF models.
• The RDF schema specification language is less expressive, but
   much simpler to implement, than full predicate calculus languages
   such as CycL and KIF.



                           EB & SWS                             71
       Most Important Modeling Primitives

• Core Classes
   – Root-Class rdfs:Resource
   – MetaClass rdfs:Class
   – Literals rdfs:Literal
• rdfs:subclassOf-property
• Inherited from RDF: properties (slots)
• rdfs:domain & rdfs:range
• rdfs:label, rdfs:comment, etc.
• Inherited from RDF: InstanceOf (rdf:type)
                         EB & SWS             72
         DAML+OIL: an Ontology Language

• Extension of RDF Schema
• Ontology Language DAML+OIL: Result of a Joint
  (European + US-American) Committee
• Extension of RDF Schema
   –   Class Expressions (Intersection, Union, Complement)
   –   XML Schema Datatypes
   –   Enumerations
   –   Property Restrictions
        • Cardinality Constraints
        • Value Restrictions


                                EB & SWS                     73
                          OWL
             W3C Web Ontology Language

• Use cases
  –   Web portal
  –   Multimedia collections
  –   Corporate web site management
  –   Design documentation
  –   Agents and services
  –   Ubiquitous computing




                          EB & SWS       74
                             OWL
               W3C Web Ontology Language

• Goals
  –   Shared ontologies
  –   Ontology evolution
  –   Ontology interoperability
  –   Inconsistency detection
  –   Balance of expressivity and scalability
  –   Ease of use
  –   Compatibility with other standards
  –   Internationalization



                             EB & SWS           75
                     OWL
           W3C Web Ontology Language

• OWL provides three increasingly expressive
  sublanguages: OWL Lite, OWL DL, and OWL Full.




                      EB & SWS                    76
                                     OWL
                   W3C Web Ontology Language
                     OWL Lite language constructs
RDF Schema Features:          (In)Equality:           Property Characteristics:
Class                         equivalentClass         inverseOf
rdf:Property                  equivalentProperty      TransitiveProperty
rdfs:subClassOf               sameAs                  SymmetricProperty
rdfs:subPropertyOf            differentFrom           FunctionalProperty
rdfs:domain                   allDifferent            InverseFunctionalProperty
rdfs:range
Individual

Property Type Restrictions:     Restricted Cardinality:         Header Information:
allValuesFrom                   minCardinality (only 0 or 1)    ontology
someValuesFrom                  maxCardinality (only 0 or 1)    imports
                                cardinality (only 0 or 1)

                                     EB & SWS                                 77
DAML-S: An Ontology for Semantic web
Service
                    DAML-S

• Users and software agents should be able to
  discover, invoke, compose, and monitor Web
  resources offering particular services and having
  particular properties.
• As part of the DARPA Agent Markup Language
  program, we have begun to develop an ontology of
  services, called DAML-S.




                       EB & SWS                       79
Top Level of the Service Ontology


Resource      provides    presents       ServiceProfile
                                   (what it does)

                     Service
(how to access it)                (how it works)
       supports                    described by
  Service                                 ServiceModel
 Grounding


                       EB & SWS                           80
Process Modeling Ontology




          EB & SWS          81
Semantic Web Tools
                             KA2

• Knowledge Annotation Initiative of the Knowledge
  Acquisition Community
• The basic scenario
   – WWW documents of the KS community were annotated
     according to the schema of an ontology.
   – The annotations enable intelligent access to these
     documents and infer implicit knowledge from explicitly stated
     facts and rules from the ontology.




                            EB & SWS                            83
                           The KA2 Ontology
Person-ontology                          Publication-ontology
Class hierarchy                           Class hierarchy
Person                                    On-Line-Publication
  Employee                                Publication
    Academic-Staff                          Article
      Lecturer                                Article-In-Book
      Researcher                              Conference-Paper
    Administrative-Staff                      Journal-Article
      Secretary                               Technical-Report
      Technical-Staff                         Workshop-Paper
    Student                                 Book
      Phd-Student                           Journal
                                              IEEE-Expert
Relations                                     IJHCS
Address, Affiliation, Cooperates-With,        Special-Issue
Editor-Of,Email, First-Name, Has-
Publication, Head-Of-Group, Head-Of-       Relations
Project, Last-Name, Member-Of-             Abstract, Book-Editor, Conference-
Organization, Member-Of-Program-           Proceedings-Title, Contains-Article-In-
Committee, Member-Of-Research-Group,       Book, Contains-Article-In-Journal,
Middle-Initial, Organizer-Of-Chair-Of,     Describes-Project, First-Page, Has-
Person-Name, Photo, Research-Interest,     Author, Has-Publisher, In-Book, In-
Secretary-Of, Studies-At, Supervises,      Conference, In-Journal, In-Organization,
Supervisor, Works-At-Project               In-Workshop, Journal-Editor, Journal-
                                           Number, Journal-Publisher, Journal-Year,
                                     EB & SWS                              84
                                           Last-Page, On-Line-Version, …
  Accessing the Community Web Portal

• Query capability
   – In F-Logic mechanism
• Navigating capability
   – As the easy-to-use front-end of the query mechanism




                            EB & SWS                       85
Development of Web Portals




          EB & SWS           86
The System Architecture




         EB & SWS         87
                      What is Sesame ?

Sesame is RDF Schema-based repository
and querying facility that offers:

•   persistent storage of RDF data
•   export of repository contents in RDF format
•   data administration functionality
•   query engine (RQL , SeRQL)




                                EB & SWS          88
Sesame’s Architecture




        EB & SWS        89
                                                            Content providers




                             Web         Web             Web           Web
                             server      server          server        server


An Ontology-Based
                                                                              Portal
Portal for Digital Library
                                      Annotator                   Wrapper
Services

                                                              Knowledge
                                         Ontology             warehouse

                                                  Inference engine
                                  Discovery        Use     Tailoring        Social




                       User           User                User                  User
                    Conclusions

• New web technologies
   – XML
   – Electronic Business
   – Semantic Web (Services)
• Integration of existing technologies to create new
  one




                         EB & SWS                      91