eBusiness and web services Smorgasbord by vev19514


									 eBusiness and web services

Open Forum 2003 on Metadata Registries
           2:00pm to 3:00pm
            January 23, 2003

                 David                  Webber
                            co-author of „ebXML – the new global standard
                             for doing business via the internet‟, New Riders
                            Chair of the OASIS CAM TC
                            Co-chair of OASIS/CEFACT ebXML JMT
                            Pioneering XML eBusiness


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                     Part 1 – web services and ebXML
                            Transports
                            Alignment – business process automation
                            Alignment – common semantic mechanisms
                            Deployment Coordination

                     Part 2 – assembly mechanisms
                            Where can you use this?
                            Address example
                            Review of XML mechanisms

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                     Web services and ebXML

                                         Enabling better eBusiness

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                        Web service – brief history

      Trigger point – weakness of HTML model for e-
       commerce solutions.
      Emergence of XML and SOAP messaging.
      Bowstreet early market definition and mission.
      Formation of UDDI cartel – to facilitate and exploit
       automation of e-commerce.

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                                         Acronym Soup

         XML – Standard Language for denoting
          information content and process control
         SOAP - (Simple Object Access Protocol) XML
          based Messaging Protocol
         UDDI - (Universal Description, Discovery and
          Integration) Yellow Pages for Web Services
         WSDL - (Web Services Description Language)

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                Summary of eBusiness Needs

            Ability to easily and cost-effectively connect
             business processes and business information
             exchanges together
            Enable a broad interoperable electronic
            Interface to existing applications

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                   eBusiness Technology Goals

               Solutions and tools that enable customers to
                reduce costs and improve efficiency by better
                exploiting information within their eBusiness
                domains and industries.

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                                Information Landscape

             XML enabled
             Pervasive across desktop and enterprise
             Ad hoc architecture (desktop components), or
              using formal architecture (eBusiness

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                        XML itself is not enough.

        XML, by itself, does not solve interoperability
         problems yet it is an important tool for doing so.
        XML does not provide instant semantics.
        XML by itself is not the magic bullet.
        What we need are clear policies and vision of how
         electronic information enables interoperability

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                    Business Layers                                  Designing for Flexibility

                                                          1 2
                                          Architectural                    UDDI
       5                                  Conceptual         ebXML

                                     Business Layers • BODs, MIGs, PIPs
                                     Logical                 • Documentation
                                                                                   }   Constraints,
                                                                                       Context, &

  • transaction
  • instance

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                        Business Layers: Objectives

             Reduce complexity of managing large numbers of
              transaction formats - document the differences
             Want to speed adoption by formalizing business rules
             Want context-driven transaction generation
             Empowers business users to build interchange details
             Need to define in a neutral format: works with variety of
              structures, not just XML.
             Augment current standards and industry specifications
             Provide multi-step process support – UDDI weak here

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                                         World view models

       SMALL - Simple consistent integration for day-to-
        day small business applications (accounting, taxes,
        catalogues, inventory…)
       BROAD - Simple consistent integration across
        industry verticals (insurance, healthcare,
        transportation, food services…)
       LARGE - And complex large system integration

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                                         Sample Use Cases

               eGov – how do I apply for this service on-line?

               Business facilitation – can anyone in the
                organization provide this answer?

               If „Yes‟ how can my software access it?

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                                         ebXML Vision

         “A semantic registry is the key foundation block
           upon which global electronic business
           exchanges will be built”.

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                                   Why Use a Registry?

            Foster a collaborative environment across
             departments, agencies, industry domains
            Provide human facing access to resources –
            Provide machine level access to business
             semantics and content

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                                         Registry Layers
                                                                  High level modelling systems integration
                                                                  Business Process Definitions
                                                                  Workflow Control
   and                                            UML
                                                                  Interchange Profiles
   Workflow                                       Tools
                                                                  Business Transaction Generators
                                                                  Dictionary Content
   Tools and                                                      Transformation Services
   services                                    XML Content        Scripting

   HTML forms                                                     Content Discovery
                                           Web User Interface     Topics and Packages
   XML Calls                              Program API Support     Dynamic Process Component Enabling

    Information                                                   Industry Dictionary
    Store                                  Metadata Information   Business Processes
                                                                  Business Transactions
                                                                  Business Forms
                                         Communications Layer

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                          Classifications (Ontology)

               All registry objects are classified
               Objects can be classified under multiple classifications
               Classifications can represent different industries, or product
               Classifications are controlled by the registry owner and
                completely editable
               Upload as a full scheme, or create (or edit) schemes node by

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                                         UDDI Registry

     Yellow, White and Green Pages
     Registration of “tModels”
     Fixed classification model
     Provides discovery for web service POPs and
      then ability to configure to those
     Internal use stronger story than external currently

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                              Move to standards work

              Submissions to W3C of SOAP / WSDL
              Formation of OASIS TC‟s
              UDDI moved to OASIS (http://www.oasis-open.org)
              Four initiatives on work flow / business process
               - BPMI, BPSS, BPM, BPEL4WS -> need just
               one! (aka SMIL for media flows) (see -
                  Re-alignment with ebXML? (http://www.ebXML.org)

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                   Polarization of Web Services

               eAI vendors – inward facing focus
                      The bulk of the (Web services) work for the next
                       18 months will be inside the firewall, and it will be
                      When questioned about the role of WS in
                       exposing legacy data assets, the answer was
                       resoundingly simple “That is not going to happen,”
                       but a more traditional approach will be used.

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                                         Outward facing

          e-Commerce Solution vendors
                 Use their engines to parametrically drive custom
                  web applications.
                 Use their engines to manage web applications
                  based on profiles .
                 Empower business managers to create, customize
                  and manage profiles, which drive the generation
                  of unique application instances.
                 Assign and manage application variations by User
                  IDs, J2EE roles, rules, entitlements or any other
                  data such as time of day.

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                            Web Service behaviour?

           “A web service is a software component that
             represents a business function (or a
             business service) and can be accessed by
             another application (a client, a server or
             another Web service) over public
             networks using generally available
             ubiquitous protocols and transports (i. e.
             SOAP over HTTP).” -Gartner Group

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                           ebXML and eBusiness
                        Combining best-of-breed components

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                Customers focus

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                 The Emerging Solution:
                 XML Integration Services
                  1980’s                           1990’s

                                         SHIFT                   SHIFT

                 Ad Hoc                          Hub n’ Spoke,
                                                 EDI                     XML Integration
                                                 and EAI                 Services

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                  Building eBusiness Orchestration

         Define business ideas and needs
                Capture steps and workflow
         Then describe the business processing
                Top layer – rules and context
                Middle layer – industry/application integration
                Implementation layer – physical application systems and
                 content delivery / exchange

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               Technology Progression Matrix

       Flat files and sorts              Mainframes            Modem dial-up      Tape drives
       Tree indexed                      Batch EDI             ebXML              COBOL programs
       RDBMS / SQL                       Client/Server         Internet / HTML    4GL report writers
       Object Oriented                   Real-time EDI         Web Services       Hub-and-Spoke
       CASE / UML                        Business Processing   ebXML              ETL

       Metadata                          Marketplaces          Portals and HTML   EAI
       XML                               Partner discovery     UDDI / ebXML       XML Integration

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                  Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)

            Communications layer
                   ebXML messaging services
                   Web services
                   Internet
        Business Process workflows and orchestration
        Registry services for metadata and discovery
        Content integration at point of use
        XML payloads with content vocabulary definitions
         as well as schema structural layouts
        Security and Control mechanisms

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                                         Key Capabilities

     Link content to/from existing applications
     Provide ebXML and web service delivery
     Common Business Process Orchestration Server
     Industry metadata and templates management
     Enable marketplaces with partner discovery and

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                                   ESB Comparisons
    Ad hoc                                Broker                                  ESB

    Minimal re-use                        Restricted re-use                       Registry enabled re-use

    Problematic context                   Loss of original context                Retains context with content

    Hand-coded mappings                   Double mappings -inbound/outbound       Single map at point of use; context
                                                                                  implicitly known

    Highly customized                     Fixed central vocabulary                Pluralistic with open crosswalks and
                                                                                  formal extension support

    Biggest dog wins; smaller dogs have   Restricts industry interoperability     Enables open industry interoperability
    to work hardest

    Locally developed components          Vendor proprietary technology           Open standards architecture

    Published documentation               Adaptors and interface specifications   Discovery of trading partners,
                                                                                  interfaces and metadata

    Plethora of interfaces                Rigid information                       Fluid Information

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                      Web services and ebXML
                                      Web Services                             ebXML

     Type                             Request/response                         Collaboration

     Communication                    RPC-style synchronous                    Synchronous, asynchronous
                                      communication between                    communication
                                      tightly coupled services,
                                      communication between
                                      loosely coupled services
     Business Service                 WSDL                                     CPP, CPA
     Interface description                                                     (WSDL within CPP, CPA under

     Protocol and Formats             SOAP, XML                                ebXML Message Service (over
                                                                               SOAP), XML, BPSS (as "business"

     Content Standards                None                                     Recommended Standards (e.g. OAGI

     How to find business             UDDI Registry                                       ebXML Registry
     partners                                                                             (UDDI Registry may point to an
                                                                                          ebXML Registry or Registry objects
      With thanks to Alan Kotok from his recent article : http://www.webservices.org/index.php/article/articleview/451/1/22/
                                                                                          (e.g. CPA))
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                                ebXML adoption today

            Automotive industry
            Food services industry
            Energy industry
            Vendors delivering ebMS products – Fujitsu,
             Sybase, Sterling, GXS, bTrade, Cyclone,
             TIBCO, Excelon, WebMethods, XML Global,
             and Sun – with UCC certification

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                                         Industry Trends

       According to the Gartner Group, by 2003, at least 70
         percent of all new applications will be built primarily
         from components

       Components allow developers the ability to integrate
        multiple software modules when creating new
        applications, reducing in-house programming effort,
        leveraging sophisticated services, and increasing
        software quality which can significantly reduce the
        time, cost and effort of integrations projects. "

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                                          Part 2
                          Assembly Mechanisms


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                 Business Challenges for XML

            Totally static transaction formats do not work
             – need configurable structures
            How to apply business context assertions to a
             information structure?
            How to derive a consistent way of specifying
             the interchange parameters to a partner?
            How to enable business domain users to
             implement the exchanges?

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                        Address Problem Space
          Objective is to provide context to the postal delivery addressing
           preferred standard for Postal Address, using levels of business use
           and quality metrics, to ensure adoption of CIQ.
          Address use levels
                Level 0 = handwritten postal address – machine scanned
                Level 1 = last line (city, state, zip+(postal code) or foreign country
                Level 2 = in country simple postal address –As Is concatenated
                Level 3 = extended postal address – advanced features
                Level 4 = rendering only (external to USPS or business to business use,
                  e.g., shipping / delivery address / bill to / marked for / in care of )
                Level 5 = management (internal domestic and international collaboration
          Resolve XML approach for supporting postal delivery address
          Manage domestic internal and global international artifacts through
           common vocabulary or mapping conventions

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       Using W3C Schema to provide for business choice and layers of
        increasingly refining definitions based on business use

       Enable use of platform independent business semantic
        AssemblyDoc, modeling, or spreadsheet methods

       Provide for technology dependent implementation transition
       Provide migration from legacy address formats
          i.e. DOD and most other legacy environments are at Address use
           level #2

       Provide U.S. Government with standards for harmonization by the
        authoritative agency source with international consortiums

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                       Address Use Level Defined
                                         (US Postal model example)

                Level 0 = handwritten postal address – machine parsed
                Level 1 = “last line” - city, state, zip+ (postal code) or foreign country
                Level 2 = in country simple postal address – concatenated delivery
                            address line(s)
                Level 3 = extended postal address – advanced features
                              » 3A = Non-address - business volume (bulk)
                              » 3B = delivery address field s (atomic)
                Level 4 = Rendering only - external or business to business use, e.g.,
                  shipping / delivery/bill to/marked for/in care of
                Level 5 =management – advanced features
                              » 5A = internal management
                              » 5B = international management

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                  Address Horizontal and Vertical
                 Authoritative Source & Use Matrix
                                                                                    A = Government (Domestic)
  Top = Authoritative source                                                        B = Vendor
                                                                                    C = International Organization
           D                                                                        D = Customer
       Level 0                                                                      E = Consortiums
                                  Level 1
                         Data entry as simple
                         in country address
                                                      Level 2
                              Street, City,
                               State, ZIP
                                                Extended address,
                                                International              Level 3
    Street, City,                               and bulk mail
     State, ZIP                                                      Shipping / Delivery,
                                                 Location, Street,                              Level 4 & 5
                                                                     and Organization
                                                 City, State, ZIP,
                                                   Country, Bar        Address with          Facilities management,
 Machine scanned                          OAG                                                global address system,
 and extracted                                    Code, PO Box,          Mail room,
                                    EDI                ......                                multi-lingual
                                                                        loading bay,
                                                                      facility location,     DeliveryIdentifier,
       A, B                LEGACY
                                                                       GPS code, ....        AddressLines,
                           B, D, E                        HR-XML                             AdministrativeArea,
                                                                               FEDEX         Thoroughfare, ....
                                                                             UP S
                                                B, E
   Bottom = User and Implementers                                    A, B, C, E                  A, C, E
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                   United States Post Office
                 Delivery Quality Measurement
        Score              Description
        0                  Multiple lines of unspecified address information
        1                  Identified lines of address information
        2                  Partial element identification (City-State-ZIP)
        3                  Full element identification
        4                  Full element identification with some validation (valid State)
        5                  Full element identification with some validation and cross validation
                           (City within State)
        6                  Matching address to Postal Database (CASS certified address
                           matching software used) {Matching address to external address}
        7                  Complete and correct address (Delivery Point Validation)
        8                  Know recipient has not reported a move (Move Update)
        9                  Know delivered to person / entity
        10                 Know the delivery was made to the right person / entity
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                               Grouped View of
                          USPS Physical Postal Address

                                   11 Physical Concatenated Lines:

                                         • 5 Optional Internal Routing Lines
                                                - Mailstop Code
                                                - Attention Line
                                                - Individual Title
                                                - Functional Title
                                                - Group, Department, Division Name

                                         • 3 Business Volume “Bulk”
                                                - Optional Endorsement Line
                                                - Key Line Data
                                                - POSTNET Address Block Barcode

                                         • 3 Mandatory concatenated lines
                                                - Name (Person or Organization)
                                                - Delivery Address
                                                - “Last Line” - City, State, Zip+ (Postal Code)
                                                  or Country
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          Multi-Dimensional Postal Address View
    OASIS Address Use                                                      USPS Delivery Quality
                                          USPS Physical View
         Levels                                                               Measurement
   3                                     Optional Internal Routing Lines

                                            Business Volume “Bulk”

                                                Delivery Address
                                                     Fielded          6
   2                                                                                         3

                1                                 “Last Line”
                                                                               5      2
                                                      State            4
                                               Zip+ (Postal Code)
                          sets                                                                   1
                                    4                                                 Interpret Process

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                              Building the right pieces

            Need to intelligently use XML – get maximum
             benefit, while avoiding potential pitfalls.
            Exploit work that others have done pathfinder
             for: OAGIS V8 use of Schema techniques;
             and best-practices on XML use
            Align with ebXML architecture to provide
             syntax neutral methods wherever possible

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                                         Leveraging CIQ

            Need to reflect levels 1 thru 5 of use
            CIQ formal detail underpins 5th level.
            Use XML schema techniques to layer
             granularity above that.
                      Each granular layer also has country specific
                      Use ebXML AssemblyDoc to capture context
                       structure rules and country models.

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                 XML Information Exchange Quality
                                                                                                (and long-term consistency)
         Secure Authenticated Delivery and Tracking:
         Reliable Messaging system, envelope format and payload with exchange participant profile controls

                                     Delivery                                                   Assembly
                                                                                                                     Content Assembly:
                                                                                                                     Business logic for
                                                                                                                     content structure decisions and
                                                                                                                     explicit rules to enforce content,
       Schema:                                                                                                       and interdependencies, with
       Content structure definition
       simple content typing                            XML                                                          business exchange context,
                                                                                                                     and content definition
                                                                                                                     cross-references via UID

                                         Schema                               Registry/
                                                         business information Dictionary
                                                                                                                    UID content referencing system
                                                                                                                    ensures consistent definition usage

                                     UID – Universal ID content referencing system
                                     values – comprise of domain prefix, six digit integer, optional version, sub-version.
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                      Syntax Technical Objectives
      Create dual use schema that is capable of
       support OASIS {1 - 5} levels of use and the set of
       quality measures with the business choice for
       increasing detail granularity
      Support and harmonize noun dictionaries across
       multiple legacy implementations and consortium
       standards by allowing substitution underneath
      Use of ebXML UID technique to equate like
       elements in dictionary

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                 Concept to Runtime Approach
                                                Business Information
                                                   Entities - BIE       Core Components,

                                                                       Industry Dictionaries
                      Components               Conceptual
       Structure                 1                       2                          Required
         AssemblyDoc                                                                             Payload
           Structure                            Process
                                                Engine                             Content

                                     Context                                                    Payload /
                                     Values                  Logical                            Rendering

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                         XML techniques summary

               We can use W3C Schema to show basic typing and
                structural permutations for all address content,
                matching the 5 levels of the business model.
               To provide automation of the business logic at-point-
                of-use requires ebXML and AssemblyDocs to
                supplement the Schema.
               This gives us short-term implementation today, with
                long-term extensibility and improvement of business
                value and information quality.

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                       Which XML Method(s)?
          We need business collaboration on elements syntax:
             Global complexType definition?

             Global element definition?

             or define both?

          Reuse
             Reference global element in external namespace?

             Define local element as substitutionGroup of global element (bring
              into local namespace)?
             Define local element using external Namespace complexType
              (bring into local namespace)?
             Derive by extension, local element can have additional sub-
              elements added to it?

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                      Postal Address Conclusions
         Support Address Use Levels 1 - 5
         Support Delivery Quality Metrics
         Make use of Schema in near term
         Define Postal Address using both Global complexType and Global
          Element Definitions
         Harmonize USPS & ECCMA approach with CIQ (xAL), HR-XML,
          postal address
            Support Dual Resolution (concatenated and detail)

            Align defined detailed elements (include mapping to concatenated)

            Establish UID-identified elements to support AssemblyDoc
             mapping to registry
            Define code lists to support rendering requirement

            Establish legacy environment compatibility (EDI X12 for DOD)

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                               Assembly Dissection

                        Required Components and Rendering
                                     in XML

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                              Making Assembly Work

           A,B,C,D!                     <CAM>
            Assembly Structure          <AssemblyStructure/>
            Business Context Rules
            Content Referencing           <DataValidations/>
            Data Validations            </CAM>

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                              Technology Foundation
            Simple XML V1.1             makeOptional()
            XPath                       setChoice()
            Neutral approach to         setLength()
             structure content           setMask()
            Assertion predicates        restrictValuesByUID()

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                                         Simple Example

               Simple Purchase Order

                      Straight up XML structure

                      Second example – structure choices

                      Included sub-assemblies

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                                  Additional Information
               OASIS ebXML Registry Technical Committee
                      http://oasis-open.org/committees/regrep/
               OASIS CAM (assembly) Technical
                      http://oasis-open.org/committees/cam/
               ebXML.org
                      http://www.ebxml.org/
                      http:ebxmlbook.com

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                                         Thank you
                        Pioneering XML eBusiness


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