Biological Diversity Index in Rice Field A pilot study by vev19514

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									Biological Diversity Index in Rice Field:
   A pilot study comparing between
       pesticide used and unused




                    Supaporn Chaigarun, Ph.D candidate
                        Nussaraporn Kessomboon,Ph.D
                         Pattapong Kessomboon, Ph.D
                             Peerayos Khangkan, Ph.D
                              Sangwan Somboon, Ph.D
•Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the
  most important food crops in
  Thailand.
• About 55% of rice is produced for

  domestic consumption, and the
  remaining 45% is for export.




                             (Vanichanont.P,2004)
• Thailand, with a market share of around
  25%, has been the world’s top rice
  exporter for decades.
                   (Pitiyon.B,2003 ; Vanichanont.P,2004. )



• The world’s top three ranked rice
  exporters are Thailand (8.8 million tons),
  Vietnam (5.0 million tons), and India (4.3
  million tons) in 2007.

                      (Department of Foreign Trade,2007)
• Thailand had biodiversity and
  ecology balance.


    “Fish in the River
and Rice in the Paddies”

                     (Department of Rice, 2007)
After 1960s, Thailand     promoted
monoculture and pesticide use
increasingly.
             ( Srisukwattana and Kahatha, 2005)

Thailand imported the 4th most
pesticides of the world in 2000.
              (Environmental Press Club, 2004)
Contamination to food chain




  ( Managing Agrochemicals in Multi-use of Aquatic Systems, 2003)
• 5,000-7,000 of Thai people are acutely
  poisoned by pesticides per year:
  headaches, dizziness and vomiting.
                               (Ministry of Public Health,2001-2003)

• Systematic review : 6 pesticides,parathion
 methyl, EPN, methomyl, carbofuran, dicrotophos and endosulfan,
 were impacted to reproductive effect,
 teratogenic effect, mutagenic effect,
 genotoxic effect, carcinogenic effect,
 organ toxicity, ecological effects,
 breakdown in soil, surface, ground water,
 vegetation.
                               (Pattapong Kessomboon et al.,2004)
            *The species diversity index
            => HIA process since it
            might affect the quantity and
            quality of human food supply




   An important of the health
determinants
Objectives of the study

  To assess affect of pesticide used
on arthropods species diversity and
compare between pesticide used and
non-use in rice fields
                                     Rice Field Experiment


     No Pesticide use                        Pesticide use                        Pesticide use
     - 1 st method (Farmer school)     (Recommended rate)                        (Double rate)
     - 2 nd method (IRRI)            - 1 st method                        -1  st method

     - 3 rd method (1 point)         - 2 nd method                        - 2 nd method
     - 4 th method (3 points)        - 3 rd method                        - 3 rd method
                                     - 4 th method                        - 4 th method


Propose method for farmers by focus                            Study acute health effects and costs for
   group discussion (3 rd method)                            treatment resulting from various intensities


  Cost benefit analysis (CBA)                                         Cost effectiveness analysis (CEA)



               Purposive conceptual frameworks
                            Purposive conceptual frameworks (cont’d)

      Cost benefit analysis (CBA)                                                                    Cost effectiveness analysis (CEA)

      Outcome                          Input                        Outcome                                                                                                   Input
                                                                                                                                       Total cost

                                                                    Effectiveness                            Rice Production Cost                            Health Care Cost
                  Rice production              Total cost
Intangible
  benefit              (Baht)              -Rice production cost
                                                                              Direct medical cost         Direct non-medical cost                Indirect cost             Intangible cost
                                           -Health Care Cost               - Pharmaceutical products      - Accommodation for rent             - Productivity
                                                                           - Physician visit                                                   loss
                                                                           - Emergency room visit
   Calculate CBA pesticide use and CBA no pesticide use                    - Hospitalization., etc


                                                          Species Diversity Index                                           important health determinant

 CBA pesticide use =            Rice production (baht)                                         Calculate CEA pesticide use and CEA no pesticide use
                       Rice production cost + Health Care Cost
                                                                                    ICER=                         Cost no pesticide use – Cost pesticide use
 CBA no pesticide use =         Rice production (baht)
                                                                                                 Species Diversity Index no pesticide use – Species Diversity Index pesticide use
                          Rice production cost + Health Care Cost


                                                                     Sensitivity analysis
                    Methods
• Literature review         & consulting experts
Entomology, Plant Science Technology, Qualitative
Data Collection, Public Health Economics, Medical
Science and Insect Ecology

• Meeting with farmers


•Field experimental study
September 2007-April 2008
Farmer school                                3 Points




  1 point                                     Intensive
                                               Method
                                               (IRRI)




                Methods of data collection
• 600 net sweep samples
(2 sites ) using a intensive
procedure (IRRI Method)
• Insect pest, Predator and
parasitoid species sampled
were sorted and counted in
the field with farmers and
laboratory.
                       Results
         Types     Insect pests        Benefit insects
Sites
                                  Predators     Parasitoids

Used Pesticide         116          350            220
(SDI = 1.344)

Unused Pesticide
                       255          656            237
(SDI = 1.728)


  Median difference= 0.369, 95 %CI = [0.258, 0.521]
 Insect Pests



Predators                     Parasitoids




        (International Rice Research Institute, 1981)
            Insect Pests



              Control


Predators                  Parasitoids
•   High pesticide use is a reason
for the breakdown of biological
control services, and has led to
uncontrollable outbreaks of the
predators     and     the    parasitoids
(Chiu,1979; Heinrichs,1994 ; Haskell and
McEwen, 1998; Heinrichs & Mochida 1984;
Heong & Schoenly 1998; K. L. Heong, 2007)

•    Effect to food security and
health system.
     Kam Koon Center, Ubonrat
Hospital, Thailand : increasing
number and type of species meant
good environment and healthy
trend which one of eight Gross
Domestic Happiness indicators
(GDH)
The unused pesticide rice
field has more diversity or
healthier ecosystem than
pesticide-used
   Acknowledgement
Funding agency :
Ubonratchathani Rajabhat University
Mahasarakham University
Khon Kaen University
National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT)
International Rice Research Institute, Philippines
(IRRI)
Training : Kao Khan Foundation (KKF),
Healthy Public Policy Foundation,
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)
   Acknowledgement
•Farmers for their cooperation
•Asst.Prof.Dr. Nusaraporn Kessomboon, KKU

•Asst.Prof.Dr. Pattapong Kessomboon, KKU

•Asst.Prof.Dr. Peerayos Khangkhan, MSU
•Dr.Sungwarl Somboon, UBRU
•Assoc. Prof. Dr. Wongsa Laohasiriwong, KKU
•Dr. Descharat Sukkumneod, Kasetsart University
•Dr. K.L. Heong, Insect Ecologist and Senior
Scientist, IRRI
Thank you ☺

								
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