EarthCARE and Global Environmental Satellite Program in Japan by zik13474


									 EarthCARE and Global
 Environmental Satellite
   Program in Japan

           Masahiro Kojima*1
          Toshiyoshi Kimura*1
           Hiroshi Kumagai*2
       *1 : Office of Space Application, JAXA
*2 : Applied Electromagnetic Research Center, NICT

 Japan basic strategy for earth observation
 Overview of JAXA’s satellite projects for global
  environment monitoring
   GCOM
 EarthCARE/CPR status

                 EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC
Japan basic strategy for earth observation

          EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC
  Japan’s Basic Strategy for Earth Observation
       Council for Science & Technology Policy (March 2006)
 • Needs for an integral observation by satellites, ships, buoys, ground
   stations and so on,
 • Establishment of a integral observation system from the user’s point
   of view,
 • One of the tools for policy making,
 • Contribution to GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of
   Systems) especially on following 3 Societal Benefit Areas
    – Water, Climate & Disaster
A National Key Technology
“Integrated Marine Exploration and Earth Observation System”
     Earth Observation
     Disaster Monitoring
     Marine Exploration
                    EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC
                  “Integrated Marine Exploration and Earth Observation System”
     Establishment of a fundamental system for Earth observation, disaster monitoring and
     marine exploration system as a national key technology for Japanese national security
                    ALOS                                                 GCOM                                                   Policy making
     Satellite                    GOSAT       GPM/DPR
 Positioning                                                                                                             Data          dataset

                                                                                      Integration of observation data
                                                 Rainfall                                                                & Analysis
                                                                         Ocean wind
                                                              Ocean         SST
   Earth Observation

・Global environment problem
・GHG                                                                                                                            緯度
・Understand of weather
 anomaly and climate change               Deep sea drilling                                                                        時間
  Disaster Monitoring
・Disaster monitoring of                               Future marine
 earthquake, heavy rain etc.                      exploration technology
・Trench giant earthquake                                                                                                                   institutes
    Marine exploration
・Marine exploration under
 ocean bottom
・Resource exploration by                                                                                                                 Ministry and
 satellite and marine probe                                                                                                              agency
             The Long Term Plan of JAXA Earth Observation for GEOSS
   Japanese                                                 JFY
Contribution Field
                   Observation Parameter                            2003   2004   2005                      2006                        2007                                2008                                                            2009                                                                2010                                                                                2011                                        2012                                            2013                                                    2014                                    2015                            2016                    2017   2018   2019                   Notes
                                         Sensor Type

                                                                      Terra /ASTER

                  Land-cover change,          Passive optical
                                            sensor (Visible and
                    volcanic ash fall,
                                             IR high resolution                                                 ALOS / PRISM, AVNIR-2
Reduction and      flooded area, etc.             sensor)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Concrete satellite and sensor plan of
                                                                                        PRISM                       : Spectral Range 0.52-0.77µm, Resolution 2.5m, Swath 70km(Nadir)
Prevention of                                                                           A   V   N   I   R   -   2   :   S   p   e   c   t   r   a   l   R   a   n   g   e   0   .   4       2       -       0       .   8       9       µ       m       (       4           b       a       n       d       )   ,       R       e       s       o           l   u           t       i       o           n           1       0   m   ,   S   w       a   t   h           7   0   k   m       (   N       a   d       i       r   )
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the next disaster monitoring satellite
  Disasters                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  missions are examined succeedingly.

                  Crustal deformation,       Active radio wave
                                                                                                                    ALOS / PALSAR                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Next Disaster Monitoring Mission
                                              sensor (L-band
                 biomass, flooded area,
                                             synthetic aperture                        PALSAR : L band 1270GHz, Resolution 10m, Swath 40km-70km
                          etc.                     radar)

                                             Active radio wave       TRMM /PR                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           GPM /DPR (Dual frequency Precipitation Radar)
                     3D structure of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Improvement in the observation
                    precipitation, soil       (Precipitation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             performance by the dual frequency
                      moisture, etc.              radar)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ku band 13.6GHz, Ka band 35.5GHz, Swath 245km, Horizontal Resolution 5km, Range Resolution 250m                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      observation (Ka band and Ku band)

                                                                         Aqua /AMSR-E
                                             Active microwave                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   GCOM-W/AMSR2
                    water vapor, sea
                                            sensor (Microwave
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The sensor which inherits the
                  surface temperature,          radiometer)
                                                              ADEOS-II/AMSR                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  specification of AMSR and AMSR-E
                           etc.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         6.9-89GHz(6ch), Swath 1600km, Spatial Resolution 5-50km
 Water Cycle                                 Active radio wave ADEOS-II/SeaWinds
                    Sea surface wind
                                            sensor (Microwave                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       GCOM-W/Microwave Scatterometer                                                                           The sensor provided by the foreign
  Variation           vector, etc.            scatterometer)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Frequency 13.4GHz, Swath1800km, Spatial Resolution 25km

                Cloud optical thickness,                      ADEOS-II/GLI                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  GCOM-C/SGLI
                    aerosol optical
                                           Passive optical                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Development of the sensor which
                                            sensor (Multi-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   introduced new technical elements
                    thickness, land      spectral radiometer)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                based on GLI
                     biomass, etc.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Spectral Range 0.38-12µm(22ch, multiple polarization/direction channel included),
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            S   w       a       t   h       1   1   5   0       k   m           ,       S           p   a   t   i   a   l   R   e   s   o   l   u   t   i   o   n   2   5   0   m   ,   5   0   0   m   ,   1   k   m

                 3D distribution of cloud
                                             Active radio wave                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      EarthCARE /CPR                                                                                                                                                                                           Development of new original sensor
                                              sensor(Cloud                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (94GHz radar) which took advantage
                   and aerosol, etc.          profiling radar)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               of our superiority of radar technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            94GHz Doppler Radar, Range Resolution 500m, Field of View 650m

                                                                                                                                                                                                GOSAT / Greenhouse gas Observation Sensor (GOS)
                                              Passive optical
                                                sensor (IR                                                                                                                              Spectral Range                                                                                                                  0.78~14.3µm(5ch),
   Global                                     spectrometer)
                                                                                                                                                                                        S       w           a       t       h                                                                                       a       p       p       r       o           x       .               1           0       0       0       k   m   ,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The concrete sensor which realizes
Warming and       Carbon dioxide(CO2),                                                                                                                                                  S       p       a       t       i   a       l       R       e       s       o   l       u       t   i   o       n                   8       k       m           (           N           a               d       i   r   )       ,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             improvement in observation accuracy
                   methane(CH4), etc.                                                                                                                                                   Target Accuracy  4ppmv(3 months average)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Next Greenhouse Gas Observation Satellite                                                                                                                                    (4ppmv -> 1ppmv) is examined
Carbon Cycle
  Change                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     succeedingly.

                                            Active optical sensor

                                                                                  Approved Project                                                                                                                                  Planned Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Period
                                                                           Legends: Satellite name/Sensor name                                                                                                                                                                                          Japanese Satellite/Japanese Sensor, Foreign satellite/Foreign Sensor                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6
                  JAXA Earth Observation Program for GEOSS
                                                                      A plan of advanced low
   To develop and operate an Earth
                                                                       Earth orbit satellites
   Observation System for GEOSS                                                      Dual-frequency Precipitation
                                                                                     Radar (GPM)
                                                                       Water SBA
               SAR/disaster monitoring satellites
                                          With NASA
   With NASA
                                              GCOM-W                                 Scatterometer (GCOM-W)

                                                         GCOM-C                      SGLI (GCOM-C)

   DPR/GPM                                                                           Cloud Profiling Radar

                                                                      Climate SBA    Greenhouse Gas Observation
                                                                                     Sensor (GOSAT)
                                                           With ESA

Optical Sensor/
                                                                      Disaster SBA   SAR & Optical Sensor (disaster
Geo-stationary EO                                                                    monitoring satellites. Geo-
satellite                            GOSAT                                           stationary EO satellite)

                                     EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC
              Integrated global environmental observing system for
                   environmental observations and predictions

           Satellite observation                               Ground observation network
                  network                    Communication       Manned/unmanned aircraft

                                                                  Ships                Buoys
          LEO                          GEO

                                                             Direct data distribution to
Process study and modeling on atmosphere,                    operational users and data
ocean, land, water cycles, and global warming by
Earth observation data users

                                                               Assessment of impact
     Predictions using models for climate,                     from human activities
  hydrological cycle change, and carbon cycle
                                                                Tools for policy
                                                                    making                                   8
                         Super computer
                         (Earth simulator)
Overview of JAXA’s satellite projects for
     global environment monitoring

         EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC
                      GOSAT Mission Targets
1. To observe global GHG density distribution
     – CO2 and CH4 column density observation
     – at 100-1000km spatial scale
     – with relative accuracy of 0.3-1% for CO2 (1-4ppm) and 0.6-2% for CH4
     – during the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period (2008 to 2012).
2. To reduce the annual flux estimation error in the sub-continental scale
     – CO2 annual flux estimation errors by half to1/5 (0.54 to 0.27 GtC/yr).
3. To develop technologies for GHG measurement from space
     –    by developing SWIR (short wave infrared) and TIR (thermal infrared)
         Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) and highly reliable and robust
         satellite system.

                     EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC
            GOSAT Satellite Specifications

Size          Main             1.8m x 2.0m x 3.7m
              body            (Wing Span 13.7m)
Mass          Total                 1,750kg
Power         Total               3.8KW(EOL)
Life Span                       5 years
Orbit                    sun synchronous orbit
              Local time            13:00+/-0:15
              Altitude                    666km
              Inclination                 98deg
              Re-visit                    3 days
Launch        Vehicle                     H-IIA
              Schedule                    2008

                                                        H-IIA Launch
            EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC   Vehicle    11
                  GOSAT Satellite Configuration

                                                         Thermal And Near infrared
                                                         Sensor for carbon Observations

TANSO-FTS (Main Sensor)                                          TANSO-CAI (Sub Sensor)
Spectral bands:                                                  Spectral Bands :
 band-1 0.757-0.775μm           : O2                              band-1 0.38μm
 band-2 1.56-1.72μm             : CO2,CH4                         band-2 0.67μm
 band-3 1.92-2.08μm             : CO2                             band-3 0.87μm
 band-4 5.5-14.2μm              : CH4,O3,CO2,Vapor,Temperature    band-4 1.60μm
Spectral resolution : 0.2cm-1
FTS : Fourier Transform Spectrometer                                                         12
                                                                 CAI : Cloud and Aerosol Imager
                      GOSAT Organization and Roles

GOSAT is the joint project of JAXA, MOE (Ministry of Environment) and NIES
(National Institute for Environmental Studies).

              MOE                                     JAXA
 •Sensor development                                     •Sensor development
      (Funding Support)                                  •Satellite development
 •Data use for Policy                                    •H-IIA launch
   development                                           •Satellite operation
                                                         •Data acquisition
          •Algorithms development
          •Data use for science
          •Source and sink inversion
          •Validation                                                        13
          The Concept of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM)

Core Satellite                                              Constellation Satellites
• Dual-frequency Precipitation                                      • Microwave
  Radar (DPR)                                                         Radiometers or Sounders
• Microwave Radiometer                                                installed on each satellite
Highly sensitive precipitation                                     Frequent precipitation
 measurement                                                         measurement
Calibration for constellation
                                                                        Expected Partners:
 radiometers and Sounders                                                NASA, NOAA, DOD,
                                                                         EUMETSAT, CNES-ISRO
 JAXA and NICT : DPR                                                     China, others
 NASA : Spacecraft bus
                                                                       2 satellites
                                     3-hourly global
                                      rainfall map                     8 satellites
Blue: Inclination ~65º (GPM core) EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC                    14
Green: Inclination ~35º (TRMM)
                              GPM core satellite

Dual-frequency precipitation                                      Flight direction
radar (DPR) consists of                               GMI
Ku-band (13.6GHz) radar : KuPR
                                                                  407 km altitude,
and                                   DPR                         65 deg inclination
Ka-band (35.5GHz) radar : KaPR

                           Range resolution
                           = 250m and 500m

                                      KaPR         GMI
                        KuPR       Swath: 125 km
                     Swath: 245 km                 Swath: 800km


                                       GPM/DPR Functionality

Dual frequency (13.6, 35.55 GHz) Ku-band and ka-band precipitation radar
                          Measurable range by 35GHz radar
    Rainrate Occurrence

                                 Measurable range by 14GHz radar

                                                            DPR radar will:
                                                            •Measure intense rain
                            mid- & high-                    in tropics
                                              tropical rain •Weak rain & snow in
                           latitude rain &
                                snow                        mid/ high-latitudes
                                                            •DSD using
                                                            differential reflectivity

    weak rain                          Rain-rate              strong rain
    & snow                             new measurable range by addition of 35GHz
                                    EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC
                        Overview of GCOM
•   The Purpose of GCOM is to demonstrate monitoring the climate change by
    satellite observation.
•   GCOM consists of two kinds of satellites, GCOM-W and GCOM-C.
     – GCOM-W will contribute to the observations related to global water and
        energy circulation.
     – GCOM-C will contribute to the surface and atmospheric measurements
        related to the carbon cycle and radiation budget.
•   GCOM is long-term mission to observe more than 10 years.
     – Three consecutive generations of satellites with one year overlap in
        orbit enables over 13years observation in total.

    Jan. 2012                1year                1year
                    EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC
                        GCOM-W1 design baseline

 •   GCOM-W1 on-orbit configuration                      S/C Specifications
      – AMSR2*: Multi frequency and dual         Orbit           Sun synchronous orbit
        polarized passive microwave                              Altitude:699.6km(on Equator)
        radiometer                                               Local sun time:13:30±15min

                                  AMSR2          Life            5 years
                                                 Launch          January 2012 by H-IIA Rocket
                                                 Satellite       1880kg

                                                         AMSR2 Specifications
                                                   Mass               405kg

                                                   Antenna            2m
                                                   Power              780W (nominal)

                                                   Swath width        1450km
                                                   Observation        7,10,18, 23,36,89GHz
                                                   Frequency band

*AMSR2:Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2

                       EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC
                            GCOM-C1 design baseline

 GCOM-C1 on-orbit configuration                               S/C Specifications
     SGLI*: Multi-band imaging                       Orbit              Sun synchronous orbit
                                                                         Altitude:798km(on Equator)
       radiometer                                                        Inclination:98.6°
                                                                         Local sun time:10:30±15 min
             Consists of two radiometer,              Life               5 years

             VNR** and IRS***.                        Launch             January 2013 (TBD) by H-IA
                             SGLI-IRS                                    Rocket
                                                      Satellite          1950kg
                                                                  SGLI Specifications
                                                    Mass                             400kg

                                                    Power                            480W (nominal)
                                                    Observation band                 380nm - 12mm(19ch)
                                                    Swath width                      VNR: 1150km
                                                                                     IRS: 1400km

                                                    Spatial resolution               250m(11ch), 500m(2ch),

   *SGLI : Second Generation Global Imager          Polarization and multi-angle
                                                    observation (±45°)               2ch (670nm, 865nm)
  **VNR : Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer
  ***IRS : Infrared Scanner
                          EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC
EarthCARE/CPR status

EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC
                     EarthCARE/CPR in Japan
EarthCARE/CPR is
   Element of the “Integrated Marine Exploration and Earth Observation
     System” carried out by the Ministry of (MEXT)
   Element of the JAXA’s earth environment monitoring program
   One of JAXA’s contribution for GEOSS Climate and Water SBA
Major users and research organizations are
   Association of the earth climate research centers of the universities
   Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)
       Frontier Research Center for Global Change
   National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES)
   Japan Meteorological Agency (JAM) / Meteorological Research
      Institute (MRI)
   University of Tokyo Center for Climate System Research (CCSR)
Cooperation with European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Institute of
           Information and Communications Technology (NICT)
EarthCARE is a joint project between ESA and JAXA/NICT
JAXA/NICT is responsible for
  Cloud profiling Radar (CPR) development
  CPR science data processing
  Promotion of the science and application

Earthcare/CPR is a joint project between JAXA and NICT
JAXA has a history of cooperation with NICT regarding space
born weather radar
              Purpose of the earthCARE/CPR in Japan

                                                              gh        si
                                                            H i P reci on
                                                                C lm ate
                          O bservation                          C hange
           ES A               D ata                                  cti
                                                              P redi on
                                           European U ser
    EarthC A R E proj
                                           O rgani ons

  nt    ect
Joi P roj                                  Europe-Japan                        International
                                         Joi S ci
                                                ence Team                          zati
                                                                             organi on such
                                                                                 as I C C

       JA X A /N I T
                                           Japanese U ser
     EarthC A R E/C P R
                          O bservation           zati
                                           O rgani ons        gh        si
                                                            H i P reci on
                              D ata                                i
                                                                C lm ate
                                                                C hange
                                                              P redi on

                                                                                  P olcy
                                                                                 S trategy

                          EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC
            Major users and research organizations in Japan

       Europe - Japan                         Japan A gency for M ari  ne-Earth
             oi     ence team
EarthC A R E j nt sci                      Sci                     ogy
                                               ence and Technol (JA M STEC )
                                        Fronti R esearch C enter for G l  obalC hange
                                                    U ni      ty
                                                        versi of Tokyo
                                           C enter for C lm ate System R esearch           i
                                                                                        C lm ate m odel
                                                            (C C SR )                   research
   ence C om m i
 Sci             ttee of the                onalI tute for Envi
                                        N ati    nsti                         es
                                                                ronm entalStudi         organi ons
     EarthC A R E/C P R                                 (N IES)
                                           Japan M eteorol calA gency (JA M ) /                           ated research
                                                                                                 O ther rel
                                                  ogi             nsti
                                          M eteorol calR esearch I tute (M R I  )                           zati
                                                                                                     organi ons &
                                                                                                       uni     ti
                                                                                                          versi es

        JA XA /N I T
      EarthC A R E/C P R
           P roj
               ect                            ati                 i
                                        A ssoci on of the earth clm ate
                                        research centers of the uni     ti
                                                                   versi es

                                EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC
                     JAXA-NICT cooperation regarding
                   space born weather radar development

                                             G PM
             TR M M                          D ual-frequency
P roj
    ect            pi on
             P reci tati R adar                    pi on
                                             P reci tati R adar
             (TR M M /P R )                  (G P M /D P R )            EarthC A R E
                                             - C onceptualstudy            oud
                                                                        C l P rofii  lng
             - C onceptualstudy              - R &D of the KaP R        R adar
N I T' rol
   C s e     - R &D of the cri cal
                             ti                cri alel ents
                                                  ti em                 (EarthC A R E/C P R )
               el ents                       - KaP R Engineering
                 gori          opm
             - A l thm devel ent                           opm
                                               M odeldevel ent
              of the flght softw are         - Support of the D P R
                                               system desi gn

                            EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC
                                JAXA/NICT responsibilities

                                  JAXA                                     NICT

                  •System design                          •System design
                  •Subsystem development                  •Subsystem development
                       Reflector                              Quasi-optical feeder subsystem
     CPR               Signal processing subsystem            TX/RX subsystem
 development           Antenna hold-down &
                        deployment subsystem
                       Structural subsystem
                       Thermal subsystem
                  •CPR AIT                                •Support of CPR AIT
    S/C AIT       •Support of the S/C AIT regarding CPR   •Support

 CPR operation    •CAL/VAL of CPR                         •CAL/VAL of CPR
data processing   •CPR data processing system             •CPR level 1 algorithm
   Science &       development                             development
  application     •Promotion of science and
                                    EarthCARE/CPR development schedule

JFY                   2007                  2008              2009                2010                    2011                2012
CY                  2007             2008              2009                2010                    2011                2012

                  P hase A                                            P hase C /D
devel ent
                                            P hase B                                                             P hase E
                 SD R
                                                       CDR                                            i
                                                                                    P Q R /P S R D elvery                        Launch
  M D R /S R R   M anagem ent       ect
                                P roj team                                                       of C P R
                 review               i
                                establshm ent
M i on                                                                                                                         on
                                                                                                                       preparati &
                                      S ystem study                              opm
                                                                     S ystem devel ent and test
ops.system                                                                                                               operation

A l thm          S tudy about the
                                                                   gori      opm
                                                                 A l thm devel ent,C A L & V A L
devel ent            products

                                         EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC
             EarthCARE/CPR status in Japan

 Extended phase-A activities since 2005 together with NICT
 Mid-term report in September, 2006
 JAXA/NICT pre-project team established in October, 2006
 ESA-JAXA high level meeting in October, 2006
 Mission Definition Review (MDR) / System Requirement Review
  (SRR) in this month
 SAC phase up review in this summer
 System Definition Review (SDR) and JAXA Management Level
  Review by the end of 2007.
 Target to establish EarthCARE/CPR project team by the end of
  JFY 2007

               EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC
         EarthCARE/CPR extended phase A status
    0.8mΦ reflector manufacturing completed
        Confirmation of the fundamental manufacturing technology
    BBM of the reflector deployment mechanism completed
        Confirmation of the deployment alignment and repeatability
    Test measurement of the ESTEC Compact Payload Test Range
     using CPR antenna scale model completed
    Plan to manufacture full size reflector BBM, and the critical circuit
     BBM of the signal processor
    Quasi-Optical Feed BBM completed
        Confirmation of the electrical performance
    EIK and EPC BBM
        Confirmation of the electrical performance and the life
    LNA chip development

                   EarthCARE Workshop 7-9 May 2007 ESA-ESTEC

To top