Hemicellulose DOE – Products Platform Stage Gate Review Meeting

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					             Hemicellulose

DOE – Products Platform Stage Gate Review
                 Meeting
             August 9, 2005

             Rod Williamson
       Iowa Corn Promotion Board
                                                Presentation Outline
                                                      Funded by:


      1.     Overall Project Goals and Objectives
      2.     Project Organization
      3.     Task Detail
      4.     Market and customers
      5.     Competitive Advantage
      6.     Strategic Fit
      7.     Conclusions and Discussion



Contract
Administration by:
                                   Corn to Ethanol – Material Balance


    Corn processed in dry mill ethanol plant
     yields two other significant co-products
     beyond ethanol.
1 Bushel of Corn       2.7 Gallons Ethanol       18 lbs C02       18 lbs Distillers
                                                                       Grain

                   =                         +                +




   There is a tremendous opportunity to improve the
   economics of ethanol plant by increasing the value of
   distillers grains
                                                      Hemicellulose Project
                                                                                      Overview

                              starch enzymatic         glucose
  corn                grind                                                 filter             ethanol
                                 hydrolysis          fermentation

                                                                      hemicellulose
                                                                                                 DDG
                                                                       enzymatic
                                                                                                (feed)
                                                                       hydrolysis

                                                 .
                               sugars                                                          cellulose
monomers and                                           arabinose
                               organic acids                                filter
                                                                                                protein
high value solvents                              .     xylose                                   Lignin
                               enzymes
                                                                                               Fats/oils


                                                       Represents work done in this proposal

 Examples include:
 Itaconic Acid
 Furfural
 Levulinic Acid
 Glutamic Acid
 Xylonic Acid
 Xylitol/Arabitol
                                               Overall Project
                                            Goals & Objectives
PROJECT GOAL: Value Added Products from
Hemicellulose Utilization in Dry Mill Ethanol
Plants
• Hydrolyze the hemicellulose into the sugars.
• Convert the C5 sugars into value-added chemicals
  via fermentation and chemical catalysis.


Economic Benefits:
• Creates value added products from ethanol dry-mill facilities.
•The feedstock is the hemicellulose, which currently ends up as
a very low valued animal feed.
                                                                   Organization/Approach

Project Organization:
                                                Project
                                              Management
                                               R. Williamson
                                                 B. Mustell
                                               Dr. M Bradford
                                                 J. Murphy
                                                 Iowa Corn
                                              Promotion Board




   Technical            Applications              Technical            Enzymes and             Process
  Development           Development              Development           Development             Modeling
  Dr. J. Magnuson         Dr. M. Jaffe              Dr. D. Reed       Dr. R. Burlinghame      Dr M Cockrem
  Pacific Northwest    New Jersey Institute       Idaho National      Dyadic International      KiwiChem
 National Laboratory     of Technology              Laboratory



                                                                                             KiwiChem
                                  Project Timeline




USDA/DOE funding will stop here
                                           Overview


Task 2 Characterize arabinoxylan in whole stillage.

Task 3 Development of hemicellulases necessary for
hydrolysis of arabinoxylan

Task 4 Fungal fermentation of pentoses into value added
chemicals

Task 5 Develop a Novel Organism for conversion into
value-added chemicals

Task 6 Convert Organic Acids via Chemical Catalysis

Task 7 Economic Parameters and Commercial Feasibility
                                              Task 2 – Detail


Task 2 - Characterize arabinoxylan in whole stillage


Targets:            •Determine the composition of DDG
Risks:              •Composition doesn’t match the
                    expected values
Milestones:         •Assess the composition
Go/No-Go Points:
Accomplishments:    •Accomplished
Future Plans:       •None
                                                   Task 3 – Detail


Task 3 - Development of hemicellulases necessary
for hydrolysis of arabinoxylan

Targets:              • convert hemicellulose into arabinose and
                      xylose
Risks:                • cost of the enzyme
                      • some enzymes are not commercially
                      available and require significant
                      development
Milestones:           • hydrolysis of the hemicellulose

Go/No-Go Points: • cost effective compared to starch
Accomplishments: • enzymes have been tested for
                      hemicellulose hydrolysis
Future Plans:         • continue testing enzymes
                                                                                      Project Tasks

       3. Develop hemicellulases necessary for
          hydrolysis of arabinoxylan—PNNL/Dyadic
                                                                     1.   Xylanase
                                                                     2.   β-xylosidase
                                                                     3.   α-arabinofuranosidase
                                                                     4.   α-glucuronidase
                                                                     5.   Feruloyl esterase
                                                                     6.   Acetylxylan esterase
                                          xylanase
β-xylosidase

Xyl—Xyl—Xyl—Xyl—Xyl—Xyl—Xyl—Xyl—Xyl—Xyl—Xyl—Xyl—Xyl—Xyl—Xyl—Xyl
               GlcA—




                                                                  GlcA—
                       FerA—Ara—




                                                                                                   FerA—Ara—
                                          Ac—




                                                            Ac—




                                                                                             Ac—
Ara—

       Ara—




                                   Ara—




                                                     Ara—




                                                                               Ara—

                                                                                      Ara—




                                                                                                               Ara—
                                      α-arabinofuranosidase        α-glucuronidase
feruloyl esterase
                                                                           acetylxylan esterase
                                             Task 4 – Detail


Task 4 - Fungal fermentation of pentoses into value
added chemicals
Targets:            • ferment pentose sugars into value
                    added chemicals
Risks:              • cost of the fungal organism
                    • engineering an fungal organism to
                    produce optimal yields
Milestones:         • develop and organism that can ferment
                    targeted organic acids
Go/No-Go Points:    • cost effective fermentation based on
                    Aspen model
Accomplishments:    • developed a baseline
Future Plans:       • fermentation studies
                                                    Task 5 – Detail


Task 5 – Develop a novel organism to produce
organic acids
Targets:              • Convert pentose sugars to value-added
                      chemicals at low pH
Risks:                • getting the organism to tolerate a low pH
                      • organism that uses both xylose and
                      arabinose
Milestones:           • development of an organism that
                      produces targeted chemical at low pH
Go/No-Go Points:      • development of an organism that
                      produces targeted chemical at low pH
Accomplishments: • engineering the organism to produce
                      targeted compound
Future Plans:         • continue testing organism
                                                     Task 6 – Detail


Task 6 – Chemical catalysis of organic acids

Targets:               • produce industrial applications monomers
Risks:                 • catalyst selectivity
                       • catalyst lifetime
                       • minimize catalyst fouling
Milestones:            • identify potential catalyst for development

Go/No-Go Points: • identify potential catalyst for development
Accomplishments: • none
Future Plans:    • continue testing catalyst
                                                 Task 7 – Detail


Task 7 - Process engineering and economics

Targets:             • model the proposed process in Aspen to
                     determine economics
Risks:               • assumptions are wrong
Milestones:          • develop a conceptual process with
                     sufficient data to model
Go/No-Go Points:     • develop a conceptual process with
                     sufficient data to model
Accomplishments: • developed process economic model for a
                     dry-mill ethanol plant (ASPEN)
Future Plans:        • understand largest contributors to cost of
                     unit operations
                     • use model results to drive additional work
                                    Enzyme Economics


             DGS         DGS low            DGS high cost Starch to
                target      cost              scenario      Glucose
                scenario    scenario
raw material 2 cents/lb  2 cents/lb         4 cents/lb      6 cents/lb


enzyme         2.2 cents/lb 1.25 cents/lb   3.15 cents/lb   0.1
                                                               cents/lb
purification   3.8 cents/lb 2.85 cents/lb   4.75 cents/lb   1.9
                                                               cents/lb
Cost target    8 cents/lb   6.1 cents/lb    11.9 cents/lb   8 cents/lb
                                      New Applications




•New applications for organic acids are being
developed by New Jersey Institute of Technology.
•Successful deployment of this technology will result
in increased demand for biomaterials derived from
hemicellulose.
                                 Commercial Applications Hemicellulose
                                                           derivatives
•   Organic acids are used in
    many applications
    including:
      – Carpet sizing agent
      – Emulsion and leather
        coatings
      – Molding plastics
      – Herbicides
      – Paint
      – Medicines and
        cosmetics
      – Artificial gems
      – Dental binder
      – Appliance and car
        vehicle coatings
        Flavoring agent for
        food and beverages;
      – Intermediate for dyes,
        perfumes, lacquers,
        photographic
        chemicals
                                       Technical Barriers Addressed:
                                           Chemicals and Materials

                                                              Applications for new
                                                              monomers

                             Cost of Chemicals
1st Tier
                               And Materials




                                Product Yield
                                Product Purity
2nd Tier                     Final Concentration
                              Product Recovery
                                Capital Costs
                          Biological     Chemical



3rd Tier   Organism Development                    Catalyst Development
           Fermentation Development                Separations
           Enzyme Development
           Separations
                                                                                                                               Milestone Fit
                                                Milestone Hierarchy – Corn Dry Mill Improvements

                                                                                                              C5 or C6 or mixed
    Biomass Fractionation                           Ethanol Production                                C5/C6 Sugars conversion to Chemical
    with Sugar Production                           From Mixed Sugars                                        and Material Products

         B Milestone                                   B Milestone                             B Milestone                                   B Milestone
   (M 2.2) Demonstrate and                      (M 2.3) Demonstrate and                (M 2.4) Demonstrate and                         (M 2.5) Demonstrate and
 Validate economical residual                validate economical conversion         validate economical conversion                     validate economical new
starch conversion in a dry mill              of mixed sugars to ethanol in a        of mixed sugars to products in a                 products from C6 sugars in a
     ($/lb fiber) by 2009.                   dry mill. ($/gal EtOH) by 2009         dry mill. ($/lb product) by 2008                    dry mill. ($/lbs product)
                                                                                      Supporting C Milestones:
                                               Supporting C Milestones:
                                                                           1. Develop new organisms capable of fermenting
                                               •Same 1-3 as for B milestone C5 sugars to products identified in the “Top
                                               (M 1.3)                        Ten” analysis
                                                                                2. Organism productivity rates need to be on the
                            Supporting C Milestones:
                                                                                   order of 1.5-2.5 g/Lhr
•   Develop new organisms capable of fermenting C5 sugars to products
                                                                                3. Yield from sugars greater than 90%
    identified in the “Top Ten” analysis
                                                                                4. Final concentration from fermentation should
•   Organism productivity rates need to be on the order of 1.5-2.5 g/Lhr
                                                                                   be at least 100 g/l
•   Yield from sugars greater than 90%
                                                                                5. Organisms need to be robust with respect to
•   Final concentration from fermentation should be at least 100 g/l
                                                                                   impurities
•   Organisms need to be robust with respect to impurities
                                                                                6. Develop new catalysts capable of converting
•   Develop new catalysts capable of converting sugars to products identified
                                                                                   sugars to products identified in the “Top Ten”
    in the “Top Ten” analysis
                                                                                   analysis
•   Catalysts must achieve selectivity of greater than 90%
                                                                                7. Catalysts must achieve selectivity of greater
•   Catalyst lifetime of at least 1 year
                                                                                   than 90%
•   Catalyst fouling minimized
                                                                                8. Catalyst lifetime of at least 1 year
•   New membrane technologies need to be developed to recover products at
                                                                                9. Catalyst fouling minimized
    low cost (cost target is less than 10-15% of product value)
                                                                                10.New membrane technologies need to be
                                                                                   developed to recover products at low cost (cost
                                                                                   target is less than 10-15% of product value)
Stage Gate Fit
                    Potential Business Model




                   Intellectual
                     Property
                Farmer
Farmer      $   owned
investors       ethanol
                 plant
                                                             Strategic Fit

Fit with         Consistent with objectives of the Iowa Corn Promotion
                  Board to:
Company          • Promote and expand markets for corn and corn derived products
Business:        • Open up opportunities for possible investment by growers in the
                   production value-added products
                 • Research new uses for corn

Fit with         Fits in the Corn Dry Mill Improvements Milestone
                  Hierarchy
Biomass          - M 2.4) Demonstrate and validate economical conversion of mixed
                   sugars to products in a dry mill. ($/lb product) by 2008
Program:         - Catalyst development

Project Stage:   This project is in the exploratory stage.


Vision for       Partner with an existing dry-mill ethanol facility to develop
                 new market opportunities with expanded capacity for
Demonstration:   renewable materials.
                           Conclusions/Summary

• This is an early stage exploratory project.
• Technical progress would lead to further
  development of these products.
• Success would lead to a clean sugar
  stream for cleaner fermentation, higher
  yields, less catalyst fouling and better
  separation.
• Project is positioned to utilize the
  hemicellulose from a dry mill ethanol
  facility.
• Makes the dry mill ethanol facility more
  economical by diversifying the product
  portfolio.

				
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