In the News 2/18 Man accused of wife's beheading appears in court • Muzzammil Hassan, accused of beheading wife, waived right to felony hearing • Hassan, founder of Bridges TV, charged with second-degree murder • Hassan will be jailed without bail while case goes to grand jury • If convicted, he faces a sentence of 15 years to life Race and Crime Cultural, Institutional and SocioEconomic Factors As of 2001, the chances of going to prison in percentages for various demographic groups Prevalence of imprisonment in the United States • As of December 31, 2001, there were an estimated 5.6 million adults who had ever served time in State or Federal prison, including 4.3 million former prisoners and 1.3 million adults in prison. Nearly a third of former prisoners were still under correctional supervision, including 731,000 on parole, 437,000 on probation, and 166,000 in local jails. In 2001, an estimated 2.7% of adults in the U.S. had served time in prison, up from 1.8% in 1991 and 1.3% in 1974. The prevalence of imprisonment in 2001 was higher for -- black males (16.6%) and Hispanic males (7.7%) than for white males (2.6%) -- black females (1.7%) and Hispanic females (0.7%) than white females (0.3%) • Nearly two-thirds of the 3.8 million increase in the number of adults ever incarcerated between 1974 and 2001 occurred as a result of an increase in first incarceration rates; one-third occurred as a result of an increase in the number of residents age 18 and older. Lifetime likelihood of going to State or Federal prison • If recent incarceration rates remain unchanged, an estimated 1 of every 15 persons (6.6%) will serve time in a prison during their lifetime. • Lifetime chances of a person going to prison are higher for – -- men (11.3%) than for women (1.8%) – -- blacks (18.6%) and Hispanics (10%) than for whites (3.4%) • Based on current rates of first incarceration, an estimated 32% of black males will enter State or Federal prison during their lifetime, compared to 17% of Hispanic males and 5.9% of white males. • Demographics • More than 6 in 10 persons in local jails in 2002 were racial or ethnic minorities, unchanged from 1996. – An estimated 40% were black; 19%, Hispanic, 1% American Indian; 1% Asian; and 3% of more than one race/ethnicity. • Conviction Offense – Half of jail inmates in 2002 were held for a violent or drug offense, almost unchanged from 1996. – Drug offenders, up 37%, represented the largest source of jail population growth between 1996 and 2002. – More than two-thirds of the growth in inmates held in local jails for drug law violations was due to an increase in persons charged with drug trafficking. Nationally, The Black Population is Being Imprisoned at Alarming Rates • Upwards of 1/3 of the Black male population is under the supervision of the correctional system (prison, jail, parole, probation) • Estimated “lifetime expectancy” of spending some time in prison is 29% for young Black men. • About 12% of Black men in their 20s are in prison • 7% of Black children, 2.6% of Hispanic children, .8% of White children have a parent in prison (at one time) – lifetime expectancy much higher US Prison Admissions by Race 800 Prision Admission Rate 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1920 White Rate Black Rate Ratio Black/White Ratio The 1970’s Policy Shift • Shift to determinate sentencing, higher penalties • LEAA, increased funding for police departments • Crime becomes a political issue • Drug war funding gives incentives to police to generate drug arrests & convictions • Post-civil rights post-riots competitive race relations, race-coded political rhetoric. Monthly Riot Counts 1964-1971 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 Social Conditions, Political Processes, Crime, and Corrections Feedback from Imprisonment to Social Conditions Crime Social & Demographic Conditions Arrests Social Control, Deterrence Judicial Processes Corrections Outcomes Police Enforcement Political Processes Laws, Penalties Prison Interests Imprisonment Has Increased While Crime Has Declined • Imprisonment rates are a function of responses to crime, not a function of crime itself • Property crimes declined steadily between 1970s and 2000 • Violent crime declined modestly overall, with smaller ups and downs in the period Property Crime Violent Crime Rape The Drug War • Most of the increase in imprisonment is due to drug offenses. • Drug use rates have generally declined since the 1980s, while drug imprisonments have increased. • Black adult drug use rates are only slightly higher than White (see next chart), while their imprisonment rates for drugs are enormous • Among juveniles, Blacks use illegal drugs less than Whites, but Black juveniles have much higher drug arrest rates. Institutional racism • Those forces, social arrangements, institutions, structures, policies, precedents and systems of social relations that operate to deprive certain racially identified categories equality . • Institutional racism occurs in institutions such as public bodies and corporations, including universities. Social class • social class is how you speak, what you wear, what you watch on TV, the items in your living room, and what time you eat dinner which all have a great deal to do with your social class, as well as what you drink. • Social class is sociology's main predictor of beliefs, behavior, life-styles and of life itself. It is seen as the process of a "class in itself" moving in the direction of a "class for itself," a collective agent that changes history rather than simply being a victim of the historical process, and in this sense, is associated with the concept of "elitism," broadly defined as a set of sensibilities and attitudes, as well as the topic of social change. Determine Your Social Class Based on What You Drink No, really. Mixed Drinks/Liquor upper/ upper middle Wine > dry whites Beer > bottled european imports > vodka with water or on the rocks > scotch with water or on the rocks > bloody marys (before 3 pm) > > > > > vodka with tonic scotch and soda bourbon and ginger anything with brandy bloody marys (after 3 pm) middle > white zinfandel > Riunite > domestic bottles (including all microbrews) prole (proleta rian) > anything with schnapps of any kind > martinis after dinner > seven and seven > daiquiris, stinger mists, brandy Alexanders, sweet manhattans (before dinner) > fruit wine (before dinner) > any wine in a box > domestic cans > Zima • social class consists of people who share the same or similar social status, or more precisely, socio-economic status (SES), – Education, – Occupation, – and Income. • Poverty is generally regarded as absolute deprivation • Inequality, on the other hand, refers to a comparison between the material level of those who have the least in a society and the material level of other groups in that society • The type of crime traditionally associated with economic inequality is property crime, but this may be simply an "opportunity" explanation (since when poor people live side by side with rich people, there's more opportunity). • In recent years, however, the "deep anger" explanation has become more popular, and many criminologists now associate economic inequality with violent crime. Perhaps the most common association is with "conventional" or street crime. • For example, when unemployment goes up 1%, there's a 4% increase in homicides, a 6% increase in robberies, a 2% increase in burglaries, and measurable effects on rape and other crimes. • It has been suggested that poverty produces an immediate "opportunity" effect and a lagged "motivation" effect. People experiencing downturns in economic conditions usually don't feel the full effects until support from their family runs out, government assistance is exhausted, etc. Hence, some period of delay, or "lag" is expected before the effect shows up on crime rates. A one or two-year lag is typical, with researchers looking in 1996 for the crime rate effects of a bad economic year in 1994, for example. Shooting trial focuses on race MOORHEAD, Minn. An attempted murder trial that focuses on race begins today in a small northern Minnesota town that's nearly all white. A 67-yearold man is accused of shooting another man outside a bar two years ago because he is black. Authorities allege James Waltz told a neighbor before the shooting that he hoped to someday kill a black person. The victim, Ricky Davis, survived being shot in the stomach. The shooting occurred in International Falls, where only 19 of the more than 66-hundred residents counted in the 2000 Census were black. The trial was moved about 140 miles to the town of Red Lake Falls because of publicity and an incident in which potential jurors saw Waltz in handcuffs. Waltz told a friend the shooting was an accident but witnesses say he was angry because several black men were in the bar. Copyright 2005 Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.
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