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Conservatism and Liberalism

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					       Conservatism and Liberalism
   Great Britain as a test case for the conservative
    backlash against liberalism.
   Remember, everything is relative, and Britain is
    the “most liberal” of any nation Europe
   Remember also that Parliament is dominated by
    the interests of the wealthy
   How much do they really represent the “needs”
    of the people
               Do Now: 1.16.04
   AP: Set up notebook for mini-presentation on
    Conservative Reaction to Liberalism in Britain
    and France.
   Read Frankenstein or Kagan for 15 minutes.
   Homework: Frankenstein Chapters 1-10 for
    Tuesday. Take reading notes, handwritten, and
    use these for the test
   Kagan: pages 724-733 for Wednesday, 1.21.04
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   Further, there has always been a historic belief
    that the Government of Britain was the
    “paternalistic protector” of the people…a sort
    of social contract existed
   Conditions and the call for change…
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   1815 – post Napoleonic Europe
   Britain has a series of bad harvests and high
    unemployment
   Rather than deal with this, Lord Liverpool
    protects the interests of those who have the
    greatest influence, and he pushes the Corn
    Laws through Parliament
   This is conservatism in action
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   The Corn Laws – are emblematic of a simply
    economic plan; protect domestic corn grown by
    wealthy landholders
   These wealthy landholders are also
    parliamentarians, or have relationships with them
   By driving up prices, using import duties and
    tariffs, of foreign grain, domestic prices rise as
    do profits for the wealthy
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   Unfortunately, the urban poor, the unemployed and the
    rural poor are adversely affected by this move
   Who is looking out for their interests?
   Further, by abandoning the income tax a year later, the
    wealthy are able to keep more of the money they are
    making
   Also, by passage of the Combination Acts in 1799,
    workers organizations are outlawed and wages are no
    longer protected
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   Hence, you have a climate where the very
    legislative body who got a king to sign the Bill of
    Rights is abandoning their mandate to represent
    the interests of the people
   Remember, this is not particular to England, but
    we, ostensibly, expect much more from them…
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   It become an inevitably that the lower classes
    would not take all of this lying down
   And, as these “masses” begin to voice
    discontent, the government can only think of
    the chaos of the French Revolution, and the
    sans-culottes running wild in the streets
   Like most governments we have seen, the
    British will not deal lightly with calls for change
    that will affect their social status and Power
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   By Passage of the Coercion Act – By repealing
    the writ of “Habeas Corpus” – guaranteed by
    the Bill of Rights – parliament reflects in a much
    less severe scale the Law of 22 Prairial during the
    Reign of Terror
   This leads us to “Peterloo, and the Six Acts”
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   The reference to Waterloo is intentional!
   Labor organizers in Britain were more active in
    the north because that is where the
    Industrialized centers were!
   Remember that as far as the government was
    concerned, you could not organize at all!
   Those gathered in St. Peter’s fields who
    demanded reform were lawbreakers, and had to
    be dealt with! ( You can recognize the duplicity)
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   Why Peterloo is significant is that it lead to the
    justification and passage of the “Six Acts”
   This is often referenced on the exam, and are a
    great example to use to exemplify the
    conservative backlash against the growing tide
    of Liberalism
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   The Six Acts:
   Large (unauthorized) Meetings are forbidden
   Fined for “seditious libel” slander against the
    Government) are raised
   Trial for agitators are expedited
   Newspaper taxes increased
   No training of armed groups
   Home could be searched if necessary
        Conservatism and Liberalism
   What happens naturally after such draconian
    measures, is that tensions will rise, the people
    will act (inappropriately) and the government
    will then have and
       “You see, I told you so” moment

   Any action after that is totally justified, but the
    subtext is that The Law enforces, but it does
    not represent!
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   France and The Bourbon Restoration
   Louis XVIII (Brother of the deposed monarch)
    will have a difficult situation to manage
   What level or degree of the gains of the
    Revolution must be maintained
   And, how much of his rule must mirror the
    conservative Monarchical “reactionism” of his
    European Contemporaries
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   France was different than it was under his
    brother, and there was no way to “un-ring” that
    bell.
   France was under a Charter, which was a hybrid
    of a Monarchy and an Constitutional Monarchy
   Usually, when you try and play both sides of the
    street you end up getting run over.
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   The Upper House were Monarchical Appointees
   The Lover House (Chamber of Deputies) were
    elected, but the “franchise” (voting rights and
    specifications) skewed the Chamber toward the
    wealthy landowners
   Hence, “The People” are not exactly highly
    represented
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   The Charter:
   Guarantees the Rights in the Declaration of the Rights
    of man and the Citizen (for now)
   Religious toleration (but…Catholicism in the de-facto
    religion of France
   Property that changed hands during the Revolution
    remains in those hands
   This, obviously, will anger those who are looking for a
    return to the Ancien Regime (like the rest of Europe)
        Conservatism and Liberalism
   UltraRoyalism (This is also know as reactionism)
   Royalists take advantage of the climate of chaos after
    Napoleons downfall to rise up against former
    revolutionaries (White Terror)
   Even after the King dismisses the Chamber of
    Deputies for being too reactionary, a moderate
    Chamber will eventually turn on him as well
   Big Issue: if the monarchy is not sufficient, what is to
    be done and who will do it?
        Conservatism and Liberalism
   Here is a thematic connection between Britain
    and Europe
   Louis XVIII will eventually bow to the pressure
    of the UltraRoyalists and pass repressive
    measures
     “Electoral Reform” to benefit the wealthy
     Press Censorship

     Arrests of suspicious persons were facillitated
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   Summary statements
   If we look at Britain and France, and examine
    them though the lens of the Conservative Order
    struggling in the face of Liberalism, we can see
    some interesting parallels…
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   Britain             France
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   Britain             France
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   The Conservative Order
   Maintain the Status Quo
   Congresses and Consultations are the root of
    the Alliance Systems that would lead to WWI
   This system of Cooperation was known as the
    “Concert of Europe”
   How is this concert of Europe shown or
    displayed?
        Conservatism and Liberalism
   Treaty of Aix-la Chapelle
     Big Four remove their troops from France
     France re-Admitted to the Concert of Europe
           “No Blood-No Foul”
   Yet, within the Congress there were differing
    views on the extent to which they should police
    Europe
    Russia believes in upholding the borders
   Britain does not
        Conservatism and Liberalism
   The beginnings of the revolutionary periods in
    Europe
   By looking at these revolutions we can measure
    two things
     The degree to which they represent any margin of
      Victory for the liberal cause
     The degree to which the conservative order was able
      to withstand a challenge to their way of life.
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   Revolutionary Template
   Area
   Existing Governmental structure
   Challenges to that structure/Issues of
    Contention
   The Involvement of outside forces
   The Extent to which the Congress of Europe
    was able to maintain the Balance of Power
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   Spain:
   Existing Monarchy: The Bourbon Ferdinand
    VII
   Issue: Ferdinand reneges on the promise of a
    written constitution.
   Abolishes the Cortez and chooses t rule alone
   He is threatened by army officers and backs
    down; score on for the resistance
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   This and another revolt in the Kingdom of the Two
    Sicily's makes Metternich nervous: Was the Concert of
    Europe beginning to falter?
   After appealing top the others in the Holy Alliance
    Prussian and Russia they come to an agreement at the
    Congress of Troppau.
   Here the so-called “Protocol of Troppau” is formed.
    This stated that stable governments might
    intervene/restore order where revolution was
    happening.
       Conservatism and Liberalism
   Keep in mind that while these countries are all
    looking after the interest of each other, they all
    have agendas of their own.
   For instance, Metternich is interested in
    protecting the Habsburg interest in Northern
    Italy as much as he is in maintaining some
    manner of control over the force of Liberalism.
   Hence, there is a fine line between cooperation
    and self interest.
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