Participants from •Norway, •Iceland, •Finland, •Denmark by wvd19763


									    NICE Project 04005: August 2004
    ”Acrylamide-Precursors: Limiting
    substrates and in vivo effects”.

                          Limiting substrates      Growth and storage         Choice of varieties
                                                   conditions                 of commercial
                          • Amino acids
                                                   (Fertilization, variety    importance in the
Participants from         • Reducing sugars,
                                                   Climate (temp/ humidity)   nordic countries
                            Carbonyl compounds

    • Norway,             Model system
                          • System development
    •Iceland,                                            Analysing - Acrylamide
                          • Testing

                          Pilot scale              Testing the effect of acrylamide
    •Denmark              • System development
                                                   in an animal-model system
                          • Testing
                          Commercial production
Industry and academia     • Production of bread,                Risk analysis
                            crisp bread, cookies
(S.H.Knutsen, Matforsk)

                       Participants,                        Country           Active persons (august 2004)
                  Research organisations
  DIAS   Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences             D      Jørgen Christiansen
 DVFA Institute of Food Safety and Nutrition                   D      Kit Grandby
 EELA National Veterinary and Food Research Institute          F      Susanna Eerola
 IceTec Technological Institute Iceland                        I      Oalfur Reykdal, Irek Klonowski
   OB    Ommubakstrur                                          I      Haraldur Fridriksson
  KTK    Kartofluverksmidjan Thykkvabaejar Kartoflur           I      Fridrik Magnusson
Matforsk Norwegian Food Research Institute                     N      Svein Knutsen, Erland Bråthen
  NILU   Norwegian Institute of Air Research                   N      Christian Dye
  NIPH   Norwegian Institute of Public Health                  N      Jan Erik Paulsen
   Gro   Gro Industrier                                        N      Truls Hørthe
 HOFF Hoff Norske Potetindustrier                              N      Svein Erik Strande
 KIMS KIMS                                                  N,D,S,F   Stein Rønne
  Kraft  Kraft Europe (KE)                                  N,D,S,F   Maraianne Lindblom, Anders Andersson
WASA WASA-BRØD                                              N,D,S,F   Leif Holmgren
   Cer   Cerealia                                             N,S     Helena Fredriksson
   SIK   Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology          S      Hans Lingnert
  SLU    Swedish Agricultural university                       S      Per Åman
   SW    Svaløf Weibull AB                                     S      Kerstin Olsson
  PPM    Potato Processing Machinery                           S      Roland Haraldsson

                            KKr                         •     June 2004 -> June 2007
            NICE            3000                        •     Project leader Matforsk (SHK)
          Industry          2550
                                                        •     9 industries
         Academics          675
                                                        •     10 Academics/Research Institutes
            SW              300
                            6525                        •     Kick off: Matforsk, ÅS 30-31 August 2004
Collaboration: The Norwegian Producers directed research project.

 •   Norwegian Research Council (NFR)
 •   Federation of Norwegian Food and Drink Industry (NBL, Berit Bull-Gjersen))
 •   (Project co-ordination: Matforsk:Svein H. Knutsen)
 •   2004-2006

 •   Research institutions:
           • Norwegian Food Research Institute (Matforsk)
           • Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB)
           • Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU)

 •   7 industries: (including ”multi” Nordic)
      – 4 cereal-based industries
      – 3 potato indusries
Control points for the minimization of acrylamide formation

  Agronomic (Raw materials/Limiting substrates)

  Recipe (additions, removal, substituting)

  Processing Heating-Time (Pre-treatments)

  Final Preparation (at home)

     All factors are somewhat interconnected !!!
      Tasks for the network are:
1. To link all the activities going on in the Nordic countries and to
   establish a network consisting of representatives from the
   industry and researchers from the ongoing activities.

2. Undertake a systematic evaluation of ongoing projects
   looking for synergies between projects and gaps which requires
   action based on the needs of the Nordic industry/ the Nordic

3. Perform a limited number of well-planned process
   experiments and initiate targeted actions for both cereals and
   potato systems based on the need of the industry. Select some
   extreme representatives.
              Tasks for the network are:
4. Supply new analytical data for precursors of some selected
   raw materials and subject them to process experiments giving
   relevant products to be analysed for acrylamide and tested for
   health effects.

5. The network will be a base for collecting information and
   constructing new Nordic initiatives within topics related to
   acrylamide and food.

6. Co-ordinate the spread of relevant information to all
   stakeholders (industry, government, consumer organisations
               Main Task
• Provide a network for info between industry
  and the academic world regarding progress
  in the research . (two-way info).
Acrylamide formation
(limiting substrates = precursors)

                                Red Sugars + Asn

                              High temp, time

                                       Maillard conditions

 Food rich in starch!!
           Limiting substrates
• Potato
      • The content of reducing sugars is of most

• Cereals
      • The content of asparagine is of most importance
     Limiting substrates
• Cereals
  – Less variation due to storage but within cereals and agronomy
     • Asn is limiting substrate
     • Reduced heating-stress is efficient (include ticker products)
     • Fermentation/sour dough removes sugars and amino acids

• Potato
  – Increase of reducing sugars during storage (SEASONAL Variation)
      • Amino acids of less importance (Asn not limiting substrate)
      • Process steps to wash away sugars (known from browning of
      • Reduced heating-stress is efficient
      • Critical selection of raw materials
                         Potato and acrylamide formation
Fructose & Glucose (Not sucrose) = Acrylamide precursor
Several Free amino acids: Asparagine abundant = Acrylamide precursor

                                        1999-2000                                                          1999                       2000
                                                                          Asparagine (g kg FW)
Red. sugar (g kg-1 FW)


                         1.0                                                                     1.5

                         0.8                                                                     1.0

                         0.6                                                                     0.5

                         0.4                                                                     0.0




                                                                1. Aug
                                                                15. Aug
                                                                31. Aug                                Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries
                                                                                                       Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS)
“Natural” variation in Germany
          Information Plan-publish
• WEB based information: one public-(Internet) and one internal
  domain (Intranet).

   – Internal publication abstracts (copyrights)

• Database of precursors in Nordic varieties (new and old)

• Information will be filed to databases organised by EU

• Info and results published in magazines, newsletters and
  journals (Food chemistry/processing)
            Information Plan-Contacts
• Contact with the EU-project HEATOX is established through Kerstin
   Skog (Lund University). In addition several applicants are partners in
   that project.
• THERMALLY PROCESSED FOODS: Possible health implications,

• Establish contacts between Nordic national projects, hopefully as
   close as the Swedish-Norwegian networks/projects.

• Representatives will participate and share information with the
   European Research Net PROSAFE and other participants in the
   “Processing for food safety” in NICe .
       Tasks: Storage and processing.
•   HOFF/ DIAS will try to investigate possibilities of other storage
    procedures for potato. Problems with facilities for large scale storage.

•   PPM, KIMS and Matforsk are planning full process scale experiments
    related to post-drying of potato crisps.

•   Pommes frites is a difficult case. Results from the experiments on
    stored potatoes processed within HEATOX or freeze dried and
    processed at SIK will give some answers.

•   Works related to blanching/treatment/spraying with proteins or amino
    compounds are continued for cereal and potato systems.

•   Possible pre/post-production adjustments (coating, precursor removal
    or competition)
      Precursors and raw materials
•   Collecting of data of precursors (acrylamide) will continue. A
    simplified database for cereals and potato.

•   (Other) raw materials used in cereal industry (especially breakfast
    cereals) will be monitored with respect to precursors. These are
    Wheat, Oat, Rye, Rice/Corn and malted sugars. Some Icelandic Barley
    will be included.

•   Work on defining and take into use new varieties will continue,
    Process trials during for new varieties is not possible within the project
        Acrylamide analysis and liberation
•   Work (especially at SLU) will be undertaken to understand the findings of a
    marked excess/extra liberation of acrylamide when extractions are made at
    alkaline pH.

•   Approximately 100 analysis of each cereals and potato products for
    acrylamide within the project.

•   NILU and EELA take part in proficiency tests

•   Rapid methods for on-line monitoring will be investigated

•   Sensory evaluation/Volatiles by GC-SNIFF (= nose detection combined with
    conventional detection) will be undertaken (SIK).
                      In vivo effects
•   Acrylmide in ”natural” products will be subjected to biological test
    systems. Collaboration within HEATOX.!OpenDocument
  Possible health implications

  COST-927 Action

                        I-Interlaboratory analytical trial

                    • Reference samples:
                         • Crisp bread high treated (CB-HT)
                         • Crisp bread low-treated (CB-LT)
                         • French fries (FF)
                         • Potato crisps (PC)
                    • A technical anex will be supplied by manufactures
                         • thermal conditions applied
                         • basic composition (protein, carbohydrate, fat, etc.)
                    • Samples homogenised and packaged at MATFORSK (NO)
                         • at different sizes according to lab needs
                         • aluminium foil + vacuum in a plastic bag

WG1: Analytical methods, formation pathways, EU regulation
WG1: Analytical methods, formation pathways, EU regulation
                methods,           pathways,
  Possible health implications

                        I-Interlaboratory analytical trial
  COST-927 Action

                    • Participants:
                             • Labs from 21 research groups
                             • 13 EU countries
                    • Analyses planned:
                             Compound        Labs            Analytical tool
                             Acrylamide        11       GC-MS, LC-MS, LC-MS/MS, LC-UV
                             CML               2        GC-MS, LC-Fluo
                             HMF               9        LC-UV, LC-MS
                             LPA               4        LC-UV, LC-MS
                             Pentosidine       1        IEC-Fluo
                             Pronyl-lysine     1        GC-MS
                             Furosine          5        LC-UV, LC-MS
                             MAD               4        GC-MS, LC-UV
                             Oxysterols        2        GC-MS
                             Trans-FA          6        GC-FID, GC-MS
                             Furan             2        GC-MS
                             PAH               6        LC-Fluo
                             3-MCPD            1        GC-FID
                             Deoxyosones       1        LC-MS
                             Fluorescence      1        Fluo

WG1: Analytical methods, formation pathways, EU regulation
WG1: Analytical methods, formation pathways, EU regulation
                methods,           pathways,
Summarizing: Agronomic, Recipe and processing influence
on the formation of acrylamide

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