The Industrial Revolution in England by qng18193

VIEWS: 197 PAGES: 19

									The Industrial Revolution
       in England
Roadmap

   What’s the Industrial Revolution?
   IR & technological progress
   Results
   Causes
   The IR: a discontinuity?
   Testing the two views on the IR
What was the IR?
 The IR in England is one of history's
  great mysteries. The events are
  widely known but their interpretations
  are hotly contested.
 First historical instance of the
  breakthrough from an agrarian,
  handicraft economy to one dominated
  by industry and machine manufacture
The IR and Technological Progress
 The heart of the IR was an interrelated
  succession of technological changes:
   Use of mechanical devices for human skills
   Use of inanimate power, in particular steam,
    instead of human and animal strength
   Improvement in getting and working of raw
    materials -metallurgy and chemical industries.
   New forms of industrial organization
     Related to changes in equipment and
       processes.
     Factory was a system of production.
        New breed of worker following the demands of the
         clock.
Technological changes
 Steam engine (power technology)

 Metallurgy (iron and steel)

 Textiles
   Spinning
   Weaving
Textiles -
inventions
Spinning
Weaving
Causes
 Institutions: free trade, elimination of
  regulations and medieval obstacles.
 Agricultural change: increase in
  agricultural productivity due to
  technological change.
 Demographic growth: growth of population
  in the 18th century increased the market.
 Technological advance
 Foreign trade: bigger market due to the
  colonies.
Results

     Production of iron and textiles

     Innovation

     Efficiency
Results – Pig Iron Production
                                     Pig Iron Production
                                            in tons
    3,000,000

                                                                                   2,701,000
    2,500,000



    2,000,000                                                                      1,999,608



    1,500,000
                                                                     1,396,400
                                                              1,248,781     1,215,350
    1,000,000

                                                       677,417
     500,000

                 25     68     150     244   455
           0
                1720   1788   1796    1806   1823   1830   1839   1840   1843   1847    1853
Results - Textiles
                                 Imports of Raw Cotton
                                      1000 of lbs.
    12,000,000


    10,000,000                                                                    10,005,000


     8,000,000


     6,000,000                                                                    6,136,000



     4,000,000                                                            3,874,000


     2,000,000                                                    2,009,000
                                      320,166             1,214,790
                   55,721   183,861             693,706
            0
                 1771-   1781-   1791-    1801-    1811-     1821-    1831-   1841-   1851-
                 1780    1790    1800     1810     1820      1830     1840    1850    1860
Results - Innovation
                                 Number of Patents
   35,000
                                                                     31,921
   30,000


   25,000

                                                                         22,027
   20,000
                                                                17,596
   15,000


   10,000

                                                        4,654
    5,000
               297                936   1,113   1,545
                     512   675
                                                        2,713
       0
            1771- 1781- 1791- 1801- 1811- 1821- 1831- 1841- 1851- 1861- 1871-
            1780 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880
Results - Efficiency
 Sudden appearance of a more rapid and sustained
  rate of efficiency advance than previously seen.
 Textiles were the flagship industry of the IR
   Spinning:
       Old technology: 50,000 hours to spin 100 lbs of cotton.
       With the mule only 300 hours in 1790s
    efficiency in converting raw cotton into cloth
     increased fourteenfold from 1760s to 1860s (2.4%
     per year).
       1760s: 18 man-hours to transform a pound of cotton
        into cloth
       1860s: 1.5 man-hours
The IR in England: a discontinuity?
 Two views on the IR in England:
   Traditional view: Discontinuity (Toynbee, Ashton
    and Landes):
     IR as a broad change in the British economy
       and society.
   Modern view: gradual
     the IR as a result of technical change in only a
       few industries (Crafts and Harley).
     the IR as the result of evolutionary
       development that affected other European
       economies almost as much as England. It was
       the product of the gradual process of settled
       agrarian societies toward a more rational,
       economically oriented mindset (Clark).
So, it’s gradual, but how much?
 GDP per capita growth:
   Deane and Cole: 1780s-1860s: GDP per
    capita increased by about 2.5 times
   Crafts and Harley: 1760-1860, output
    per worker doubled.
   Clark: GDP per person grew 28%
    between 1700s and 1830s.
 Productivity:
   Crafts and Harley: 0.58%
   Clark: 0.39%
Productivity growth by Clark
Testing the Two views
 Use of the Ricardian model of international trade to
  test the nature of the IR (Temin)
 Expected results:
   Traditional view:
       Britain should have been exporting other manufactures
        (other than cotton textiles and iron bars).
       Comparative advantage in manufacturing.
    Modern view:
       Britain should have been importing the same goods in
        the early 19th century.
       Comparative advantage in cotton and iron.
       Other manufactures not exported because Britain
        lacked a comparative advantage in manufacturing in
        general.
Testing the Two Views           -continued

 The traditional view of the IR is more
  accurate than the new, restricted image.
 Other British manufactures were not
  inefficient and stagnant, or at least they
  were not all stagnant.
 The spirit that motivated cotton
  manufactures extended also to activities as
  varies as hardware and haberdashery,
  arms, and apparel.

								
To top