Comenius Project 2008-2010 IES. Campclar (Tarragona, Spain) by hpq74941

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									Comenius Project 2008-2010
              IES. Campclar
         (Tarragona, Spain)

         Debrecen first year meeting
                  The Climate change

The climate change is the modifcation of the climate respect to
the climate history in a global scale or regional




                                         Those changes are produced in
                                         different scales of time and above all
                                         the climatics parameters:
                                         temperature, rains, and clouds…




                                                 Those changes are from natural
                                                 causes and from the human
                                                 action
                       Variations of temperatures




Since the temperatures of the surface of the Earth started to have a registry in 1900, the
hottest eleven out of the twelve last years have been in those twelve years. In the last
hundred years (1995-2006), the world temperature has increased 0.74ºC. And the level of the
sea has risen 17 cm in the 20th century.
                            Variations of rains




The global average of rains in the continents is 780mm. In Spain is 680mm. We
are under of the average, so we should act in consequence.
                            The climate in Spain
The country is in a worm area, without the same
characteristics in all the country. The cause of this is the mix of
the hot wind areas and the cold wind areas.


There are four basic different climates in Spain:
oceanic, mediterranean, subtropical and
mountain range.




                              In Spain, the rains are well known to be because of their
                              caresty, the summer droughts and the big interanual, stational
                              and spacial variety, all depends on the influential factors.
                 Climate change impacts
Water resaurces: disminution of these, droughts and water razionalitation


The production of food and fibres: causes of the aparition of the manipulation
of these.


The floor and their uses: dessert, desappearing of vegetables, changes in natural
propieties of the floor.


Ecosystems and biodiversity: extinction of landscapes, of wilderness, dessert,
acid rains…



Floughts, forest fires and hills slidings
Finding solutions

  Gas discharges conservatories in Spain :
      -impacts of the emissions
      -gas inventory
      -alternatives to don’t emit these gases
      (clean energies)



          Situation in countries near of us



    Options of mitigation of those GASES:

        -temporal perspective
        -the power crossroads
        -The case in Spain
        -Big solutions
                                 Energetic efficiency
                                     and saving
Generals considerations

              Saving in the
              residential, institutional
              and commercial
              sectors


Saving in the
industrial sector


                    Saving in the
                    transports sector



 Saving in other sectors
                 Removable energies
Removable energy is which we can get them from natural sources, they are
inexhaustible


Removable energies has been a very important part in the energy used by the
humans since a long time ago.




The most used are:
• Eolic
• From the sun
• Hydraulic
AEOLIAN ENERGY
The Aeolian energy is the energy whose origin movement it comes
from the movement of the air mass.




                                         The Aeolian energy it is taken
                                         advantage of us by a system of a
                                         rotor that turns to measurement that
                                         passes wind through this.
 SOLAR ENERGY

Energy produced with the
effect of the heat of the sun in
a solar plate. It is used
principaly in houses to warm
water and calefaction, and
also in lights on the road by
means of bateries which is
loaded during the day




 It comes from the sun and it is produced for the fusion of the
 atomics core of hidrogen, principal component of the sun
WATER ENERGY
Is the energy originated by pumps because of the pressure profit which it is
produced in a water source by the difference of high.




                                                     Lively strength of a current
                                                     or a water source which its
                                                     profits comes from
                                                     mechanic energy to
                                                     move machines or to
                                                     produce electrical energy.
Greenhouse effect
The greenhouse effect is the phenomenon by as
some gases that are components of the planet
atmosphere keep part of the energy that the soil
emits because being warmed by sun rays
•It afects to all of the planet body eqipped of
atmosphere.
• This phenomenon avoids that the sun energy
received constantly by the Earth return inmediatly to
the space, producing a planetary scale an efect
similar observed in a greenhouse.
Global heating
1.   Is the observed phenomenon in the mesures of temperature. It
     shows in an average the increase of temperature of terrestrial
     atmosphere and the oceans.




2.    Is the theory that predicts a future growth of the
     temperatures
Natural causes of climate change

          Solar variations

          Orbital variation

          Continental drift

       Atmosferic composition

           Oceanic flows

        Magnetic earth camp
Greenhouse effect
               In nature is caused
                       by:

                      Water

                     Carbon

                     Nitrogen

                     Methane
                   Quaternary climate

     - In the quaternary period they have been 80 glacial cycles

  - Volume of ice, sea levels and temperature have changed in first
     cycles of 41.000 years and more recently of 100.000 years.

  - The last interglacial period began 12.000 years ago, causing the
disappearing of ice. A similar glacial period is possible to start again
                          in about 50.000 years
20
                                                              21


                   •Increasement of CO2




Since Industrial Revolution, mainly the most industrialized
     countries, have increased their own CO2 levels
                                                               22



                         •Fossil fuels
•The firing of fossil oils generates a large quantity of CO2
                   (vehicles, factories…)




                          •Aerosols
•The aerosols wich are emitted to the athmosfere produce a
       cooling effect and affects to climate on Earth
                                                            23




                     •Deforestation
•The cutting of trees causes that CO2 is not eliminated
  quickly and this is accumulated on the atmosphere




                         •Land use
•This problem is asociated to the tree cutting due to men are
               distroying a lot of forest areas
                                                               24




                         •Soil manufactury
    •Soil manufactury gives out lots of greenhouse gases which
                     effect on the athmosfere.




                     •    Stockbreeding
•    The stockbreeding is responsible of 18% of greenhouse
      gases, taking also into account the tree cutting which
                             causes.
                                             25




Rainfall and temperatures
         · Rise of temperatures.
  In the 21st century it will rise 1-6,4ºC
          · Greenhouse effects
 · High temperatures of the sea causes:
     Typhoons/hurricanes        floods
              epidemias
                Sea level rising
· Causes : - thermal expansion
         - disminution of the poles
         - underground water
         - desforestation
· Consequences: - not polar glaciers        50 cm
               - Antarctica                73 m
               - Greenland                  7’5 m
                - extinction of species (caribou, polar
                 bear, cliffs, barriers ..)
                 Vegetation

· Change of seasonal and regional temperature
          · Going down of tree surface
    · Extinction of the variety of the species
                                 28




Consequences of climate change
to the humans
                             29




Climate change causes that
the summers become
hotter and produces hot
waves. The people with an
elevated age are the most
vulnerable and in an
extreme case, they could
die.
                                                          30




The climate change can
also extend and the new
implant of tropical
diseases like malaria or
dengue.

                           The increasement of atmosphere
                           contaminators produces that
                           people with chronic bronchitis or
                           cardiovascular problems become
                           more vulnerable too.
                                            31
                   How to prevent climate
                   change?

 By car.

· By bicycle.

· At home.

· In the office.

· Traveller.
                                    32



                Organizations
•CMNUCC (UNFCCC).
•INCC.
•Relationships between CMNUCC and
INCC.
                                               33




                      Ecotourism
· Definition.

· Ecotourism of Spain: -Spain Ecotourists as

                       receptors.

                      -Spain Ecotourists as

                       issuers.

· The future of ecotourism in Spain.
                                                       34


                    The wastes.

The problems of landfills:    The incinerate waste:

•The emissions of             •Emissions of contaminator
biodegradable waste.          elements.

•Water pollution.             •To fire the waste.

•Noise and stinking.
•Unsustainable use of land.
•In general, it causes the
climate change.
                        FLOODS IN 1901 - 2000

   This image shows the floods in the last century.

   The climate change has favored the increasement of floods by the pass of time.

   Hundred years ago, the number of floods didn’t exceed two floods in a year.

   Now, we can have since five to seven floods in only one year.
Tarragona has got the biggest industrial complex
of spain
Chlorine, which is very used in this industry,
causes lots of diseases by the emission to the
environment of this tipe of products. However,
tarragona is not the only city with contaminational
industries, as it’s seen in the image
Time ago, there was an industrial contamination
accident in tarragona, one of the most importants
in spain. 700 tonelades of toxical and dangerous
residues were dropped in river ebro. Cientifical
studies have shown the high concentration of
diseases in relation with the contamination from
this accident. As the effects of this accident,
there’s a high percentatge of deficient child
devolopment.
Thanks for your attention

								
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