SPAIN IN THE MARIANAS by hpq74941

VIEWS: 12 PAGES: 37

									SPAIN IN THE
 MARIANAS
       Part 1:

  Spanish Claims
“The Golden Century”
       Roots of European
         Exploration

•   Crusades
•   Desire for Asian Goods: spices and silk
•   Futility of overland routes
•   Naval buildup of Spain & Portugal
Map of Europe-Asia
Magellan’s Route
      The Trade War:
      Spain & Portugal
• Portuguese Exploration Around Africa

• Treaty of Tordesillas (1493)

• Columbus: “Sail West to Go East”
Spanish caravel
Early Chamorros
    Breaking into the Pacific
•   Magellan’s Voyage Around the Horn
•   First Encounter on Guam
•   Untimely End in the Philippines
•   Spices from East Indies
•   Subsequent Voyages to Pacific
Ferdinand
Magellan
  Spanish Claim to the
       Marianas

• Details of the visit

• Planting the Spanish Flag on Guam
Legazpi


 Legazpi
Legazpi planting flag
Sequel to Legazpi’s Visit

 •   First Colony in the Philippines
 •   Eastward Passage across Pacific
 •   Beginning of the galleon route
 •   Marianas as a reprovisioning stop
Manila galleon route
   Part 2:

Mission in the
 Marianas
         Background
• Sanvitores’ introduction to Guam

• Petitions to Marianas of Austria

• Decree authorizing Mission
Mariana of
 Austria

Queen Mariana of Austria
    Arrival of Spaniards
•   Composition of first party
•   Establishment of base at Hagatna
•   Character of Sanvitores
•   Opening of boys school
•   Death of Quipuha
Sanvitores
Trouble on Outer Islands
•   Priest on Tinian attacked (Aug 1668)
•   Catechist on Anatahan killed (July 1669)
•   Sanvitores to Tinian on peace mission (1670)
•   Priest and 2 helpers killed on Saipan (1670)
•   Choco’s stories about baptism
    Hostilities on Guam

•   Murder of Spanish boy near Hagatna (1670)
•   Spanish retaliation: execution of a chief
•   Month-long siege of Spanish fort
•   Rout of Chamorro forces and uneasy peace
 Renewal of Hostilities
• Catechists and soldiers killed in distant
  village (March 1672)
• Sanvitores and catechist killed at Tumon
  (April 1672)
• Peaceful interlude
• Four Jesuits killed (1674-1676)
             Spanish
         Countermeasures
•   Punitive attacks on 6 Guam villages (1674-75)
•   First Spanish governor appointed (1676)
•   New troops brought from Philippines (1676)
•   Quiroga’s pacification program (1680 on)
•   Pursuit of “rebels” on Rota
 Map of
Marianas
           The Last Stand
•   Quiroga’s expedition to the north (1684)
•   Conquests on Tinian and Saipan
•   Chamorro attack on Guam fort
•   Uprising on Rota: 3 priests killed
•   Quiroga fights off attackers on Saipan
•   Quiroga’s return to Guam and rout (1685)
•   Retaliation: burning villages
          Final Reduction

•   Quiroga’s return to the northern islands (1694)
•   Submission of Rota
•   Assault on Saipan, Tinian and Aguigan (1695)
•   Removal of population to Guam, Rota and
    Saipan (1698)
Carolinian canoes
        Depopulation
• Original population estimates
• 1710 census: 3,539 Chamorros
• Population drop: from 40,000 to less than
  4,000 in 40 years
• Explanations for the drop
Discussion

 • How do you explain the attacks on
   missionaries so soon after arrival?
 • What caused the escalation of
   hostilities?
 • Why the huge depopulation?
       Part 3:

Spanish Colonial Era
         Background
• Usefulness of the colony to Spain
• Military garrison
• Finance for the colony: galleon trade and
  subsidy
• Social geography of the towns
• Religious life
• Attempts to make colony self-supporting
    Part 4:

19 th
    Century
Reawakening
          Background
• Twilight of the Spanish empire
• End of the galleon trade and subsidy
• Spanish policy changes: opening the islands
  to outside interests
• Arrival and settlement of Carolinians
• European naval expeditions
Commercial Influences
  • China trade

  • Whaleship traffic

  • Copra trade
End of the Spanish Era
• Philippine independence movement
• Macabebes on Saipan
• Resettlement of northern islands by
  Chamorros
• Spanish-American War
• Final split of the Marianas

								
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