Librarianship and information science in Italy a brief overview

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and information science in Italy:
        a brief overview

                Antonella De Robbio
                Centro di Ateneo per le Biblioteche
                Università di Padova - Italy

         January 2005

                Palmer School of Library and
                Information Science,
                Long Island University, New York

1.    Institutional libraries: asset in Italy
2.    Legal asset: Italian legislation
3.    Librarianship formation in Italy
4.    The role of the professional associations
5.    Projects and initiatives
     1.   Italian OPACs
     2.   Digitalization
     3.   Open Access
     4.   Copyright
     5.   Consortia
     6.   E-learning
     7.   Research activity
                                            Antonella De Robbio
   1. Institutional asset of libraries
      15.000 libraries (36% are new, last 30 years)
        –   49.6% North
        –   21.3% Center
        –   29.1% South
        –   1/5 has a Web site
        –   Over 7000/15000 have some type of automation system
        –   1 SBN Index: 2000 adehesions to SBN (National Service Network)
        –   800 OPACs applications (singles or collectives different than SBN)
      20.000 librarians and workers
      Mainly historical material: rare book, manuscript, maps, prints
      Librarian building: some good news in last years
      The main characteristic of our Italian system is that it is NOT a
       system: lack or really and efficient central coordination

                                                                Antonella De Robbio
    1. Institutional asset of libraries
Governative and Administrative Libraries
       46 Public Governative (State)
       2 National Central:
        –   Firenze (BNI Italian National Bibliografy)
        –   Roma
       7 National (in addition to 2 Centrals)
       11 Monastic
       Several historical
       Several Administrative: Ministerial, Houses of
        Parliament, Constitutioal Organs, other administrative

                                                         Antonella De Robbio
    1. Institutional asset of libraries
University Libraries

       2200 (central, faculty, dept., inter-dept. seminar, …)
       Strong coordination activity in order to reduce the
        number by constitution of Sistems Library for each
        University (almost 70%)
       Considerable dynamics
       Markable technological applications
       Personell high skilled and professional
       Activity in consortia
       Task force on copyright
       Group on Open Access

                                                     Antonella De Robbio
    1. Institutional asset of libraries
School Libraries and Public Libraries

       School libraries: a sector extremely weak
       Lack fo specific role for school librarians
       Some big project promoted by Minister
        –   First envolved 600 school with WinIRIDE sw
        –   Now a new pilot project inside SBN (500) by e-learning training
       Public libraries: almost 6000, 12000 librarians
        –   municipal, provincial
        –   Very short rooting of the librarian service within Italian society
        –   10 million of users on 60 million of inhabitants

                                                               Antonella De Robbio
2. Legal asset: Italian legislation (1)
    We have three new laws in Italy which have an high
     impact on libraries
1.   New copyright laws:
        National law which modifies the (1941) law
        Reception of the European Union directive
        A Unique text is missing: the law is now as a genetic monster
        Compromise of free use fields: access right borderline (we
         must pay a lot of money to SIAE)
        Research and teaching are penalized

                                                      Antonella De Robbio
2. Legal asset: Italian legislation (2)
2.   New law in publishing field
     –   Definition of editorial product, comprehension of digital
         contents as e-journal
     –   The University is in conflict with the Government Fees
         Agency about VAT because it doesn’t agree with the GFA’s
         interpretation of the law which demands a tax of 20% on e-
         journals and databases
3.   New law on legal repository
     –   Previous law was enacted in 1939
     –   National Libraries are involved
     –   Law not very clear about tasks and actors
                                                    Antonella De Robbio
3. Librarianship formation in Italy
   Year 2002: new law (reform of university curricula): 3+2, + master
    of I and II level, + specialistic courses
   77 Universities
   LIS is collocated in Class n. 13 concerning Science on Cultural
     –   Humanistic and historical sections: the modern concepts on digital
         libraries are not teaching inside degree courses, also librarianship is
         often missing (generic topics)
     –   Only 7 Universities offer specific degrees, 19 offer specific
         components inside common degrees (total 26/77)
     –   A lot of specialist masters and courses are offered from private
         sources (see AIB directory)
     –   Almost 2000 students (degree or diploma): 80% of these are women

                                                               Antonella De Robbio
    4. The role of the professional associations

   AIB: Italian Libraries Association
   AIDA: Italian Association for Advanced Documentation
   Many tools and services are organised and managed by
    these associations
     –   Several e-journals on LIS fields: the most important are open
     –   High activities on formation and upgrade
     –   AIB-CUR: the discussion list of the Italian librarians (more than
         4000 subscribers)
     –   AIB-WEB Italian OPACs Directory and MAI: the Italian MetaOpac
         (OPAC asset)
     –   AIB-WEB Segnaweb: a VRD for public libraries
     –   AIB-WEB DFP: a VRD concerning governative and istitutional
                                                          Antonella De Robbio
5. Projects and initiatives

1.    Italian OPACs                  4.   Copyright
2.    Digitalization                       Copyright on national front
          Minerva framework               Copyright on UE front
          BEIC (Fundation)          5.   Consortia
                                           A model for cooperation
          BDI (Ministerial)
                                           Critical factors
3.    Open Access                    6.   E-Learning front
          Messina Conference              some projects
          AEPIC/PLEIADI             7.   Research activity
          Status quo on Italian
          Sw for e-journals building
           and management

                                                           Antonella De Robbio
     5.1. Italian OPACs
A project of AIB – Italian Libraries Association
        Italian OPACs Directory includes all the OPACs listed by region (a
         total of 20 lists)
        List of the national collective catalogues;
        Connected OPACs list, which includes only the OPACs connected
         to the MAI MetaOPAC;
        INFOOPAC cards, which display information on each OPAC in the
        MAI help;
        References page, listing full-text articles (in Italian) and directories
         concerning OPACs, MetaOPAC, virtual libraries;
        Annual activity reports of the MAI service.
        It is an AIB service

                                                                Antonella De Robbio
  Integrated Library
   in Italy different
       from SBN
(the national system)
    Not all have an
    Internet OPAC
  There is a project
for dialogue between
     SBN and the
        other ILS

              Antonella De Robbio
    The National catalogues
SBN Index = Unique Catalogue
       SBN: the national service (no e-resources)
        –   Total Poles: 54 – Total of Libraries: 2205
        –   7 millions of documents for over 20 million of localizations
        –   University present: only 20 on 77
        –   34 OPACs (collectives) are present in MAI
       ACNP: for periodicals (includes link to e-journals )
        –   Titles ACNP Database 127084
        –   ISSN Database        1153361
        –   Titles held           689067
        –   Libraries in ACNP        2446
        –   Last ACNP update Jan 16, 2005

                                                             Antonella De Robbio
      MAI: the MetaOPAC Azalai Italiano
What’ s MetaOPAC Azalai Italia MAI
     MAI (MetaOPAC Azalai Italiano) is a virtual union catalogue of Italian
      libraries developed through co-operation between the Italian Library
      Association (Associazione Italiana Biblioteche, AIB) and the Consorzio
      Interuniversitario Lombardo per l’Elaborazione Automatica (CILEA).
     It provides services on Italian OPACs through some tools, built up from a
      database (containing all Italian OPACs, almost 800)
     250 OPACs of Italian libraries are currently permitted to query
      simultaneously through three meta-search interfaces, differentiated to
      satisfy users with varied needs:
       –   selective search, which performs searches after selecting OPACs through a list;
       –   search by region, a graphical interface, which presents a simplified map of Italy
           and its regions (selecting a region, all the related catalogues will be selected);
       –   global search, allowing to query immediately all the connected OPACs.
     After the user's choice, the system queries the specified set of OPACs
      through the Internet, starting simultaneous remote queries, and sorts the
      results in a cumulative format.

                                                                          Antonella De Robbio
    MAI: the MetaOPAC Azalai Italiano
MetaOPAC Azalai Italia MAI: some data
       The database currently contains 800 OPACs of which
          –  Italian university OPACs represent 32%.
          –   Library co-operatives account for 41% of the OPACs,
          –  40% of the OPACs are in city areas whilst
          –  32% are in provincial areas, and 23% are in regional areas, while the rest are spread
             throughout Italy.
       The numbers of OPACs in schools have developed significantly since 2001, reaching
        10% of all Italian OPACs by 2003.
       The annual growth in OPACs, in 2003 was about 10%.
       During 2002 and 2003, public library OPACs, covering city or provincial areas also
        increased in number.
       The OPACs in the database are subdivided into seven categories:
          –  public libraries (307 OPACs)
          –  state and government libraries (33 OPACs)
          –  church and ecclesiastical libraries (713 OPACs)
          –  school libraries (78 OPACs)
          –  university and academic libraries (213 OPACs)
          –  libraries of research institutions (121 OPACs)
          –  other libraries (145 OPACs).

                                                                             Antonella De Robbio
    5.2. Digitalisation
General activites
    1.   recommendations and technical guidelines about
         digitisation, metadata, long-term accessibility and
    2.   digitisation: process, cataloguing and
         management, including metadata for the
    3.   legal aspects: IPR/copyright and data protection;
    4.   correlate and harmonise activities carried out in
         digitisation of cultural and scientific content for
         creating an agreed European common platform

                                                Antonella De Robbio
The MINERVA framework

   European culture can be freely accessible through the digitisation of cultural
    content. This will also support and promote the cultural difference in a global
    scenario [Lund principles]

   The European Commission asked Member States to officially nominate
    national representatives for digitisation.
   All the people appointed are the National Representatives Group –

   Network of all the 25 Member States’ ministries.
    Italy coordinates the project.

   Result: The Charter of Parma

                                                                Antonella De Robbio
The Charter of Parma

 Quality in cultural Web sites (Parma 20-21
 November 2003), held during the the Italian
 Presidency, the Charter of Parma was
 introduced. This is a shared programme
 adopted by the NRG that strengthen the Lund
 Principles that are its background.

                                   Antonella De Robbio
The contents of The Charter of Parma

1.    Intelligent use of new technologies
2.    Accessibility
3.    Quality
4.    IPR and privacy
5.    Inter-operability and standards
6.    Inventories and multilingualism
7.    Benchmarking
8.    Co-operation at national, European and International levels
9.    Enlargement
10.   Building the future together: at the forefront of the knowledge

                                                          Antonella De Robbio
•a big open shelf structure on different disciplines in Milan
•integration of different supports, and materials
•over 500,000 works (almost 900,000 items)
•several digitalised collections
•a wide repository for physical collections coming from other local libraries
•almost 3,700 user stations
•BEIC will be open in 2011, but digital collections are already underway
DBI: Italian Digital Library
Italian ministry for Cultural Heritage
5.3. Open Access front

   Messina conference
   The OA activities carried out in Italy can be
    divided into the following areas
    –   Institutional and Open archives (data providers)
    –   Open Access journals
    –   Service providers
    –   Promotion & Advocacy
    –   Critical Issues
    –   Future developments

                                                      Antonella De Robbio
Messina Conference
   The OA movement in Italy has an active participation by single
    universities, research centres and supercomputing consortia.
   A conference promoted by the Italian Council of Rectors held in
    Messina on November 4-5 represents the first official action of the
    Italian universities rectors in support of OA.
   Here University Rectors gathered at Messina University signed
    the Berlin Declaration. A conference press will follow the signature
    of the document.
   34 Universities signed the Messina Declaration (follow Berlin
   Up to now over 64 Universities have formally adopted the initiative
     (only 13 are not present)

                                                        Antonella De Robbio
   Institutional archives & Open
15 institutional DP + E-LIS

      Institutional Archives
       –   Constantly increasing
              Sw:Eprints (Bologna, Firenze, Messina, Padova, Trento) + Cnr
               Bologna, Scuola Superiore di Catania, SISSA + CASPUR
              Sw: Dspace (Parma)
              Sw: CDsWare (Roma “La Sapienza”, Messina)
       –   Type of material: articles pre-print, doctoral theses, teaching
           material, technical reports, working papers, conference
           proceedings, miscellaneous ( multimedia documents covering the
           cultural and scientific production of the university
      Disciplinary Open Archive
       –   E-lis (Library & Information Science)
              sw:eprints
                                                                 Antonella De Robbio
    Open Access Journals
Development of sw for creation and management of e-journal
     Freely accessibile academic journals
      –   Fragmentary context
      –    not standard compliant
      “Open Access” Journals
      –   Compliant to the Budapest Open Access Initiative
      –   Quality control, OAI- PMH compliant
     Critical issue: being economic sustainable
      –   see SISSA JHEP- Journal of High Energy of Physics
      –   See Journal of the Pancreas
     DAFNE and Zpub for Rendiconti del Seminario
      Matematico UNIPD
     AEPI project: an Italian Platform for elecronic publishing

                                                    Antonella De Robbio
Service Providers: infrastructures,
services and tecnologies

   CILEA – Iniziativa AEPIC (Academic E- Publishing
    –    Infrastructure for the planning, creation, managing of Open
        Archives, OA journals

    –  Italian Platform to access open archives and institutional
       archives PLEIADI- Portale per la Letteratura Elettronica
       Italiana Archivi e Depositi Istituzionali/Portal to the Italian
       Electronic Archives and Institutional repositories

                                                          Antonella De Robbio
     PLEIADI: an Italian SP
Italian Platform for OAI
     The platform, named PLEIADI ( Portale per la Letteratura Elettronica
     Italiana Archivi e Depositi Istituzionali - Portal for the Italian Electronic
     Literature in Open and Institutional Archives)

   The portal offers end-users a federated search of Italian and foreign
   institutional archives and of general OAI compliant archives, news
   feeding and alerting services, helpdesk on copyright issue, statistics,
   citations parsing, and in the near future export facilities, bibliographic
   formatting, etc. will be available. A copy of the original project is
   available electronically in English on the AEPIC website. Originally the
   project was carried out only by CILEA and some months later
   CASPUR joined.

                                                                  Antonella De Robbio
PLEIADI: objectives

• to improve access to the academic/content distributed
in various open archives in Italy (data providers)
•to create a national platform for access to the various
data providers through a unique interface delivery of
value added services to the Italian academic and
research community (service provider)
•The services: a portal, harvesting, indexing &
information retrieval, gateway Z.39.50, metadata
crosswalks, gateway metacrawlers,UTF-8 mapping.
•In the future it will also provide export services to
different formats and legal deposit.
                                            Antonella De Robbio
 Architettura – PLEIADI- Presente e
 Futura                            document archiving

•Receive data from users
•Provide Data to SP         •Harvesting

                                                       Service Providers
                            •OPAC                                                     User
                            •Citation Parsing

                                                                                                 document retrieval
                            •Open URL
                            •Metadata crosswalks
                            •Gateway for crawlers
                            •Full-text search
                            •Export facilities
                            •Z39.50 for discovery services
                                            Service Provider
                            •Time stamping
                            •Legal deposit                                 •Access management

                            •Permanent URL                                 •Alerting
                            •Digital preservation                          •News feed
                                                                           •OA-relevant info
                                                                           •Forum management WG
                                                                           •Implementators VRD
                                                                           •Developers’ test bed
        CILEA                                                              •Italian OA list

PLEIADI- Architecture

   Harvesting (Celestial)
   Caching (Celestial)       Access Management
   Indexing & Information    Alerting & NewsFeeding
    Retrieval (Cheshire)
   Server Z39.50             Relevant information on
   Metadata crosswalks      OA word
   Gateway Metacrawlers      List of Italian OA archives
   Export Services *
                              Forum and RSS news
   UTF-8 (mapping)          service
   Statistics *
   Legal Deposit *           VRD for
   Copyright                implementators/testbed
   ** Future development
                                             Antonella De Robbio
   Promotion & Advocacy
On Open Access

       Institutional policy to fulfill archives
       Sensibilization of authors (create consensus)
        –   Questionnaires, Surveys (University of Brescia, SISSA)
       Diversified approach according to discipline
        –   Self-interest (impact on research, more citations, more funds,
            advancement in the carrier)
       Seminars, workshop, Messina Conference
       Web site of AEPIC collects information on OA initiatives in Italy
        and abroad, web –links, OA relevant documents, statements, etc.

                                                                 Antonella De Robbio
Critical issues: OA archives

    Setting policies, strategies, guide-lines to support OA
     –   Role of CRUI- (Italian Council of Rectors) Library Committee
    Need for a unique register of Italian Open and Institutional
     –   Open Archives Standardization
            Use of controlled vocabulary
            Same classification system
            OAI- PMH structure set
            Metadata format
            Quality (Metadata and contents)
            Copyright issue
            Authority Control
            Persistence
    Medium and long term preservation

                                                            Antonella De Robbio
Critical issues: Open Access journals

   Possible business model, strategies, guidelines for the
    creation and managing/preserving of OA journals
    –   Role of CRUI- (Italian Council of Rectors) Library Committee in
        supporting OA journals
    –   Role of CRUI – Academic/Research Assessing Committees
   How can we distribute the cost of OA e-publications?
    Which economic models are sustainable?
   Copyright
   Medium term and long term preservation

                                                           Antonella De Robbio
Future developments

    More political and institutional support for OA
    Need for something equivalent to SHERPA
     and RAE
    Adoption of Creative Commons licences
    Stronger collaboration between librarians and
     academic/research community
    Promotion & Advocacy

                                         Antonella De Robbio
5.4. Copyright

   Copyright on national front
    –   SIAE and Publishers association negotiation
    –   VAT matters on e-journals and db
    –   Adoption of Creative Commons licences
    –   Survey on Italian Publishers policies (Italian
   Copyright on UE front
    –   Copyright Policies and Agreements: implementing the
        Zwolle Principles
    –   University Copyright Policies (before on national CRUI

                                                   Antonella De Robbio
    5.5. Consortia: a model for cooperation

    Some progress towards national negotiations : the CRUI initiative
    Legal Deposit of electronic publication at BNCF (agreement between
     the BNCF and commercial publishers and university presses)
    Italian periodicals indexing
    –     Economics, Marketing: ESSPER (40 partecipating libraries)
    –     Law: ESSPER Diritto
    –     Architecture : CNBA
    Creation and management of information gateways by subject areas
    –     SINM (in mathemathics)
    –     SBBL in Lombardia in biomedical disciplines (university
          libraries,hospital and policlinics libraries and research centres)

                                                            Antonella De Robbio
    5.5. Consortia: Critical factors
     Absence of strong tradition in library cooperation
     Insufficient central national support in co-operation programmes
     Fragmentation
     –    Departmental libraries
     –    Duplication
     –    No central Library Authority
     Difficulty in achieving economies of scale
     E-only based contracts are slowly making their way
     –    Cultural resistance
     –    Lack of coordination in journal subscriptions in large universities
     –    Need for more centralization;
     –    Procurement procedure and the Italian law
     –    VAT issue

                                                                Antonella De Robbio
    Consortial organizations
Consortial licensing
    CIBER- Coordinamento Interuniversitario Basi dati e Editoria in Rete
         –   Members are: CASPUR universities (6) + 19 Central-Southern Italian universities
         –   Voluntary basis; no legal status,it is administratevey and technically supported by CASPUR. CIBER is
             about to change its status into a more formal organization. Negotiations are handled by the co-
             ordinator and the secretariat and by ad hoc negotiating committees

    CILEA – Supercomputing Applications Consortia (11 members + various
       research institutions
        Members are: 11 universities from the Northwest of Italy. CILEA acts on behalf of these
        universities and the same time as a service provider to other Italian universities or research
        centres which have not joined either CIBER or CIPE

    CIPE – Coordinamento Italiano Periodici Elettronici (12 universities)
         –   It’s a group of universities mainly from Central and Northern East part of Italy. No legal status, the
             group is well organized, each university is formally committed to the group. The university of Padua
             acts as an official representative, signs contracts etc. The contract negotiations are handled by a board
             (university rapresentatives + consultant)

    SBBL – a regional based consortia of medical schools and hospitals in Lombardy
                                                                                               Antonella De Robbio
5.6. On e-learning front

   A programme of training courses that uses open
    distance learning methodologies and platform open
    source (Moodle) has been set up to for librarians of
    Administrative Libraries (Dept. Public Function –
    Italian Ministerial Council Presidence)
   A programme of training course for School
    Librarians (2500 trainers) has been set up from
    MIUR (Ministry of Education, University and
    Research funding three Consortia: CILEA,
   Some Universities have been set up e-learning
    methodologies and tools (Learning Objects, LOM,
    repositories…): library systems are involved
                                            Antonella De Robbio
5.7. Reseach on LIS

   Research activities
    –   CNR- Pisa
         Cyclades, OpenDlib, Scholnet, DlibCenter
    –   CNR –Bologna
         Sail E-prints Service Provider
    –   SISSA
         Torii, prototype for multiple research in
          OA archives and document evaluation
                                        Antonella De Robbio
   MAI
   BEIC
   SBN
   ACNP

                                                            Antonella De Robbio