The Unification of Italy and
Nationalism in Europe
What is Nationalism?
• Define the following terms
• Give two examples of each of the above
• How are they different?
Italy comes Together
• The Italian people were broken up into many
different territories and states.
• These states were controlled by France,
Austria, and the Pope.
• Italian people wanted to unify to form a
country of their own. They wanted freedom.
Who will lead?
• Giuseppi Mazzini= An Italian nationalist who
led a rebellion against the Austirans and
French. His efforts failed because the Pope
refused to support a war against Catholic
The Kingdom of Piedmont
• Count di Cavour • Victor Emmanuel II
• Prime Minister • Supports war to slowly
• Organized an allaince unify Italian regions.
with France to make
war on Austria.
• Once the war was over,
Austria would lose
control over its part of
Cavour and Victor Emmanuel II
• Leads an army of volunteers= Red Shirts
• His army invades Southern Italy and Sicily
• He captures both and gives them to Victor
Emmanuel II in 1860
• Italy is almost complete
• The Pope continues to control Rome and
Venice is still controlled by Austria
• However, by 1871, these lands will join Italy
The Growth of Italy
Note= Kingdom of Piedmont also known as Kingdom of Sardinia
The Quest for German Unification
• In 1860, the German people were governed by
a variety of states and countries.
• The Kingdom of Prussia was the largest
• Prussia’s king William I wanted to unify
Germans by force.
• To do so would mean making war on France,
Austria, and many others
Otto Von Bismarck
• An old soldier who believed in war and
• He supported unification to build a powerful
• He invented a political idea called “realpolitik”
= the right of a nation to pursue its own
interests by any means, including war
“Blood and Iron”= use war and industry to
Otto Von Bismarck