ENGLISH GRAMMER BACK BONE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE Definition of Grammar The definition of grammar is as follows: Grammar applies rules for standard use of words and how their component parts combine to form sentences. A grammar is also a system for classifying and analyzing the elements of language including inflections, functions, rules and relations in the sentence. ALPHABETS WORDS The group of alphabets THE SENTENCE A GROUP OF WORDS THAT MAKE COMPLETE SENSE GROUP OF WORDS :- The east in rises the sun. SENTENCE:- The sun rises in the east. STRUCTURE OF A SENTENCE THE SENTENCE RULES :--- 1. The first word of a sentence always begins with a capital letter. 2. A full stop (.) must be place at the end of a sentence. THE PHRASE The group of words that make sense but not complete sense. At ten o’clock , for two hours , in the west , in the east , by day , by night , at night , on a table. The sentence has a VERB in it; but a phrase hasn’t. The sentence has a VERB in it; but a phrase hasn’t. EXAMPLE SENTENCE: I will be giving you a presentation. PHRASE: For an hour. EXAMPLE SENTENCE: I will be giving you a presentation. PHRASE: For an hour. VERB HAS NO VERB EXAMPLE SENTENCE: I will be giving you a presentation. PHRASE: For an hour. VERB HAS NO VERB VERB A verb is a word which says something about a subject. KINDS OF SENTENCES DECLARATIVE SENTENCES INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES IMPERATIVE SENTENCES EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES KINDS OF SENTENCES DECLARATIVE SENTENCES A SENTENCE THAT DECLARES SOMETHING. KINDS OF SENTENCES DECLARATIVE SENTENCES A SENTENCE THAT DECLARES EXAMPLE:>> SOMETHING. 1. The boys were swimming in the river. 2. The sun rises in the east. KINDS OF SENTENCES INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES A SENTENCE CAN ASK A QUESTION. KINDS OF SENTENCES INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES A SENTENCE CAN ASK A EXAMPLE:>> QUESTION. 1. Who has broken the glass? 2. Where is the aero plane? KINDS OF SENTENCES IMPERATIVE SENTENCES A SENTENCE THAT EXPRESSES A COMMAND, A REQUEST OR A DESIRE. KINDS OF SENTENCES IMPERATIVE SENTENCES A SENTENCE THAT EXPRESSES EXAMPLE:>> A COMMAND, A REQUEST OR 1. Peter, shut the door. A DESIRE. 2. Please bring me a glass of water. 3. I wish to play chess. KINDS OF SENTENCES EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES A SENTENCE CAN EXPRESS SOME STRONG OR SUDDEN FEELING. KINDS OF SENTENCES EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES A SENTENCE CAN EXPRESS EXAMPLE:>> SOME STRONG OR SUDDEN 1. How beautiful this rose is! FEELING. 2. What a noise they are making! PARTS OF A SENTENCE SUBJECT PREDICATE THE PERSON OR THING WE SPEAK ABOUT. PARTS OF A SENTENCE SUBJECT PREDICATE WHAT IS SAID ABOUT THE SUBJECT. PARTS OF A SENTENCE SUBJECT PREDICATE The cow is grazing in the field. we are talking about cow PARTS OF A SENTENCE SUBJECT PREDICATE The cow is grazing in the field. we say about cow that it is grazing in the field. PARTS OF SPEECH THE PARTS OF SPEECH Every name is called a NOUN, As field and fountain, street and town In place of noun the PRONOUN stands As he and she can clap their hands The ADJECTIVE describes a thing, As magic wand and bridal ring The VERB means action, something done - To read, to write, to jump, to run How things are done, the ADVERBS tell, As quickly, slowly, badly, well The PREPOSITION shows relation, As in the street, or at the station CONJUNCTIONS join, in many ways, Sentences, words, or phrase and phrase EXAMPLE TENSES TYPES OF TENSES SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE PAST SIMPLE FUTURE PRESENT CONTINUOUS PAST CONTINUOUS FUTURE CONTINUOUS PRESENT PRFECT PAST PERFECT FUTURE PERFECT PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS SIMPLE & PERFECT TENSES SIMPLE TENSES Simple present Bill walks his dog. Simple Past Bill walked his dog. Simple future Bill will walk his dog. PERFECT TENSES Present Perfect Bill has walked his dog. Past Perfect Bill had walked his dog. Future Perfect Bill will have walked his dog. CONTINUOUS TENSES CONTINUOUS TENSES Present Continuous Tense Bill is walking his dog. Past Continuous Tense Bill was walking his dog. Future Continuous Tense Bill will be walking his dog. PERFCT CONTINUOUS Present Perfect Continuous Tense Bill has been walking his dog. Past Perfect Continuous Tense Bill had been walking his dog. Future Perfect Continuous Tense Bill will have been walking his dog. ACTIVE VOICE Active voice In most English sentences with an action verb, the subject performs the action denoted by the verb. These examples show that the subject is doing the verb action. PASSIVE VOICE One can change the normal word order of many active sentences (those with a direct object) so that the subject is no longer active, but is, instead, being acted upon by the verb - or passive. Note in these examples how the subject-verb relationship has changed. ACTIVE TO PASSIVE 1. Move the active sentence's direct object into the sentence's subject slot 2. Place the active sentence's subject into a phrase beginning with the preposition by ACTIVE TO PASSIVE 3. Add a form of the auxiliary verb be to the main verb and change the main verb's form PASSIVE TO ACTIVE To change a passive voice sentence into an active voice sentence, simply reverse the steps shown above. 1. Move the passive sentence's subject into the active sentence's direct object slot 2. Remove the auxiliary verb be from the main verb and change main verb's form if needed PASSIVE TO ACTIVE • 3. Place the passive sentence's object of the preposition by into the subject slot. NARRATION Direct Speech / Quoted Speech Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech) Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word. For example: She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations." or "Today's lesson is on presentations," she said. NARRATION Indirect Speech / Reported Speech Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word. When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too. NARRATION For example: NARRATION Tense change As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense: (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right): Direct speech Indirect speech Present simple Past simple She said, "It's cold." She said it was cold. Present continuous Past continuous She said, "I'm teaching She said she was teaching English English online." online. NARRATION Present perfect simple Past perfect simple She said, "I've been on the She said she had been on web since 1999." the web since 1999. Present perfect Past perfect continuous continuous She said she had been She said, "I've been teaching teaching English for seven English for seven years.“ years. NARRATION Past simple Past perfect She said, "I taught online She said she had taught yesterday." online yesterday. Past continuous Past perfect continuous She said, "I was teaching She said she had been earlier." teaching earlier. NARRATION Past perfect Past perfect She said, "The lesson had NO CHANGE - She said the already started when he lesson had already started arrived. " when he arrived. Past perfect continuous Past perfect continuous She said, "I'd already been NO CHANGE - She said teaching for five minutes." she'd already been teaching for five minutes. NARRATION Modal verb forms also sometimes change: Direct speech Indirect speech will would She said, "I'll teach She said she would teach English online tomorrow." English online tomorrow. can could She said, "I can teach She said she could teach English online." English online. NARRATION must had to She said, "I must have a She said she had to have computer to teach English a computer to teach English online." online. may might She said, "May I open a She asked if she might open new browser? " a new browser. NARRATION Note - There is no change to; could, would, should, might and ought to. Direct speech Indirect speech "I might go to the cinema", He said he might go to the he said. cinema. You can use the present tense in reported speech if you want to say that something is still true i.e. my name has always been and will always be Lynne so:- NARRATION Direct speech Indirect speech "My name is Lynne", She said her name was she said. Lynne. or She said her name is Lynne. You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a future event. Direct speech (exact quote) Indirect speech (not exact) "Next week's lesson is on She said next week's lesson reported speech ", she said. is on reported speech. NARRATION • Time change • If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it to fit in with the time of reporting. • For example we need to change words like here and yesterday if they have different meanings at the time and place of reporting. Today + 24 hours - Indirect speech "Today's lesson is on She said yesterday's lesson presentations." was on presentations. NARRATION Expressions of time if reported on a different day this (evening) › that (evening) today › yesterday ... these (days) › those (days) now › then (a week) ago › (a week) before last weekend › the previous weekend here › there next (week) › the following (week) tomorrow › the next/following day NARRATION Reporting Verbs Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech. We use asked to report questions:- For example: I asked Lynne what time the lesson started. We use told with an object. For example: Lynne told me she felt tired. There are many other verbs we can use apart from said, told and asked. These include:- accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed, apologized, begged, boasted, complained, denied, explained, implied, invited, offered, ordered, promised, replied, suggested and thought. NARRATION Use of 'That' in reported speech In reported speech, the word that is often used. For example: He told me that he lived in Greenwich. However, that is optional. For example: He told me he lived in Greenwich. !Note - That is never used in questions, instead we often use if. For example: He asked me if I would come to the party.