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English Grammar - CDI

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					    ENGLISH GRAMMER
BACK BONE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Definition of Grammar

The definition of grammar is as
follows:
Grammar applies rules for
standard use of words and how
their component parts combine to
form sentences.
 A grammar is
also a system for classifying and
analyzing the elements of
language including inflections,
functions, rules and relations in
the sentence.
ALPHABETS
WORDS
The group of alphabets
   THE SENTENCE
   A GROUP OF WORDS THAT
     MAKE COMPLETE SENSE


GROUP OF WORDS :-

  The east in rises the
  sun.

SENTENCE:-

  The sun rises in the
  east.
STRUCTURE OF A SENTENCE
THE SENTENCE
RULES :---


    1. The first word of a sentence always begins with a capital letter.

    2. A full stop (.) must be place at the end of a sentence.
THE PHRASE
The group of words that make
  sense but not complete sense.



At ten o’clock ,
for two hours ,
in the west ,
in the east ,
by day ,
by night ,
at night ,
on a table.
The sentence has a


        VERB
            in it; but a phrase hasn’t.
The sentence has a


        VERB
            in it; but a phrase hasn’t.
EXAMPLE
SENTENCE:
I will be giving you a presentation.

PHRASE:
For an hour.
EXAMPLE
SENTENCE:
I will be giving you a presentation.

PHRASE:
For an hour.
                                       VERB



                                       HAS NO VERB
EXAMPLE
SENTENCE:
I will be giving you a presentation.

PHRASE:
For an hour.
                                       VERB




                                       HAS NO VERB
                                                VERB



A verb is a word which says something about a subject.
KINDS OF SENTENCES

DECLARATIVE SENTENCES

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

IMPERATIVE SENTENCES

EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES
  KINDS OF SENTENCES

  DECLARATIVE SENTENCES




A SENTENCE THAT DECLARES
SOMETHING.
  KINDS OF SENTENCES

  DECLARATIVE SENTENCES




A SENTENCE THAT DECLARES   EXAMPLE:>>
SOMETHING.                 1. The boys were swimming in the
                              river.
                           2. The sun rises in the east.
  KINDS OF SENTENCES

  INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES




A SENTENCE CAN ASK A
QUESTION.
  KINDS OF SENTENCES

  INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES




A SENTENCE CAN ASK A        EXAMPLE:>>
QUESTION.                   1. Who has broken the glass?
                            2. Where is the aero plane?
  KINDS OF SENTENCES

  IMPERATIVE SENTENCES




A SENTENCE THAT EXPRESSES
A COMMAND, A REQUEST OR
A DESIRE.
  KINDS OF SENTENCES

  IMPERATIVE SENTENCES




A SENTENCE THAT EXPRESSES    EXAMPLE:>>
A COMMAND, A REQUEST OR     1. Peter, shut the door.
A DESIRE.                   2. Please bring me a glass of water.
                            3. I wish to play chess.
  KINDS OF SENTENCES

  EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES




A SENTENCE CAN EXPRESS
SOME STRONG OR SUDDEN
FEELING.
  KINDS OF SENTENCES

  EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES




A SENTENCE CAN EXPRESS    EXAMPLE:>>
SOME STRONG OR SUDDEN     1. How beautiful this rose is!
FEELING.                  2. What a noise they are making!
PARTS OF A SENTENCE


SUBJECT         PREDICATE



THE PERSON OR THING WE SPEAK ABOUT.
PARTS OF A SENTENCE


SUBJECT    PREDICATE



            WHAT IS SAID ABOUT THE
            SUBJECT.
PARTS OF A SENTENCE
SUBJECT       PREDICATE


The cow is grazing in the field.




                          we are talking about
                          cow
PARTS OF A SENTENCE
SUBJECT       PREDICATE


The cow is grazing in the field.




                          we say about cow
                          that it is grazing in
                          the field.
PARTS OF SPEECH
THE PARTS OF SPEECH

Every name is called a NOUN,
As field and fountain, street and town

In place of noun the PRONOUN stands
As he and she can clap their hands

The ADJECTIVE describes a thing,
As magic wand and bridal ring

The VERB means action, something done -
To read, to write, to jump, to run

How things are done, the ADVERBS tell,
As quickly, slowly, badly, well

The PREPOSITION shows relation,
As in the street, or at the station

CONJUNCTIONS join, in many ways,
Sentences, words, or phrase and phrase
EXAMPLE
TENSES
TYPES OF TENSES

            SIMPLE PRESENT
            SIMPLE PAST
            SIMPLE FUTURE
            PRESENT CONTINUOUS
            PAST CONTINUOUS
            FUTURE CONTINUOUS
            PRESENT PRFECT
            PAST PERFECT
            FUTURE PERFECT
            PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
            PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
            FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS
SIMPLE & PERFECT TENSES



       SIMPLE TENSES

       Simple present    Bill walks his dog.
       Simple Past       Bill walked his dog.
       Simple future     Bill will walk his dog.

       PERFECT TENSES

       Present Perfect   Bill has walked his dog.
       Past Perfect      Bill had walked his dog.
       Future Perfect    Bill will have walked his dog.
CONTINUOUS TENSES

      CONTINUOUS TENSES

      Present Continuous Tense     Bill is walking his dog.
      Past Continuous Tense        Bill was walking his dog.
      Future Continuous Tense      Bill will be walking his dog.

      PERFCT CONTINUOUS

      Present Perfect Continuous
      Tense                        Bill has been walking his
                                   dog.
      Past Perfect Continuous
      Tense                        Bill had been walking his
                                   dog.
      Future Perfect Continuous
      Tense                        Bill will have been walking
                                   his dog.
ACTIVE VOICE
Active voice

In most English sentences with an action verb, the subject
performs the action denoted by the verb.
These examples show that the subject is doing the verb
action.
PASSIVE VOICE
One can change the normal word order of many active
sentences (those with a direct object) so that the subject is
no longer active, but is, instead, being acted upon by the
verb - or passive.
Note in these examples how the subject-verb relationship
has changed.
    ACTIVE TO PASSIVE

1. Move the active sentence's direct object into the
   sentence's subject slot




2. Place the active sentence's subject into a phrase beginning with the
   preposition by
  ACTIVE TO PASSIVE

3. Add a form of the auxiliary verb be to the main verb and change
   the main verb's form
PASSIVE TO ACTIVE

To change a passive voice sentence into an active voice
sentence, simply reverse the steps shown above.
1. Move the passive sentence's subject into the
active sentence's direct object slot




2. Remove the auxiliary verb be from the main verb and change main
   verb's form if needed
PASSIVE TO ACTIVE




•   3. Place the passive sentence's object of the preposition
    by into the subject slot.
NARRATION

Direct Speech / Quoted Speech

Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct
speech (sometimes called quoted speech)
Here what a person says appears within quotation marks
("...") and should be word for word.

For example:
She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations."
or
"Today's lesson is on presentations," she said.
NARRATION

Indirect Speech / Reported Speech

Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech),
doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person
said and it doesn't have to be word for word.

When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is
because when we use reported speech, we are usually
talking about a time in the past (because obviously the
person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs
therefore usually have to be in the past too.
NARRATION
For example:
NARRATION
Tense change
As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a
   tense: (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right):
Direct speech                     Indirect speech

Present simple                 Past simple
She said, "It's cold."         She said it was cold.

Present continuous             Past continuous

She said, "I'm teaching        She said she was teaching English
English online."               online.
NARRATION
Present perfect simple        Past perfect simple

She said, "I've been on the   She said she had been on
web since 1999."              the web since 1999.

Present perfect               Past perfect continuous
continuous
                              She said she had been
She said, "I've been teaching teaching English for seven
English for seven years.“     years.
NARRATION

Past simple                  Past perfect

She said, "I taught online   She said she had taught
yesterday."                  online yesterday.

Past continuous              Past perfect continuous

She said, "I was teaching    She said she had been
earlier."                    teaching earlier.
NARRATION
Past perfect                Past perfect

She said, "The lesson had    NO CHANGE - She said the
already started when he     lesson had already started
arrived. "                   when he arrived.

Past perfect continuous     Past perfect continuous

She said, "I'd already been NO CHANGE - She said
teaching for five minutes." she'd already been teaching
                            for five minutes.
NARRATION
Modal verb forms also sometimes change:

Direct speech                Indirect speech
will                         would
She said, "I'll teach       She said she would teach
English online tomorrow."   English online tomorrow.

can                          could
She said, "I can teach      She said she could teach
English online."            English online.
NARRATION

must                        had to

She said, "I must have a    She said she had to have
computer to teach English   a computer to teach English
online."                    online.

may                         might
She said, "May I open a     She asked if she might open
new browser? "              a new browser.
NARRATION

Note - There is no change to; could, would, should, might
  and ought to.
Direct speech                 Indirect speech

"I might go to the cinema",   He said he might go to the
 he said.                     cinema.

You can use the present tense in reported speech if you
  want to say that something is still true i.e. my name has
  always been and will always be Lynne so:-
 NARRATION

Direct speech                 Indirect speech

"My name is Lynne",           She said her name was
she said.                     Lynne.
                         or   She said her name is Lynne.

You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a
  future event.
Direct speech (exact quote) Indirect speech (not exact)

"Next week's lesson is on    She said next week's lesson
reported speech ", she said. is on reported speech.
NARRATION

• Time change
• If the reported sentence contains an expression of time,
  you must change it to fit in with the time of reporting.
• For example we need to change words like here and
  yesterday if they have different meanings at the time and
  place of reporting.

Today                       + 24 hours - Indirect speech
"Today's lesson is on       She said yesterday's lesson
presentations."             was on presentations.
NARRATION

Expressions of time if reported on a different day

this (evening)       ›      that (evening)
today                ›      yesterday ...
these (days)         ›      those (days)
now                 ›        then
(a week) ago         ›      (a week) before
last weekend         ›      the previous weekend
here                ›       there
next (week)          ›       the following (week)
tomorrow            ›        the next/following day
NARRATION
Reporting Verbs
Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in
indirect speech.
We use asked to report questions:-
For example: I asked Lynne what time the lesson started.
We use told with an object.
For example: Lynne told me she felt tired.
There are many other verbs we can use apart from said, told and
asked.
These include:-
accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed, apologized, begged,
boasted, complained, denied, explained, implied, invited, offered,
ordered, promised, replied, suggested and thought.
NARRATION

Use of 'That' in reported speech
In reported speech, the word that is often used.
For example: He told me that he lived in Greenwich.
However, that is optional.
For example: He told me he lived in Greenwich.
!Note - That is never used in questions, instead we often
use if.
For example: He asked me if I would come to the party.

				
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