Discovering France VIDEO NOTES by svq18001


									                              “Discov ering F rance” VI DEO N OTES
“La Belle France” Her stunning beauty, fiery individualism, and searching intellect has been a source of admiration
and fascination for the rest of the world. This is a country where life is a pleasure—love and art, and art a way of
life--a stylish self-assured people who view other nations with a warm curiosity and a certain sympathy for that
inevitable flaw—that they’re not French!
The 3rd largest European country (after Russian & the Ukraine) [largest in Western Europe]; and the 5th largest
economic power in the world. In both geography and character, is straddles northern and southern Europe, linking
the cool Atlantic with the warm Mediterranean. The country is divided into 22 regions, with its legendary capital—
Paris. Paris is ringed by some of the most magnificent catherdrals—Chartres, Amiens, Rouen, Reims.
To the north are Nord/Pas de Calais, Picardy, Normandy, Brittany, and Ile de France (Paris).
The wild, western peninsula of Brittany is the most ancient region of France. Man has lived here for more than 60
centuries. Neolithic and Dark Age peoples have left their mysterious legacy on the landscape. Historic Sites: a
living museum
Ca rnac —on the southwest coast, nearly 3,000 standing stones have been arranged in intriguing lines and
patterns. The alignments are puzzle for modern science, a powerful catalyst for the human imagination, and a link
to a far distant past. These huge monoliths, from an ancient civilization approximately 60,000 years ago, suggest
a mysterious link to a distant past by their strange stone alignments in specific formations.
Britta ny —the cold unyielding Atlantic Ocean has shaped its character; the sea has been a source of its livelihood
as well as its isolation. Two of the region’s three borders is with the sea; & on the third, as Brittons like to say, by
France. The sea is still the major source of income, along its 1,000 miles of coastline. Yet the region maintains its
simple charm and ancient culture. Many Brittagne traditions can be traced to the C elt s; who came across the
channel in the 5th century from England and Wales. Until the beginning of the 20th century, Brittagne dress was
very widespread or common. Older women wearing the traditional costume and co if of hand-made lace (riding on
bicycles because the tall ‘do’ doesn’t fit easily into a car!) Brittagne language still spoken and has much in
common with Welsh
--55BC Romans into Gaul; some of finest Roman architecture Pont du Gard Arles—the ‘Rome of France’—once
the “Capital of Roman Gaul”! Its Amphitheatre fits 20,000 spectators 1,000 years after Romans left;
Mo nt Sa int Mi chel on border of Brittany, is most striking monuments; huge granite rocks battered by lethal
tides and surrounded with treacherous quicksand was once a haven for hermits and holy men. —able to walk ot it
at low tide, April to November--2 hours to cross; 1st Abbey built after Archangel Michael appeared to a local
bishop in a dream; the abbey now standing dates from 11th century—time when Northern France was in the grip
of the Normans. The monks lived a life of silent prayer; the knight’s room the only one kept warm; here they
copied their manuscripts. In the 12th century, Norman power began to wan, but the rise of religious fervor
Chart re s —to the southwest of Paris became an inspiration for many gothic cathedrals throughout Europe the
equisitely carved royal portal is considered a masterpiece; inside, ever-changing ethereal light shimmers its
rainbow colors through ancient stained glass windows. Chartres is only one of numerous cathedrals in France.
Am ie ns largest cathedral in France and survivor of two world wars

Some of the bloodiest battles of WW I were fought in northern France Ve r dun— 1/2 million died in its forests;
100 years later WW 1 1916 Somme Valley—100,000 British and American troops assault on the German
machine guns--now land used only as a memorial cemetery [charnel house—bones stored so newer can be buried!]
Nor m andy —WW II June 6, 1944 D-Day invasion; Allies (American, Canadian, & British troops) surged onto the
beaches and, after 10 weeks of attack and counter attack--finally broke through the German and opened the route
to Paris; most crucial battle of WW II

Wherever you go, Pa ri s stays with you—central Paris is small enough to be crossed on foot during a day, yet a
lifetime to experience its endless enchantment.
Tod ay’ s ope n spac es & wi de boul eva rd s & gra nd p arks is le ss t ha n 150 ye a rs old; the old city a maze
of medieval alleys and ramshackle slums—large areas of it demolished by late 19th century; the grand design
carried out by the Prefect de la Seine, Baron George Eugené von Ha us se ma nn, created today’s unified plan.
12 min That sense of individuality, the need for something new & shocking can’t be suppressed in Paris; the Ei ffel
To we r , built for 1889 World’s Fair = French industrial might, a temporary structure—slated for demolishment
afterwards, was kept as a radiio tower—most French hated it as an eyesore, clashing with Paris’ charm.
Guy de Maupassant: enjoyed the view from it because it was the only place in Paris that you couldn’t see it!
12:45 Fr architectural daring into the 20th century, t he Po m pi do u C ent er [a museum now] a strange inside-
out design ; conceived by the then President George Pompidou, initiated in 1977—cries of horror & disbelief
1980s gl as s py ra mi d in the Louv re courtyard—daring architectural design doubles as a skylight & new
underground entrance to the museum. In the Louvre’s 700-year history, it’s been modified, rebuilt and extended
many times: contains one of the world’s finest collections of art; once the palace of kinds and emperors, now
houses a world famous art collection. Masterpieces from ancient Greece and Rome, as well as European works.
14;30 1 of its greatest treasures—the most famous painting in the world—Mona Lisa
Muse e d’Or s ay : once a Belle Epoque train station of the late 19th & early 20th century; now, a stunning display
of modern masterpieces
15:30 some of the finest paintings by F re nc h Im pr es si o ni sts —Gaugan, Van Gogh, Matisse, Manet, Monet,
Degas [ballerinas]—a group of artists who lived in Paris in the mid-19th century and shared a desire to paint
modern life in new ways: light in broken prismatic colors was a shocking break from the traditional notion of art.
the name Impressionism was actually an insult initially: said of Claude Monet’s painting “Impression Sunrise”:
‘wall paper in its embryonic state is more finished than this seascape.
17:00 the flower & water garden outside the house in Geve rney , outside Paris —Water lilies/waterscapes—a
prodigious collection of some 48 or so paintings which even Monet confessed was “an obsession”—since he never
saw the light exactly the same way twice, he continued to paint them, attempting to get it ‘just right’!
17:45 To ul o use La utr ec, [a deformed aristocrat] inspired in the 20th century, depicted the gaiety of Parisian
Bohemian life--the café society attracted some of the world’s most famous writers and painters of the time
they settled in the hilltop district of M ont Ma rtr e: still a popular venue for painters; today, the artists now more
intent upon making a living than the old attempts to test the boundaries of endeavors seem to have largely

Pa ri s: F o od, A rt, F as hi o n
Pa ri s the capitol of chic--clothes, the people’s art form: looking good is of extreme importance [couturier
19:25 Paul Boret began Paris fashion revolution before WW I when _ Paul Boret ?_ abolished the corset
in the 1920’s, Coco Chanel continued the liberated trends—short hair, trousers for women, sun tan and fashion
Not all Parisian are style gurus: the Le ft B a nk of the Seine in Paris attracts a more casual and lively crowd; a
student haunt for 8 centuries, it’s called the Lati n Q uart er —Latin,the lang. of instruction, a magnet for young
At the edge of the Latin Quartier, the Luxenbourg Gardens, the ‘jarden français,’ on the banks--a favorite escape
for all, especially those suffering from the ill effects of city living
21:00 note the cathedral windows—a sublime sanctuary, Sa int C hap el, a Gothic masterpiece built 700 years
ago to house the crown of thorns brought back from the Holy Lands during the Crusade; upper chapel used by
royal households star-studded vaulting lit by 15 exquisitely-framed stained glass windows filling room with
shattered light
a short walk & built in same era, another great Parisian symbol--Notr e Da me. since medieval times has been
nucleus of Parisian life--all distances in France are measured from its square. Until the 19th cent, building almost
derelict—before Victor Hugo’s novel Hunchback of Notre Dame French inspired to raise funds to restore it from
the damage of the French Revolution.
23 The Fr ench R ev ol uti on be ga n July 14, 1789 , French people half starved after series of bad harvests,
stormed the Ba still e prison and destroyed it.
uprising swept away the monarchy and the ensuing struggle for power started a blood bath known as the
an orgy of killing 40,000 R ei gn of Te rr o r ended with Na p ole o n B o na pa rte , a Corsican General, seized
power & crowned himself emperor—had had great battles in Russia Egypt Greece Waterloo; 100 year war with
French & English impoverished people of France. That Rei gn o f T er r or has left its mark on the the French
People; Ba still e Da y, J ul y 14 th , is still the most important French festival on the Pl ace d e la C o ncor d where
Louis XV I was executed just over 200 years ago.
Mar ie A nt oi nett e, his wife, met the same fate: imprisoned in the notorious C o nci er ge ri e —waiting for the
inevitable end; watched by the gendarme continuously.
Oct 16, 1793: taken from her cell, wrists bound, hair shorn—she was executed on the guillotine; the merciless
slaughter was the culmination of centuries of extravagance by the monarchy.
Arrogance and glory of the old regime was embodied in the vast, lavish chateau southwest of Paris—in the 17th
century, Lo ui s XIV “the s un ki ng” had expanded a small chateau his father had built into world’s grandest
most expensive palace ever seen—Ve r sai lle s —1400 fountains & a vast reservoir were built to divert water from
the Seine
26:40 ostentation & opulence were the order of the day: the Hal l of Mi r ro r s for official audiences & balls
Queen’s bedchamber—sumptuous surroundings, showed the magnificent luxury Marie Antoinette enjoyed.
Court of the time consisted of some 6,000 people; the ‘unwashed courtiers’ would crowd into the royal rooms &,
it is said, the stench could be detected several miles away.
27: 58 In the North East: Burgundy Champagne Alsace Lorraine & Franche-Comte
28: ? Al s ace & Lo rr ai ne changed hands between France & Germany several times; as recently as 1919, it was
finally restored to France (WW I)
Folklore, architecture, food and drink of the area still retain the strong German influence.
29:00 St ra s bour g capital of Alsace and the seat of many International organizations—“La Petite France” is the
oldest and prettiest section of the city.
Red sandstone gothic cathedral Notr e Da me o f Str as bo ur g entwined with the life of the city for almost 1000
years; temporarily Protestant during the reformation & a Temple during the Age of Reason
30:00 to the West, C ha m pa gne by D om Pe ri gnon an enterprising 17th century Benedictine monk, the Abby’s
cellar master announced: “Come quickly, I’m drinking stars!”
30:40 from such humble beginnings, the Wine industry has emerged as an Art Form
Almost 8 million bottles in just this one cellar--the vast Bollinger cellars—first wines are blended with reserve wines
that have matured for 5 years
Guy Bissot, one of the family descendants of the House Bissot?, discusses the Blending-–a most crucial process
A magnum allows the wine to mature & age better than in a cask or vat; the point of the reserve wines is to give
the consistency and continuity of the style of the house, and it also gives the ‘structure and backbone’
Then 2nd fermination for 3 to 15 years to develop its flavor and the famous bubbles
At the end of the aging process, the bottles are turned each day (riddling) so that the yeast collects in the neck of
the bottle—a good riddler can turn as many as 50,000 bottles a day—then, the neck of the bottler, with its
sediments encased is dipped in freezing solution—the ice with its deposit is expelled
Enjoy 1st ‘on the nose’; then in the mouth—swirl it around on the tongue--the fruit in back and the acidity on the
sides—the goal is that the fruit and the acidity are in harmonious balance
33:15 typical French country life in Burgundy encompasses its network of c anal s , originally built for freight
traffic—now, most relaxing way to enjoy a journey into the heartland of France.
34:30—Bur gundy , once the base for the greatest monastic orders, the Benedictine Abbots had almost as much
power as the pope
35: 10 12 th century crusades were launched from Vezlet? Abbey
35:15 NORTHWEST of France: dominated by gre a test riv er i n Fr ance —Loir e valley sanctuary for wildlife &
heart of literary France
Poitou-Charente, Western Loire, & Loire valley--Many of the country’s most renown writers were either born or
brought up here: Francois Rabelais & Honoré de Balzac
Also C hat ea ux c o unt ry : Balzac: “a picture framed by a river or a tranquil pool”
36:15 during the 16th century reign of François the First, a series of military campaigns in Italy inspired a great
absorbtion of Italian ideas & renaissance--the artistic Renaissance in France; the king’s great life work was the
great chateau at C ha m bor d —this magnificent chateau was thought perhaps to be masterminded by Leonardo da
Vinci, who was a close friend of the king.
At François death, the court moved to Che no nc e au, the new king, Henri II was obsessed with his mistress, Diane
de Poitier, and he gave it to her; much to the annoyance of his wife Catherine de Medici, who evicted the mistress
after the king’s death. Catherine continued the work her rival had begun; she extended the gardens and used
them for lavish court extravaganzas; the interior also benefited from her efforts; the furnishings are still among
the most impressive of all the chateaux.
38:00 like Chenonceau, A zay le Rid ea u, was designed by a woman, Phillippa Lezbaie?—it reflects aesthetic
pleasure, not military defense—the result was sublime harmony
38:30 fireworks & Renaissance dancing--the nightly “sonne et luminiere” [sound and light] show (a concept
invented by the French) tells the story of the chateau—Phillippa, the wife of one of the king’s advisors, had
building material brought by boat along the Loire.
39:00 disaster struck when a cousin was hanged for embezzling public funds; her husband was forced to flee and
Phillippa had to hand over her beloved chateau to the king
39:40 Central France: the Ma s si f Ce ntr al dominates a huge plateau--Auvergne & the Rhone Valley (Lyon),
Limonsin, Lot, Dordogne--the river Dordogne, one of the longest in France, the lifeline of an eerie ancient land,
home to Cro-magnon man 40,000 years ago; Caves of the Dordogne 1942; Grotte de Peche mal; 24,600 years
ago--2 horses drawn by early man!
 The Dordogne’s waters meander past a medieval world where defense was the main priority; feudal fortress
tower on remnants of ancient rock; remants of a more violent age
La Roc Girrack?? now stone houses hiding in the cliff face [troglogytes!] chooses its river as its defense

41:00 tr uffle hunting! Perigord in Dordogne, famous for most prized gastronomic delights--very rare & very
expensive--only grows near a particular type of oak tree; pigs love truffles, their favorite food—M. Chaum’s
Rosalee’s sensitive snout—but that she doesn’t get to eat any of them which makes her fractious [rebellious].
42:00 the problem of controlling of an extremely hefty, deprived pig has prompted many to use dogs
truffle soup--a speciality of Claude Paul Bocuse who runs the Elysee Palais he’s the first to be decorated with the
legion of honnaire by the French President. His restaurant is simply called ‘Paul Bocuse’. He was born to a family
of chefs, family ran the same restaurant since the 17th century; and he could cook by the time he was eight!
Paul likes the personal touch, welcomes his guests at the door
43:30 secret of success = a true understanding of taste and smell pinnacle of French talent for cuisine

44:50 Lyo n 3 rd la r ge st c ity meeting point of the rivers Saone & Rhone; it was used by the Romans as a base
for conquest of Gaul Emperor Claudius born here
in many ways, Lyon doesn’t have the feel of a city, but old town with narrow streets and gives the sense of an
overgrown village
into the Mid Pyrennes: in South west-- Bordeaux Aquitaine Languedoc-Rousillon
Bordeaux--medieval town--most charming of the sleepy houses
wine first produced in Roman times one of the most prestigious labels in the world: quality key to town’s success
8 centuries ago, a council of peers or Jurá (jury) ?? was set up to supervise the wine production: annually, they
parade through the streets, the Jurad??, to pronounce on the results of the harvest.
46:00 in some years, foreign dignitaries, in this case, the American Ambassador, are sometimes admitted to the
brotherhood; after a banquet & serious wine tasting, the Jurad climb to the summit of the hilltop overlooking the
town & proclaim this year’s quality of harvest
47:00 in Bo rd ea ux winemaking a family affair; in celebrated Medoc region--the product of a typically family-
owned vineyard.
    1953 Jean-Jim ? Bouree took over from his father & has systematically modernized the estate; his eldest son
            will one day take over
the Bouree family, full of warmth and humor, follow the philosophy of the French writer Vo ltai re : “I know of only
one serious thing on this earth—the growing of grapes.”
Bordeaux wines are traditionally known as “Chateaux” to denote the wine producing area—but does not always
have a beautiful country house on the estate.
48:30 The south of the Aquitaine is dominated by the Py ré né e s, the natural border between France & Spain.
Dramatic peaks carve their giant stepping stones from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic
A land that captivates the imagination: in the 19th cent., a Parisian official Alfred Brolon? : composed a series of
mountain songs and formed ‘les Montaniard’? From mountain village of Bagnères-de-Bigorre, they have achieved
world-wide fame
Western Pyrenees—the land of the Ba sq ues: fiercely independent people with their own language, tradition, &
culture one of the most ancient peoples in Europe! the neat whitewashed houses dot the area of Ascain.
50:00 people are very proud of their homes: family name is often a description of their house:
51:00 Basque game of Palote?? [like jai lai?] Game played originally with bare hands, now a wickerwork basket or
leather glove;
the game that combines skill, agility, & speed well suited to fiery Basque temperament
Basque coast among the most scenic
St Jean du Luz??? most picturesque largely built on the proceeds of piracy
Biar rit z chic and reputation of the 19th cent. Also a Mecca for surfers
Bayonne et
Bay onne economic capital of the region & bastion of Basques traditions [center of traditional pastimes]—annual
festival in August demonstrates the Basque joie de vivre [love of or joy in life/living]
53:00 young Basques are given an opportunity to prove their courage during ≈ Corse des Vaches—playing “tag”
with bulls (the point is to make a bull go into one of the bars on the square!) although the horns are capped, there
are some injuries, but usually no broken bones
54:00 Basques singing ; an evening of laughter & song--another tale to tell during the city celebrations
55: to the east in Languedoc, the medieval city of Ca rc as s onne is a fairy tale age linked to knights and chivalry
two sets of walls made the city impregnable: 1st, originally made by the Romans in the 3rd cent., reinforced during
the 13th cent. In the ?st century, a new interior wall insured the city’s invulnerability
Carcassonne first ramparts built originally by the Romans were reinforce in the 13th century by
55:35 4,000 lived here during the Middle Ages and as many as 10,000 when invasions threatened
56:00 Languedoc is a nature lover‘s paradise--wide open spaces and spectacular gorges
River Ardeche on the east coast has cut a swathe through the thick rock and sculpted natural archway--Pont d’Arc
a stunning backdrop for canoeist and swimmers
Pont d u Ga r d one of the most impressive man-made monuments in the region a testament to the power of
Rome. This vast a qua duct once carried water to nearby town of Ni me s, the arches are not a decoration, but an
elaborate support system some of the building stones, almost 6 tons, were slotted together without mortar!
Canoeists & kayakers

57:40 the Southeast—(the Riveria) the playground of France: Provence, Cote d’Azur, Savois, & Dauphiny-Alpes
58:00 the mighty French Al pe s vistas: “ M ont Bla nc yet gleams on high” in the words of English poet Shelley,
to describe one of Europe’s greatest mountains.---this sparkling alpine wonderland is where the city dwellers of
France can revive jaded spirits [skiing, hang gliding & climbing]
55: ? the French summer playground is the C ote d’ Az ur--sunny climate and sapphire waters are a magnet, not
solely for the chic and wealthy, but half of France spend their month-long August vacation here’
most famous resort in this hedonist playground is St T ro pe z, pretty fishing village popular with artists of the
19th century; most of its Provencal charm during 19th cent; today, yachts & celebrities! these days boats are far
from simple fishing vessels;
the Riv er ia began to acquire its glamorous reputation in 1920’s with Coco Chanel & F. Scott Fitzgerald
1950’s Brigitte Bardot helped establish its chic reputation—who still lives in the area
  Cote d’Azur is not all crowds and glitz: Many of the towns & villages remain relatively untouched:
EZE a hilltop village built in the Middle Ages as a defense against invaders.--narrow, winding streets have remained
the same for hundreds of years [note how the Alps drop off into the Mediterranean!]
1:02:00 images to delight the senses—rich earth and burnished sunshine of Provence work in harmony to produce
a dazzling harvest=marketing at Aix, the Province capital abundance and variety of nature’s riches=market places
Gr as s e even the air smells sweet—(flowers) center of French pe rfume i nd ustr y--lavender fields
Gentle climate & cradle of protective mountains make the region ideal for flower production almost all year round
Perfume trade originated here almost 400 years ago; a group of Italian glove makers began producing floral scents,
created scented leather gloves! [Fragonard]
Demand grew in the 18th & 19th centuries ; heady sensual fragrances that have become an essential part of French

landscape of Provence is vast and varied: gentle beauty of lush woodland and rolling plateau dotted with azure
lakes, tranquility of sleepy hilltop villages, basking in the hot sun.
The drama of giant river gorges carving their way through craggy limestone rock;
The G ra nd Ca ny o n o f Ve rd o n one of the most awesome gorges in Europe: the giant chasm runs for twelve
miles; at some points plunging 2,000 feet into the Verdon River [the circling road had no guard rails when I was
1:05:00 C a stel la ne typical province village ancient narrow streets and brightly colored houses, framed by the
deep blue of the Provencal sky
1:05:30 men playing boule [similar bocci ball] an important ritual is the daily game of petanc?? famous for its
relaxed and philosophical approach to life, a source of relaxation: Arguments over boules and who or who not may
be stretching the rules are a source of daily tension; a focal point of the village and a chance for a good chat
1:06:30 [musicians drummer] region has its own musical traditions—Maurice Fabra, more than 80 years old, in
the little village of Bargol, makes the carbonnet??? a type of flute made from olive wood;
woodcarvers provencial instruments flute (or pipes) tamborins? a type of drum made from local walnut
still played by many provençal folk musicians [ BOTH AT THE SAME TIME!!! ]

Mar s eill e largest city in Provence & the oldest in France--2,600m years ago (not long after the Celts settled in
Brittany) Greeks sailed into this Mediterranean port & soon became a gateway to North Africa; and since
absorbed the cultures of countless settlers & invaders to produce a rich mix of races.
still a major seaport—but with a slightly tarnished reputation for drug traffickers & blackmarketeers who also use
its harbor
despite its bad press, a fascinating, exciting and mighty city—its strong personality only adds to its allure: the
daily fish market, at the old court, is one of best places to enjoy the city’s character

inland city of Avi gnon is almost as ancient as Marseille; but it’s dominated by its Medieval past
 Pope’s palace in 14th cent France challenged the power of the Vatican; seven French popes ruled over next 100
years before independence from its French king was re-established and the holy seat returned to Rome.

1:10:00 the remains of the 12th century Po nt d’ Avi gno n--dancing mentioned actually went on in taverns under
the bridge
1:10:24 during the summer, Avignon hosts a month-long festival that gives the city a carnival atmosphere
the streets teem with theater-goers and performers and musicians who give ad hoc (impromptu) shows in the city
center-- major folk dancing festivals
1:11:45 --lovely town of A rl es, to the south--the soul of Provence
quiet backstreets seem to belong to another age easy to imagine the tortured soul of Vincent van Gogh
rose to prominence in the 1st century BC, Julius Caesar decided to punish Marseille for siding with one of its rivals
and gave its trade to Arles; given the name of Roman Gaul
now the stage for bullfighters the huge amphitheater holds 20,000 spectators! Only place in France to follow the
Spanish style of bullfighting [blood spilt]; all other French bullfighting is bloodless!

1:13:00 Arl e s, the gateway to the C am ar gue somehow escaped the marks of history and the legacy of man
main source of revenue salt production since Roman times still produce 90% of the salt in France
after progressive preparation, harvested and piled into peaks known as “camelle”????
the Ca m ar gue is one of the greatest bird migration sites in Europe
 the symbol of the region is the flamingo [pink color from the shrimp!]
1:15:00 this wild region is a rare glimpse into prehistoric Gaul
famous Camargue horses, some say, are the descendants of the ponies that roamed through ancient Gaul; they
share their territory with Camargue cowboys known as “gardiens“--theirs is the spirit of willful freedom, grace and
power, a spirit that cannot be harnessed or tamed--the spirit of France
1:16:00 the sunflowers a country like no other
sensuous, yet intellectually proud, yet irresistible a gifted, passionate people that have added immeasurably to the
treasures of mankind; determined nation that has forged its own destiny on its own terms
France looks forward to its destiny

France is in love with life, and the rest of the world is in love with France!

1:17:00 end credits!
Joan of Arc 1858 Lourdes Bernadette Souveroux? 18 visions cholera at time of first vision
Monique Dorian looking for healing Dali Lama spring; water from the grotto; drink, wash in the spring
A prison during Fr Revolution; magnet for pilgrims, esp for Saint Michael own website
www.globegate (?)

River Seine 20 Arrondisements
Blend of traditional & fashionable
# 73 bus great for seeing the city
Baron von Haussemann 1800’s l’Arc de Triomphe
Françoise Mitterand Grand Arc de la Defense in 1989
Taxis: Metro: 14 lines around the city 5:30 AM until apx. 1 AM
Six Largest Cities: Pari s Ma r sei lle Lyo n To ulo use Nice Str as bo ur g
July 1st 1916 20,000 killed within the first 30-50 minutes with 37,000 wounded 87% of Newfoundland
Regiment killed within a matter of minutes 4 months 1.2 million killed and Allies gained 8 miles of ground

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