WHEATON COLLEGE GRADUATE SCHOOL
Missions and Intercultural Studies
Course Instruction Plan
Prepared by: Robert L. Gallagher, Ph.D.
Course: INTR 514 Spiritual Formation & Witness 2 units
The course presents spiritual formation as an intentional emphasis of the church
whereby we seek to facilitate and cooperate with the work of the Holy Spirit primarily
through cultivating a climate of discipleship, encouraging spiritual practices that make us
more open and responsive to the Spirit's activity, and developing resources that address
the varying needs of persons at different places in their faith pilgrimage.
“Spiritual formation” is understood to involve both the inward activity of the
spiritual disciplines and the outward activity of ethical and social action (Matthew 6:6;
James 1:27). In this course we will focus upon mission life in its spiritual traditional
approaches to historical materials. The goal of the course is to understand and appreciate
the spiritual traditions of earlier church missionaries, and to appropriate the abiding
Furthermore, the intention of the course is to assist the student in deepening
his/her experience of God in Jesus Christ. The discussions and writing assignments are
designed to provide familiarity with the spiritual disciplines, models and guides
throughout the mission life of the church. Knowledge of these can broaden the student’s
own spiritual formation and make him/her a more appreciative and resourceful guide to
those of his or her charge.
Relevance for Mission: Missionaries in different ages and cultures have
understood spirituality in different terms, and the disciplines of piety have varied.
Through a comparative historical method, this course will foster critical discernment
regarding the nature of Christian spiritual formation. It will encourage empathy for other
traditions of piety, an appreciation of their lasting values, and hopefully a renewed
commitment to one’s own tradition.
Also, the class is to aid the student in developing a deeper understanding and
practice of prayer and the other spiritual disciplines in a growing relationship with Jesus
Christ. By developing an understanding of these disciplines and studying spiritual
expression within varying mission contexts, the student will better develop gifts for
Missions & Intercultural Studies (MICS)
Wheaton College Mission Statement
Wheaton College exists to help build the church and improve society worldwide by promoting the development of whole
and effective Christians through excellence in programs of Christian higher education.
Graduate School Mission Statement
. . .Its mission is to provide academic and professional preparation that will enable the committed Christian student to formulate
and articulate a biblical and global understanding of life and ministry and to apply it to service for Christ and His Kingdom.
MICS Mission Statement
Our mission is to develop Christian professionals skilled in theory and practice or cross-cultural service in a dynamically changing world.
. . . are competent communicators of Christ
. . . are skillful in facilitating intercultural
(Matt. 28:18-20), as evidenced in that . . . are effective servants (Micah
understanding, as evidenced in that
they . . . 6:8; Eph. 5:8-9), as evidenced in
they . . .
that they . . .
A1. Can express thematic appreciation of
B1. Understand historical precedents and
the biblical theology of mission (531); C1. Partner with the various
are able to draw lessons from them for
A2. Can exegete Scripture appropriately expressions of the local church
for ministry (531); (532);
B2. Understand theological foundations and
A3. Can speak from the Scriptures with C2. Demonstrate the gospel through
are able to relate them appropriately in
authority and cultural sensitivity about deed as well as word (521, 531);
decision making (531, 532, 561/2);
the person and work of Jesus Christ and C3. Seek to be agents of positive
B3. Know how to study/research new
the necessity for all persons having a transformation in their
relationship with him (531, 532, 561/2); professional contexts (521, 531,
B4. Understand cultural dynamics and the
A4. Are effective in developing appropriate 532, 572/3).
role they play in decision-making (532,
cross-cultural relationships (532, C4. Demonstrate a disciplined, vital
561/2); spiritual life as the basis for
B5. Know how to work together with a team
A5. Can understand and disciple believers incarnational ministry (521, 531,
in intercultural situations (521, 531,
from other cultures in Christian growth 532, 561/2).
532, 561/2, 572/3).
A6. Have strong communication skills for
relational ministry (521, 531, 532,
1. An understanding of the significance of a disciplined, vital spiritual life as the basis
for incarnational ministry.
2. An understanding of Richard J. Foster’s spiritual disciplines of engagement and
abstinence, and the ability to use a selection of these disciplines for a spiritual retreat.
3. An understanding of Lon Seiger’s six components of health and wellness for
intentional life-long development, and the application of a number of these
components for desired personal growth.
1. An appreciation for life scheduling and the need to finish well.
2. An appreciation that Christian ministry comes from “beingness” rather than
3. An appreciation for the life of prayer as modeled by Jesus.
4. An appreciation for the Pauline model for mentoring.
5. An appreciation for the importance of regular spiritual retreats on the Christian
1. The ability to read reflectively with comprehension.
2. The ability to write a concise book review.
3. The ability to communicate creatively to a small group and class community.
4. The ability to write a spiritual reflection paper and integrate intellectual, physical,
spiritual and social aspects.
1. Foster, Richard J. Prayer: Finding the Heart’s True Home. San Francisco, CA:
2. Foster, Richard J. Streams of Living Water: Celebrating the Great Traditions of
Christian Faith. San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco, 1998.
3. Foster, Richard J. Celebration of Discipline: The Path to Spiritual Growth. Rev.
ed. San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco, , 1988.
4. Willard, Dallas. The Spirit of the Disciplines: Understanding How God Changes
Lives. San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco, , 1991.
5. Bosch, David J. A Spirituality of the Road. Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press, 1979.
6. Nouwen, Henri J. M. Way of the Heart: Desert Spirituality and Contemporary
Ministry. New York: Seabury Press, 1981.
1. Foster, Richard J., Celebration of Discipline
2. ______________, Prayer: Finding the Heart’s True Home
3. ______________, Streams of Living Water
4. Nouwen, Henri J. M., In the Name of Jesus
5. _________________, The Way of the Heart
6. _________________, Out of Solitude
7. _________________, The Return of the Prodigal Son
8. Peterson, Eugene H., Under the Unpredictable Plant
9. ________________, Five Smooth Stones for Pastoral Work
10. ________________, Take and Read
11. Willard, Dallas, The Spiritual Disciplines
12. ____________, The Divine Conspiracy
13. ____________, Renovation of the Heart
1. Engagement. Engage in the course by full attendance and active participation.
Student information sheets will be handed out in the first session and collected at the
beginning of day 2 (A6, B5, C2).
2. Prayer. Pray each day that we may come to know Christ better, and that he may
reveal to the class through the course’s strategies, the hope of his calling, the riches of
his inheritance and the power of his resurrection in mission (Ephesians 1:17-19) (C3,
3. Relationship. Establish and maintain a supportive relationship with a student from
your class small group (A6, B5, C2).
4. Book Reviews. Students will do three 2.5-3-page book reviews by the first day of
class on the following books:
a. Foster, Richard J. Prayer: Finding the Heart’s True Home. San Francisco,
CA: HarperSanFrancisco, 1992 or Foster, Richard J. Streams of Living
Water: Celebrating the Great Traditions of Christian Faith. San Francisco,
CA: HarperSanFrancisco, 1998.
b. Foster, Richard J. Celebration of Discipline: The Path to Spiritual Growth.
Rev. ed. San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco, , 1988 or Willard,
Dallas. The Spirit of the Disciplines: Understanding How God Changes
Lives. San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco, , 1991.
c. Bosch, David J. A Spirituality of the Road. Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press,
1979 or Nouwen, Henri J. M. Way of the Heart: Desert Spirituality and
Contetmporary Ministry. New York: Seabury Press, 1981.
A book review is not the same thing as a book report, which simply summarizes the
content of a book. When writing a book review, you not only report on the content of
the book, but also assess its strengths and weaknesses. In writing a review you do not
just relate whether or not you liked the book; you also tell your readers why you liked
or disliked it. You must explain your reaction. As a critical observer you are not
passive; you should ask questions of the book and note your reactions. Your review
then discusses those questions and reactions.
For your book review answer the following questions:
a. What are the publication details concerning the book? (1 point)
b. What is the thesis and major message of the book? (4 points)
c. What did you learn from the book? (3 points)
d. How could you apply what you learned from the book to your mission context? (3
The review is to be typed and double-spaced in Times New Roman using a 12-point
font with 1-inch margins.
What is a Thesis?:
A thesis statement is a one-sentence claim made in the introduction of the paper (or
the appropriate section of a book review). This claim is the underlying theme that
you wish to support throughout a paper or see in a book. It is what you wish to
demonstrate in the paper. You should be blunt and clearly state the thesis. For
example—“The thesis of this paper is that Western worldview assumptions have
reduced Scripture to a book of propositional truths rather than relational redemption
through the mission of God.” Write out: “The thesis of this book/paper is . . . “ or
credit will be lost.
Writing a thesis statement is a requirement for your book reviews. Do not use words
like “understand, explore, investigate, examine, look into” in the thesis statement.
Those generally deal with purpose. Therefore do not write: “The thesis of this book
is to investigate American culture.” This is not a thesis statement. This is the
purpose of the book. “The thesis of this book is that American culture has caused
increasing individualism and separatism in the U.S.A.” Ultimately, an author’s thesis
will make a claim that they will support throughout their book (A6, B2, C3, C4).
5. Retreat Paper. Conduct a half-day (3-5 hours) spiritual retreat in nature (or a
cemetery) incorporating the spiritual disciplines of engagement and abstinence and
insights from the various course readings. Write a personal theological reflection
paper on your time with God (2.5-3-page) describing the process and result of each
8:00-8:15 a.m. Worship
8:15-9:05 Session 1
9:15-10:05 Session 2
10:15-11:05 Session 3
11:15-12:05 p.m. Session 4
12:15-12:45 Worship & Ministry
Theme Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Discipline Rule for Life Unplugging, Examen, Centering & Liturgical &
Slowing, Fasting, Contemplative Biblical
Solitude & Meditation, Prayer Prayer
Spiritual Insight Doingness to Balancing the Sabbath Rest & Pathways to Spiritual
Beingness Spiritual Life Listening God Formation
Biblical Figure Spirit of God YHWH & Jesus the Jesus the Holy Spirit &
Elijah Messiah Messiah Paul
Historical Figure Patrick of Francis of Herman of
Ireland Assisi Alaska
Contemporary Personal Cody Lorance Gary La Bobbie & Personal
Figure Story Vanchy Norlyn Brough Story
Book Review Prayer or Celebration of Spirituality of
Discussion Streams of Discipline or the Road or
Living Water Spirit of the Way of the
“Reading with “Mission Mme Guyon: Henri Nouwen: Thomas “Doingness
the Heart” From the Praying the Solitude in Our Merton: Ways to Beingness”
Discussion Inside Out” Scripture Lives of Meditation
Video(s) “Rhythm” “Noise” Henri Nouwen; Thomas “Taizé: That
(Rob Bell) (Rob Bell); Julian of Merton; Little
“Be Still” Norwich Ignatius of Springtime”
Practicing the Spiritual Disciplines
Day Sessions 1 & 2 Sessions 3 & 4 Psalm 46:10a
1 Syllabus & Rule for Life Be Still &
assignments; 1 mentoring
& small groups
Practice, Phases, & Plan
2 Unplugging, Slowing, & Solitude, Silence, &
3 Contemplation, Examen, Bible Study & Know
Journaling, & Self Care Devotional Reading
Discernment & Fasting Meditation &
Breath & Centering Fixed-Hour & Inner-
Prayer Healing Prayer
Contemplative & Intercessory, Labyrinth,
Conversational Prayer & Walking Prayer
Liturgical & Biblical Spiritual Direction & That I Am God
Praying Course Closure
For the course there are pre-assignments of “reading with the heart” three required books and
accompanying book reviews, as well as a half-day (3-5 hours) spiritual retreat within three weeks of
finishing the course whereby the student practices a number of the classic spiritual disciplines from his/her
readings and course discoveries.
Models of Mission Spirituality
Francis of Assisi, 1182-1226 (Italy, Egypt, Palestine)
Ramon Lull (Tunisia)
Francis Xavier (India/Japan)
Ignatius of Loyola, 1491-1556 (Spain, France, Palestine)
Valignano (Far East)
Matteo Ricci (China)
De Nobili (India)
Isaac Jogues (North America)
Gladys Alyward (China)
David Brainerd (North America)
Amy Carmichael, 1867-1951 (India)
William Carey (India)
Loren Cunningham (Youth With A Mission: international)
Jim Eliot (Ecuador)
Charles de Foucauld, 1858-1916 (Morocco)
Jonathan Goforth (China)
Dag Hammarskjöld (United Nations: international)
Robert Jaffray (South East Asia)
E. Stanley Jones, 1884-1973 (India)
Toyohiko Kagawa (Japan)
Frank Laubach, 1884-1970 (Philippines)
Eric Liddell (China)
George Müller (England)
Brother Roger (Taizé Community: France, Africa, India, Latin America, & North
Mary Slessor (West Africa)
John & Betty Stam (China)
Kenneth Strachen (Latin America)
C. T. Studd (Africa)
Sundar Sudar Singh, 1889-1929 (India, Tibet, Sri Lanka, Burma, & Malaysia)
J. Hudson Taylor (China)
Mother Teresa (Missionaries of Charity: India, international)
Lilias Trotter (Algeria)
Nicholaus Ludwig Zinzendorf (Moravians: international)
Definitions of “Spirituality”
“A spirituality of mission or a spirituality for missionaries is that form of spirituality
peculiar to men and women who are engaged in the activity of going forth to preach
Christ and helping others to cross from non-belief to belief on Christ” Michael Collins
Reilly, Spirituality for Mission (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1978), 20.
“A new spirituality for mission will be needed to meet the challenges of the future. This
spirituality includes not only traditional individual practices of spirituality (private prayer
and asceticism, combat of sin and temptations, discernment, and so on), but also the
societal dimension of all these practices, particularly as they relate to justice. The new
spirituality will deal in a special way with formation to justice and intercultural
sensitivity” William Jenkinson and Helene O’Sullivan, eds., Trends in Mission: Toward
the Third Millennium (Maryknoll: Orbis Books, 1993), 411.
Spirituality is “a personal centering in Christ, allowing Christ to transform us individually
and then responding in our willingness to follow wherever God may lead us. . . .
evangelicals must be concerned with discovering Christ as the center of who we are as
spiritual individuals” Dallas Willard, “Spirituality,” The SEMI, no. 8 (Fall 1993): 2.
“An essential component of our spiritual growth is community--our willingness to risk
becoming involved with one another. This is the arena where who we truly are, as
imperfect people who somehow bear the image of Christ, is both manifested and grown”
Roberta Hestenes, “Spirituality,” The SEMI, no. 8 (Fall 1993): 5.
“Spirituality is living out the life of faith through the Holy Spirit and done in a faith
community” Ben Weir, ASM Conference, June 1994.
“Spirituality--a process whereby we make the gospel our own allowing ourselves to be
transformed by the Holy Spirit to go more deeply into relationship with God in Christ
Jesus. . . . how do we create space to allow God time for transmission?” David Bosch,
“Spirituality refers to the pattern of living by which we nurture and express our
experience of God as individual Christians and as members of the Christian community.
Spiritual growth is a conscious cooperation with the Holy Spirit in a transformation that
both uncovers our unique personhood and forms us in the image of Christ. This process
involves the intentional deepening of our intimate relationship with God. . . .
In this document “Christian spirituality” refers to the way(s) individual Christians or
communities of faith express and nurture their transformational relationship with or
experience of God. “Spiritual formation” (or “spiritual growth”) is a process of
becoming conformed to the image of Christ, transformed by the Holy Spirit. This
process involves the awareness of God’s presence in our lives and the intentional
deepening of our intimate relationship with God. “Spiritual practices” are activities
which help deepen this relationship with or experience of God. Consistent with the
Reformed tradition, Christian spirituality emphasizes an integrated, wholistic spirituality.
In such a spirituality the faithful are spiritually formed through the spiritual practices of
personal and corporate worship and prayer; personal and corporate study (particularly of
Scripture); and transformative engagements with persons, culture, society, and the
environment through critical analysis and loving deeds of justice and mercy” Elizabeth
Liebert, “Spirituality in the Reformed Tradition,” Program in Christian Spirituality (San
Anselmo, CA.: San Francisco Theological Seminary), 1995, pp. 1-2.
Anderson, Gerald, A., ed., Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions
(see appendix at the back of the book).
Bosch, David, A Spirituality of the Road.
Conforti, Joseph A., Jonathan Edwards, Religious Tradition, & American Culture
(Chapel Hill, NC.: The University of North Carolina Press, 1995).
Godwin, Clement, Spend and Be Spent: A Reflection on Missionary Vocation, Spirituality
Noll, Mark A., “The Challenges of Contemporary Church History, the Dilemmas of
Modern History, and Missiology to the Rescue,” Missiology, Vol. 24, No. 1,
January 1996, pp. 47-64.
Raguin, Yves, I Am Sending You: Spirituality of the Missioner.
Reilly, Michael, Spirituality for Mission.
Schaeffer, Francis, True Spirituality.