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Competence, Creativity, Know-how IABG Information Technology Partner for standardized Software Development V-Model Lifecycle Process Model Brief Description The V-Model as Software Development Standard – the effective way to develop high-quality software – The V-Model as Software Development Standard Configuration Management Quality Assurance The Three-Level Standardi- 2. Methods Software Development zation Concept Project Management "How is this to be achieved?" Today, the necessity for standardiza- Procedure tion in software development is un- What is to be determined here is disputed; buzzwords such as "engi- with which methods the activities neering software development" are laid down for the first level are to be carried out and which presen- Methods quoted daily. tation means are to be used in Less unique is the answer to the the results. question how detailed and on which Tool Requirements level standards are to be applied in a concrete project. 3. Tool Requirements Three levels of standardization The value of a standard here is the "What is used to do something?" There is an activity description for extent to which the following objec- each activity in a kind of task de- tives can be achieved with the help What is determined here is which scription. There is a document de- of standardization measures: functional characteristics the tools scription for each document, which reduction of software costs in the have to have, which are to be defines the structure and contents of entire lifecycle, used in the development of soft- the document. improvement/warranty of soft- ware. Possible Applications of the ware quality, V-Model improvement in communication On all levels, the regulations are between customer and contrac- The V-Model was developed from a structured according to activity tor. variety of applicative aspects. The areas: focal points of use are: The standardization concept of the German Federal Authorities pursues software development, Contractual Basis quality assurance, In this instance, the scope of deli- this objective by regulations on three levels: configuration management, very of the software and the procedure, project management. completeness of the software do- cumentation are clearly defined. applicable methods, For each level, a development stan- Work Instruction dard was drawn up by the Federal functional requirements applied to Authorities. The lifecycle process model tools to be used. serves as guideline and concrete The individual standardization levels work instruction for software de- regulate the following situations: In this overview, the lifecycle process velopment with its detailed de- model (V-Model) is described as the scriptions of the activities and 1. Procedure standard for the first level. It regu- documents. "What has to be done?" lates the software development Communications Basis What is to be determined here is process in a uniform and binding way By means of the description of which activities have to be carried by means of activities and products the documents and the provision out in the process of the devel- (results), which have to be taken into of a glossary, it serves as the ba- consideration during software devel- sis for mutual understanding and opment of software, which results opment and the accompanying activ- reduces frictional losses between have to be produced in this ities for quality assurance, configura- customer, user, contractor and process and which are the con- tion management and project man- developer. tents that these results have to agement. have. 2 The V-Model as Software Development Standard – the effective way to develop high-quality software – The V-Model in the Public banks, V-Model on the European insurance companies, Authorities Domain Level car manufacturers, The lifecycle process model was manufacturing industry, An English translation of the lifecycle originally developed by IABG in Ot- energy producers. model was completed for use in tobrunn, near Munich, in cooperation international projects. This is also the The use of the lifecycle process with the Federal Office for Defence subject of an EC project (EURO- model in the industrial domain is Technology and Procurement in METHOD), which was started in made considerably easier by the fact Koblenz, for the Federal Ministry of 1989 with the aim of surveying soft- that its use is free of license fees. It Defence. It was taken over by the ware engineering methods and their is non-proprietary and not copy- Federal Ministry of the Interior for the harmonization. The German repres- protected, which means that the civilian public authorities domain in entative in the EC Committees is the lifecycle model can be copied as summer 1992. Hence a uniform Federal Ministry of the Interior. In often as is wished for one's own use standard for the whole range of view of the Ministry's own use of the without infringing licence regulations. public authorities exists. V-Model, it has tabled it as the Ger- man standardization contribution at The V-Model in Industrial the European level. Use The provisions of the lifecycle process model are strictly organiza- Specific Consideration of tionally impartial. It is restricted ex- Special Usage Aspects clusively to the technical develop- ment process. Therefore, the life- The V-Model takes into considera- cycle process model is not only suit- tion: able as the development standard in the requirements for certification public administration but also in in- of software according to IT-sec- dustry. It already has been taken urity criteria; over and is used as the company standard by a number of companies the particular features of detailed and is used both by software and information modelling as required system houses and also by users for the development of informa- from many other different areas such tion systems; as the interactions between software General Directive 250 and procedure definition, as Federal Ministry of the Interior these are to the fore in the devel- opment of information systems; Planning and Realization Software-Development Standard the particular features of critical for the Federal Armed Forces of IT-Projects realtime software, as they are used especially in embedded computer systems (ECS) applica- tions; the interactions between software V-Model and hardware in the development V-Model Software Lifecycle Process Model Software Lifecycle Process Model August 1992 of ECS software. August 1992 KBSt V-Model cover page V-Model cover page for the civilian area for the defense area 3 The V-Model as Software Development Standard – the effective way to develop high-quality software – V-Model and QA Standards Where and How Obtainable The Change Control Board is ob- liged, according to its standing or- The V-Model fulfils the requirements The V-Model can be obtained from ders, to deal thoroughly with all in- of the NATO standards AQAP-13/ the following places in Germany: coming change requests which are AQAP-150 as software development BMVg – FÜS I -1 submitted to it. and quality assurance standards Postfach 1328 when used in the defence technology D-53003 Bonn Explanatory Appendices to field. (for the defense domain) the V-Model In the whole public authorities dom- Bundesanzeiger- ain, the most significant technical Verlagsgesellschaft mbH Besides the actual regulations part, "Minimum Requirements for Use of Postfach 10 05 34 the V-Model contains three appen- Information Technology" of the Fed- D-50445 Köln dices: (volumes 27/1 and 27/2 of the eral and State Audit Offices are ful- KBSt-publication series, civilian Appendix 1 "Explanations to the filled when the V-Model is applied V-Model-Application". This expla- correctly. version) natory section provides back- IABG, Dept. ITE In the industrial environment, the Einsteinstr. 20 ground information and facilitates application of the V-Model guaran- D-85521 Ottobrunn familiarization. tees the fulfillment of the technical (civilian and defense versions) Appendix 2 "Explanations of the requirements of the Standards in the Products". Detailed explanations To facilitate use in projects, the V- ISO 9000 series (in the software- to the required content are given Model is available not only as hard- related interpretation of ISO 9000-3) for each product (software, doc- copy but also on diskette and mag- and thus is of assistance and a basis ument) defined in the V-Model. netic tape. for ISO 9000 certifications. Appendix 3 "Specific Public Au- thority Supplements". This ap- V-Model Safety and Participation of the pendix is different for the defense Security Users in the Development domain and civilian domain. Bas- and Maintenance of the V- ically what is presented here is The V-Model contains regulations Model how the V-Model is to be applied which are necessary for the devel- in conjunction with the valid supe- opment of "critical" software. The rordinate regulations in the re- term criticality refers on the one hand Both the industrial and the public spective domain (e. g. global to aspects included in the term "safe- authority users of the V-Model were phase framework in the defense ty" and, on the other hand, to confi- involved in the development and technology domain and "Special dentiality aspects (security). maintenance process by the conven- Contractual Regulations for Fed- ing of expert groups. eral and State authorities (BVB)" The current valid IT-Security Criteria The necessary user influence on the in the civilian domain). (ITSEC) are fulfilled with respect to maintenance and change process of their regulations for the development the V-Model is guaranteed by a process by the application of the V- Change Control Board with annual Model. Certification of the software meetings. It consists out of repre- developed in this way has been con- sentatives of industry associations siderably facilitated. and public authorities. 4 The V-Model as Software Development Standard – the effective way to develop high-quality software – Adaptation to the Project Needs: "Tailoring" An outstanding feature of the V- The "technical tailoring", the The Project Manual thus compiled Model is its universal validity and its deletion conditions laid down in defines the scope of the project to be company and project independence. the Project Manual are evaluated realized by the contractor (and his It is therefore independent in terms and it is decided, which of the ac- sub-contractors). The Project Ma- of the area where it is used. To use it tivities contained in the Project nual therefore becomes the uniform for a specific project, individual deci- Manual are to be conducted. This action basis and guideline for all sions have to be taken with respect occurs continuously during the participants in the project. to which activities and documents project. are necessary for the project for As particular project characteristics factual reasons. In each case, super- V-Model as Contractual Ba- for certain application areas are the fluous mountains of paper, sense- sis same in public authority and industry less documentation, but also the lack use, easy applicable forms for activi- of important documents are to be So that comparability of all offers ties and product recommendations avoided. This project-specific adap- with respect to the kind of project are proposed as standardized pre- tation is called "Tailoring". execution and documentation is tailoring for frequent project types. comprehensively guaranteed, the Thus the tailoring procedure can be Tailoring is conducted in two stages: considerably simplified. project-specific adaptation of the V- In the "contractual tailoring", Model for external contractual which is carried out before con- awards is undertaken before tender- clusion of the contract and start ing begins. of the actual project, a selection of the necessary activities and products is to be undertaken. In addition, special "deletion"- selection recommendations conditions are established under V-Model or deletion conditions which certain activities which were held to be essential at the beginning can be deleted under Contractual Tailoring particular circumstances in the at project initialization course of the project. The result- Selection of required collection of all other ing subset of the V-Model is laid activities and products important regulations for the down together with further agree- project ments in the Project Manual. This Project Manual is an important part of the contract. Project Manual The contractual tailoring is also Technical Tailoring conducted during the project important even if a project is not externally awarded but is an in- Following of the project specific implementing conditions. house development. Decide what activities and products have to be carried out/produced Project Plan Steps in Tailoring 5 The V-Model as Software Development Standard – the effective way to develop high-quality software – Use of the V-Model in Projects Organizational Embedment Offer of Training Increasingly, tool manufacturers are integrating the activities and products The V-Model knows different roles of the V-Model into their tools as a A series of tried and experienced which are defined by the necessary result of the wide use of the V-Model training concepts exist for the im- experience, knowledge and capabili- in the defense area, Federal public plementation of the V-Model with the ty for the project tasks. administration and industry. adequate degree of detail for the The allocation of roles to activities in user needs. the V-Model is described in a matrix for each of the sub-models SWD, Degree of Maturity of the V- QA, PM and CM, whereby several Model roles can be allocated to one person. Tool Support for the Life These regulations make no state- Process Model ment concerning the fulfillment of the Work on the V-Model has been roles by organizational units or per- The application of the V-Model can going on since 1986. From about the sons. Thus the independence of the be considerably facilitated by the use beginning of 1990, pilot trials in V-Model from organizational and of tools. projects were begun, before it was project-specific boundary conditions made obligatory for the defense area is achieved. The functionality of such tools should by the Federal Ministry of Defence in comprise at least February 1991. At that time, many The allocation of roles to organiza- tional units/persons has to be carried tailoring, firms, which are active in both the guidance through the project defense technology and commercial out individually at the start of the activities and domains, used the V-Model for soft- project. ware projects. Against the back- generation of documents. ground of the trials and the repeated For this purpose, the software devel- updating, taking the experience into Support of the Users When opment tools are to be adapted to consideration, what can be deter- Using the V-Model the activities and documents of the mined is that the V-Model can be V-Model. seen as sophisticated and approved. In order to support the users of the V-Model and other software stan- dards, IABG has concluded a coop- SWD Project Manager eration agreement with Deutsche- System-Technik GmbH (DST) in Assistant Project Manager System Analyst Kiel/Bremen. As part of IT-Applica- System Designer Project Assistant PM tion Support, both companies sup- port the V-Model users with DP Analyst DP Designer QA Manager training, SW Analyst QA Contact introduction and Quality Assessor familiarization, SW Designer QA Programmer QA Assistant company-specific adaptation, appraisal of development docu- Support Consultant mentation. Applications Consultant CM Manager Configuration Administrator HW Consultant CM Representative for Data Technical Author Protection and Security Roles in the V-Model 6 The V-Model as Software Development Standard – the effective way to develop high-quality software – Structuring the V-Model in Submodels The V-Model is structured into func- The V-Model describes in detail the Of particular relevance for real-time tional parts, so-called submodels. interfaces between the submodels software is the criticality, that is, the They comprise the software devel- SWD and QA, as software quality classification of software with respect opment (SWD), quality assurance can only be ensured by the conse- to reliability and security. In the V- (QA), configuration management quent application of quality assur- Model this is considered a quality (CM) and the project management ance measures and by checking if requirement and is precisely regu- (PM). These four submodels are they are complied with. lated. Mechanisms are proposed closely interconnected and mutually how the expenditure for development influence one another by exchange and assessment can be adapted to of products/results. the different levels of criticality of the . software. Software- Development A2 P2 A5 P6 A7 Quality Assurance A3 P3 Configuration Management A4 P4 Project- Management A1 P1 A6 P5 Example for the activity and product flow within the four submodels PM plans PM plans, monitors and informs the submodels SWD, QA, and controls/ CM. monitors SWD develops the system or informs software. QA submits quality requirements to the submodels SWD, CM and PM, test cases and criteria and assures the products and the QA CM compliance of standards. provides SWD administers QA requirements – configurations develops CM administers the generated methods system/ – products – access rights products. documentation – changes assesses Interaction of the Submodels 7 The V-Model as Software Development Standard – the effective way to develop high-quality software – Submodel "Software Development" (SWD) The submodel SWD regulates the (chosen) programming lan- DV Integration (SWD 8) which activities are to be carried out during software development, and guage, informal assessment of developed code and implementa- Integration of the different SW and HW configuration items to a when which products(documents, tion of a database (if existing). DP segment. code) are to be prepared. SW Integration (SWD 7) The submodel SWD comprises the Integration of modules to compo- System Integration (SWD 9) following main activities: nents and of components to the Integration of the subsystems (if System Requirements Analysis SWCI. existing) and segments to the and Design (SWD 1) system. Description of the requirements of the system and its environment. Conduction of a threat and risk analysis, development of a secu- System rity concept. Delivery of a user SWD 1 SWD 9 System level model of functions/data/ ob- System Requirements Requirements Analysis System Integration jects. Structuring the system into System Design System Integration and Design subsystems, segments or confi- Plan guration items. Segment DP Requirements Analysis and DP Requirements DP Design SWD 2 SWD 8 Manual Information Design (SWD 2) DP Integration Plan DP DP Integration Requirements Analysis Description of the requirements and Desgin of a DP segment and its envi- ronment, development of a secu- rity model, structuring the seg- SW Requirements SWD 3 SWCI Program Documents ment into its SW and HW confi- SW Requirements Integration (SWCI) Analysis guration items (SWCI, HWCI). SW Requirements Analysis SWD 7 SWCI (SWD 3) SW Inte- Description of the requirements SW Architecture SWD 4 gration Program Documents (Component) Interface Design of a SWCI and its environment. SWCI Integration Plan Preliminary Component Design Integration Preliminary Design (SWD 4) Component Structuring of the SWCI in SW components/modules/database, specification of the interfaces and interaction of its elements. Data-Dictionary SWD 5 Program Documents SW Design Detailed (Module) Detailed Design (SWD 5) Design Description of the components and modules with respect to the real implementation of their func- Module tions, the data administration and SWD 6 error handling up to a program- Implementation Legend: ming specification. Proof activities Implementation (SWD 6) (see QA) SWD Conversion of the programming Activity specifications to statements of Activities and Products in the Submodel SWD 8 The V-Model as Software Development Standard – the effective way to develop high-quality software – Submodel "Quality Assurance" (QA) The submodel QA regulates the Product Assessment (QA 4) What has to be determined is if tasks and functions of the quality all planned products are available assurance within the software devel- The product assessment takes in the form required, if costs and opment process. place in two steps: assessment schedules have been complied with respect to the formal criteria with and if the following activities In contrast to the informal assess- and the contents of the product. are properly planned. ment of the submodel SWD the pro- The SW code is to be assessed cedures established in the submodel Off-the-shelf Product Assessment according to the Assessment (QA 6) QA ensure the fulfillment of the re- Specification and Procedure. quirements which are specified in the documents System Requirements, The result is recorded in an As- This assessment shall indicate, if sessment report. the quality requirements are ful- DP Requirements, and SW Re- filled by a non-developmental quirements of the submodel SWD. Phase Review (QA 5) product. The regulations however, do not The purpose of the phase review QA Reporting (QA 7) affect (as it is also the case for the is to decide, if the next SWD other submodels) organizational main activity can be started. The Assessment Reports are to stipulations. be evaluated in regular intervals according to specified criteria and The submodel comprises the follow- the results submitted to PM. ing main activities: QA 1 QA Initialization (QA 1) QA Initialization The QA initialization defines the Setting up QA Plan Setting up Assmt. Plan organizational and procedural framework in the QA Plan and QA Plan the assessment plans. Assessment Plan Process Assessment of Activities QA 3 QA 2 (QA 2) Assessment Preparation Process Assmt. of During the process assessment Def. of Assmt. Methods and Criteria Activities what is checked, is if prescribed Def. of Assmt. Environment procedures are complied with Def. of Assmt. Cases during the performance of specif- Generation of Assmt. ic activities. Procedure QA 5 Phase Review Assessment Preparation (QA 3) The preparation of assessment Assmt. Specification includes the set up of Assess- ment Specification and Proce- Assessment Procedure QA 6 dure and the completion of the Off-the-shelf- Assessment Plan by the As- Product Assmt. sessment Environment. The QA 4 Product Assessment assessment criteria must be de- fined so that an assessment of Product Determining Assessability successful performance can sub- Assessing Contents of a Product sequently be evaluated. QA 7 QA Reporting Assessment Report Activities and Products in the Submodel QA 9 The V-Model as Software Development Standard – the effective way to develop high-quality software – Submodel "Configuration Management" (CM) The submodel CM ensures that all Data Backup (CM 4) CM Reporting (CM 5) products are uniquely identifiable, that interrelations and deviations of Backups within the project are For preparing the phase reviews different versions or variants of a due at fixed times and scope. and for information of the project configuration remain evident and that management, relevant reports any product changes can be made are to be generated. only in a controlled manner. The submodel CM comprises the following main activities: CM Initialization (CM 1) Project Plan The CM initialization regulates the Project Manual organizational and procedural framework within the CM Plan. CM 1 Furthermore, the resources CM Initialization (product library, tools) are to be Change Request provided. Creating CM-Plan Setting up CM Configuration Administration (CM 2) CM 3 Change The configuration administration Management comprises the administration of CM-Plan Change Evaluation products, configurations and Decision about rights. The administration of a Change Procedure and configuration is handled via the Initialization of Change Change according to Configuration Identification Completion of Change V-Model Document (CID), which provides an overview of the structure of the configuration and the actual state. CM 5 Product Change Management (CM 3) CM Reporting Error reports, problem reports, CM 2 Configuration proposals for improvement, etc. Administration Product are recorded and administered Library and submitted as change re- Product Initialization quests. The Change Manage- Configuration Initialization ment monitors the change proce- Product Archivation CM 4 Configuration dure. Identification Document Configuration Update Data Backup The implementation of a change Allocation of Access Rights itself is carried out according to Data-Dictionary Data Administration the regulations of the V-Model. Activities and Products in the Submodel CM 10 The V-Model as Software Development Standard – the effective way to develop high-quality software – Submodel "Project Management" (PM) The submodel PM regulates the Project Monitoring (PM 2) Project Completion (PM 3) tasks and functions of the project management within the software Within the scope of project moni- At the end of a project, a final development process. These regula- toring, the project management report has to be submitted which tions do not affect the organizational has to take account of detailed includes a summary of the course structures in any way and are differ- planning, monitoring, and control of the project, an explanation of ent from the function of the system as well as information service on the results achieved, and a com- management. the activity and subactivity level. parison between actual status These means form the frame- and the intended plan. The tasks determined in the submo- work around the individual subac- del PM comprise the planning, con- tivities of a project including the trol and monitoring of project-internal parts activities, the interface to project- external units and project-internal · initialization roles, the project representatives and · monitoring the project information center. Statement of Work V-Model The submodel PM comprises the following main activities: PM 1 Contract Project Initialization Project Initialization (PM 1) The initialization regulates Project Plan Project Manual the organizational and pro- QA Plan PM 2.1 cedural framework in a Initialization of Main Activity Project Plan and in a Proj- ect Manual. The modalities Project Plan of the project-internal coop- eration as well as the inter- face to customer and sub- Report Docum. PM 2.2 Work Order Monitoring Main Activity contractor are to be fixed. For the project manual spe- cific goals and limiting con- Project History Report Docum. ditions are to be determined as the basis for the tailoring, PM 2.3 Completing Main Activity that is, the project-specific adaptation of the V-Model. The Project Plan includes Project Plan Report Docum. preliminary planning in re- Project History spect of project organiza- tion, cost, baselines, miles- PM 3 tones, scheduling and per- Project Completion sonnel planning. Further- more a preselection of a de- Final Report velopment environment has to take place. · Activities and Products in the Submodel PM completion. 11 The V-Model as Software Development Standard – the effective way to develop high-quality software – The Advantages at a Glance Advantages of the Process Standardization The V-Model Improved communication among the is complete persons involved in the project all functional areas (Software Development, Quality Assurance, Configuration Management, Uniform procedure in public authorities and Project Management) are covered and commissioned industry provides concrete assistance Guarantee of better product quality contains many instructions and Productivity increase by the reduction of recommendations; gives detailed explanations familiarization and training times on special problems and on the individual necessary task results More precise calculation of new projects using standardized procedures is sophisticated participation of users from industry and public Less dependencies on persons and companies authorities in the generation and in the change process of the V-Model Reduction of Maintenance and is balanced/not manufacturer-specific good acceptance Change Problems no influence or dominance of industrial lobbyists Decrease in maintenance cases resulting from improved product supports when tendering quality the complete presentation of the development documents and the tailoring procedure Decrease in the maintenance effort provides good support in the awarding of the resulting in the existence of an contract process adequate software documentation public controlled updating and an easier understanding further development under the supervision of a because of the uniform structure Change Control Board with industry and public authority representatives wide application spectrum IABG as a result of the application in the whole Industrieanlagen- defense domain, the whole public Betriebsgesellschaft mbH administration area and by the industrial Einsteinstr. 20 IT-suppliers, a wide application area is guaranteed D-85521 Ottobrunn Telephone +49-89-6088-2369 or -2368 Telefax +49-89-6088-3355 or -3418 Telex 5 24 001 Your Contact: Version: February 1993 in Ottobrunn: Tel. +49-89-6088-3921 Release: 1995 12