Writing Skills - Letter Writing by mmp22076

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 31

									Writing Skills - Letter Writing
Overview

• Writing Routine & Pleasant Letter
• Writing Unpleasant Letter
• Writing to Persuade
• Preparing Resumes
• Writing Application Letter
• Structure & Layout of Letters
Writing Routine
       &
Pleasant Letter
Understand Your Audience/Readers
AUDIENCE REACTION

• Eager or interested
• Pleased or neutral
• Displeased
• Uninterested or unwilling
    Organize – Why?

• Encourages brevity and accuracy
• Permits concentration
• Saves time in dictating/writing
• Facilitates emphasis/de-emphasis
• The relationships among ideas are easier
  to distinguish and remember
• Reaction to the message and its writer is
  more likely to be positive.
  Organize
  (Deductively or Inductively)
deductive sequence-of-ideas pattern has several
  advantages:
1. The first sentence is easy to write
2. The first sentence is likely to attract attention.
3. When good news appears in the beginning, the
  message immediately puts readers in a
  pleasant state of mind.
4. The arrangement reduces the reading time.
  Once readers have grasped the important idea,
  they can move rapidly through the supporting
  details.
Business Letters - Situations

Letters not likely to generate any
   emotional reaction are referred to
   as routine letters.

1. Routine Claim and ‘yes’ reply
2. Routine Letters about credit and
   favorable response to credit request
3. Routine Letters about orders
4. Letters about routine requests
Routine Claim

• Persuasive claims, which will be
  discussed in a later chapter, assume
  that the request will be granted only
  after explanations and persuasive
  arguments have been presented.

• Routine claims - possibly because of
  guarantees, warrantees, or other
  contractual conditions - assume that
  the request will be granted quickly
  and willingly, without persuasion.
Routine claims

When the claim is routine (not likely
 to meet resistance), the following
 outline is recommended:
1. Request action in the first
 sentence,
2. Explain the details supporting the
 request for action.
3. Close with an expression of
 appreciation for taking the action
 requested.
When the response to a claim
letter is favorable

1.     Reveal the good news in
   the first sentence.
2.     Explain the
   circumstances.
3.     Close on a pleasant,
   forward looking note.
Routine Letters about Credit

Request for information
1. Identify the request and name the
   applicant early.
2. Assure the reader that the reply
   will be kept confidential.
3. Detail the information requested.
   Use a tabulated-form layout to
   make the reply easy.
4. End courteously.
Favorable response to a
request for credit
1. Begin by saying credit terms have
   been arranged;
2. Indicate the foundation upon which
   the credit extension is based.
3. Present and explain the credit
   terms.
4. Include some resale or sales-
   promotional material.
5. End with a confident look toward
   future business.
Routine Letters about Orders

1. In the first sentence say “please
   ship,” “please send,” “I order,”
2. List the items ordered and give
   precise details.
3. Include a payment plan and
   shipping instructions.
4. Close the letter with a confident
   expectation of delivery.
Favorable Response to an
Order Letter
• Non-routine acknowledgments
  require individualized letters.
  Although initial orders can be
  acknowledged through form letters,
  the letters are more effective if
  written individually.
Letters about Routine Requests

•   Routine Requests. Businesspeople often
    write letters requesting information about
    people, prices, products and services.

1. Make the major request in the first
   sentence.
2. Follow the major request with the details
   that will make the request clear. If
   possible, use tabulation for added
   emphasis.
3. Close with a forward look at the reader‟s
   next step.
Favorable Response to a
Routine Request.

Many people say “yes”
thoughtlessly
1. Shows sincere interest in
the request and the person.
2. Provides specific answers
and guidelines.
3. Provides additional helpful
information.
Writing about the
Unpleasant
Overview

• Saying “No” to an Adjustment
  Request
• Saying “No” to a Credit Request
• Saying “No‟ to an Order for
  Merchandise
• Saying „No‟ to a Request for a
  Favor
Remember

• Without empathy for the
  audience‟s feelings, it is hard
  to gain its cooperation or
  persuade it to accept tough
  decisions
The inductive sequence-of-
ideas:
1. Begin with a neutral idea that leads
   to the reason for the refusal.
2. Present the facts, analysis, and
   reasons for the refusal.
3. State the refusal using a positive
   tone and de-emphasizing
   techniques.
4. Close with an idea that moves away
   from the refusal.
Four steps:

• Introductory Paragraph
• Facts, Analysis and Reasons
• Refusal Statement
• Closing Paragraph
SAYING “NO” TO AN
ADJUSTMENT REQUEST

(1) begin with a neutral or factual
  sentence that leads to the reasons
  behind the “no” answer,
(2) present the reasons and
  explanations,
(3) present the refusal in an unemphatic
  manner, and
(4) close with an off-the-subject
  thought.
SAYING “NO” TO A CREDIT
REQUEST
Including resale - favorable statements
(1) it might cause credit applicants to
  prefer our brand.
(2) it suggests that the writer is trying to
  be helpful;
(3) it makes the writing easier because
  negative thoughts are easier to de-
  emphasize when cushioned with resale
  material;
(4) It can confirm the credit applicant‟s
  judgment in choosing the merchandise,
  thus making an indirect compliment.
SAYING “NO” TO AN
ORDER FOR MERCHANDISE
• Unclear Orders
  – The buffer has a resale emphasis
  – The reason for not immediately
    filling
  – The close tells how the customer can
    solve the problem
• Back Orders
     (1) you are able to send only part of
        the order, or
     (2) you are able to send none of the
        order.
• Substitutions
SAYING “NO” TO A REQUEST
FOR A FAVOR
• Introduces the subject without
  revealing whether the answer will be
  “yes” or “no.”
• Gives reasons
• Subordinates the refusal by placing
  it in the dependent clause of a
  complex sentence.
• Closes on a more positive note by
  offering a counterproposal.
   SPECIAL PROBLEMS - ABOUT
   THE UNPLEASANT
Is an inductive outline appropriate for all letters
  that convey bad news
a) The letter is the second response to a repeated
  request.
b) A very small, insignificant matter is involved.
c) A request is obviously ridiculous, immoral,
  unethical, illegal or dangerous.
d) The writer‟s intent is to shake the reader.
e) The writer-reader relationship is so close and
  longstanding that satisfactory human relations
  can be taken for granted.
f) The writer wants to demonstrate authority.
 Difficulties In Writing The Buffer


• Avoid saying “no.”
• Avoid using a know-it-all tone
• Avoid wordy and irrelevant phrases and
  sentences.
• Avoid apologizing.
• Avoid writing a buffer that is too long.
Agreement, Appreciation, Cooperation,
  Fairness, Good news, Praise, Resale,
  Understanding
 Bad-News Sentence

E.g.
• The preceding figures do not justify
  raising your credit limit to Rs 30,000
  as you requested, but they do justify
  raising the limit to Rs 15,000.
• If the price were Rs 35,000, the
  contract would have been signed.
• By accepting the arrangement, the
  ABC company would have tripled its
  costs.
 Last Paragraph

• Don‟t refer to or repeat the bad news.
• Don‟t apologize for the decision
• Don‟t urge additional communication
• Don‟t anticipate problems
• Don‟t include clichés that are insincere in
  view of the bad news
• Don‟t reveal any doubt that you will keep
  the person as a customer

								
To top