6/15/2010 Affective Personality Article List Page 1 of 28
Aquino & Bradfield Durel, Carver, Spitzer & Llabre, et al.
Hadjistavropoulos Engebretson, Matthews & Scheier
Brief, Butcher, & Roberson Goldstein, Edelberg, Meier & Davis
Bar-On, Kirkcaldy, & Thome Knox, Svensson, Waller & Theorell
Beaton, Murphy & Pike Lu & Argyle
Burger & Caldwell Wong & Reading
Cantor, Norem, Langston, Zirkel et al.
Casciaro, Carley, & Krackhardt
Chen & Spector
Gilbert & Reynolds
Glynn, M A
Holtzman & Gilbert
Houston & Kelly
Isen, Nygren, & Ashby
Johnson & Johnson
Judge & Hulin
Judge, Locke, Durham, & Kluger
Kennedy-Moore, Greenberg, Newman, & Stone
Levin & Stokes
Maisto & Lester
Manning, Williams, & Wolfe
Polasky & Holahan
Shewchuk & O'Connor
Schaubroeck, Judge & Taylor
Smith & Tziner
Staw, Bell, & Clausen
Strumpfer, Danana, Gouws, & Viviers
Watson & Slack
Williams & Voon
Wofford, Goodwin & Daly
Wright & Staw
Yoon & Lim
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Golding, H. L., et al. 2001 Fleet attrition: What causes ADA 397 777. > Total > First term Navy x x x > Statistical X X
it and what to do about it. population sailors (FY86-FY98) analyses of archival
> 400+ in focus > Those who have or
groups are in the process of > Focus groups
making the decision to
leave or to stay
Kelley, M.L., Hock, E., 2001 Navy mothers experiencing Military Psychology, 13, > 154 > 71 deployed Navy X X > Interview X
Bonney, J.F., Jarivis, M.S., and not experiencing 55-71. mothers
Smith, K.M., & Gaffney, deployment: Reasons for > Questionnaire
M.A. staying in or leaving the > 83 nondeployed Navy
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Golding, H. L., et al. > Phase of deployment > Phase of deployment > Retention > Early attrition rate
Kelley, M.L., Hock, E., > Deployment status > Between-Ss: deployed versus not deployed > Intent to stay/leave > "How likely will you be to reenlist at your EAOS?"
Bonney, J.F., Jarivis, M.S., > "Why do you plan to stay in (leave/are unsure about
Smith, K.M., & Gaffney, > Time (before versus after > Within-Ss: before versus after > Reason for staying or leaving) the Navy? (coded for four
M.A. deployment) staying/leaving categories)
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Golding, H. L., et al. > There is higher attrition just before deployment, and lower than average attrition > Used archival data, which results in the population KK
during and just after deployment. figures.
> Sailors leave for economic reasons and time away from home. > Authors used ideas from the focus groups to look
for reasons for attrition and then tested those in the
> Sailors felt more negative about nondeployed time away from home than archival dataset.
deployments. They hadn't anticipated this nondeployed time away.
> There is disappointment with Ports of Call opportunities. Time spent in "good"
Ports of Call decreased attrition; time spent in "bad" Ports increased attrition.
> Undermanning ships (and hence, increased workload) increases attrition rates.
Kelley, M.L., Hock, E., Intent to reenlist: > The ANOVA pattern not tested for statistical KK
Bonney, J.F., Jarivis, M.S., > There were no main effects for deployment status or time. significance.
Smith, K.M., & Gaffney,
M.A. Reasons for reenlist or not (ANOVA pattern, not tested): > Binary responses (provided as a reason or not)
> Deployed members reported more commitment to the Navy. used in regression (is this okay?)
> For both groups commitment was higher at the final assessment.
> Control for more military benefits, more dissatisfied
> In the regression, all four reasons significantly predicted time one and time two
intention to reenlist.
> Those who were deployed felt more integrated in Navy (retrospective) after the
> Increased integration correlated (.43) with reenlistment intentions at time two.
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Schumm, W.R., & Bell, D.B. 2000 Soldiers at risk for individual Psychological Reports, > 466 > Deployed Army X X > Questionnaire X
readiness or morale Volume number, Page soldiers (Guard, Active,
problems during a six- numbers. & Reserve)
deployment to the Sinai.
Bell, D.B., Schumm, W.R., 1999 The desert fax: A research Armed Forces & > 500 > Civilian wives of X > Questionnaire X
Knott, B., & Ender, M.G. note on calling home from Society, 25, 509-521. soldiers deployed to administered
Somalia. Somalia from Fort
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Schumm, W.R., & Bell, D.B. > Demographics > Age, rank, income, years in military, dependent > Morale > "How would you rate your own morale?"
children, distance of SO to military installation
> Predeployment attitudes > Satisfaction with > "Overall, how satisfied are you with the Army
> Intent to stay, satisfaction with Army life, Army life as a way of life?"
> Family-related variables satisfaction with predeployment information, feelings
about deployments, feelings about particular > Impact of family on > "How has you ability to perform your duties as a
assignment pf member of the MFO Task Force been affected by
your marriage (or important relationship)?"
> Satisfaction with leader support of families, family
adjustment to Army life, SO support for soldier
joining force, belief MFO deployment would improve
marriage, expected effect of deployment on
relationship, state of marriage/relationship
Bell, D.B., Schumm, W.R., > Communication > Type of communication > Spouse's attitude > Perceived stressfulness of deployment
Knott, B., & Ender, M.G. toward Army
> Problems with communication > Marital satisfaction
> Time of first communication > Adjustment to demands of Army life
> Soldier's rank, number of months had been > Support for soldier
deployed, distance from Ft. Drum, spouse's
education level, time as military spouse, time-frame > Soldier's reenlistment intentions
of deployment and return
> Support of Army's peacekeeping missions
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Schumm, W.R., & Bell, D.B. > Rank, predeployment satisfaction with Army life, satisfaction with predeployment > The authors analyzed married and single members KK
information, and leader support of families all consistently correlated with all separately, but don't test the differences between
dependent variables. them.
FOR MARRIED SOLDIERS: > They did not look at the change in variables which
> Performance of duty was predicted by leader support of family, rank, and cannot eliminate third factors influencing the
expected effect on marriage. relationships.
> Satisfaction with Army life was predicted by predeployment satisfaction, > One-item measures were used for practically
expected effects, having children, and rank. everything.
> Morale was predicted by rank and satisfaction with predeployment information. > The study used subjective assessments of how
family influences performance.
FOR SINGLE SOLDIERS
> Performance of duty was predicted by satisfaction with predeployment
> Satisfaction was predicted by rank and predeployment satisfaction.
> Morale was predicted by retention intentions and previous overseas
Bell, D.B., Schumm, W.R., > 79.7 percent of spouses with problems in communication reported them as MG
Knott, B., & Ender, M.G. stressful
> Stressfulness of deployment significantly predicted all outcomes but marital
> Number of years as military spouse predicted retention intentions, adjustment to
Army life, and support for soldier
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Segal, D. R., Rohall, D. E., 1999 Meeting the missions of the Military Psychology, 11, > 575 > Army PATRIOT X > Questionnaire X
Jones, J. C., & Manos, A. 1990s with a downsized 149-167. soldiers of two different
M. force: Human resource battalions > Individual and
management lessons from group interviews
the deployment of
PATRIOT missile units to
Alderks, C. E. 1998 PERSTEMPO: Its effects ADA 351 766. > 10,258 in 1994 > Active-duty Army X > Questionnaire X X
on soldiers' attitudes. personnel (Sample survey of
> 14,812 in 1995 military personnel)
> 7,721 in
> 8,264 in
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Segal, D. R., Rohall, D. E., > Expectation of deployment > (One and Two) which battalion (One had > Morale > Nine items (feelings of preparation, morale,
Jones, J. C., & Manos, A. previously been told that they would not be deployed confidence in unit, job satisfaction, willingness to
M. > Experience with in the next two years; 2nd less experience being > Family adjustment recommend similar career)
> Concern for family > Four items (adjustment, support)
> Military rank > Military rank well-being
> 10 items (health and practical concerns for family
Alderks, C. E. PERSTEMPO > Number of weeks away from duty station in last 12 > Attitudes > Satisfaction with time separated from family
mo. (less than one week, 1-12 weeks, 13-26 weeks,
27+ wks) > Career intentions > Current active duty Army career intentions?
> Readiness > How well-prepared are you (your unit) for wartime
> Current level of own (unit's) morale
> Job stress
> Level of conflict in job currently (one year ago)
> Job satisfaction
> Satisfaction with current job
> Level of conflict in family currently (one year ago)
> Family adjustment to being Army family
> Support of spouse/SO
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Segal, D. R., Rohall, D. E., > The second group had significantly higher morale. > Assessments were at different times in the > Family KK
Jones, J. C., & Manos, A. deployment period. adjustment
M. > Group Two had greater family adjustment, more support for career, were less
likely to leave the military if future commitment requires long separation from > There is no way to distinguish expectation of
family. deployment and experience with deployment. (Both
factors are between the between-groups factors.)
> All ranks in Group Two had higher morale and greater family adjustment than
those in Group One at equivalent ranks.
> For more junior members, family adjustment was the best predictor of morale.
> For more senior members, leader support was the best predictor of morale.
Alderks, C. E. > There was a decrease in satisfaction with time spent away at 13 weeks. > Family KK
> There were no significant differences in career intentions based on time away,
but it was given as one of top four reasons when a member had the intention to
leave. (Males away for 13+ weeks were two times more likely to say it was the
most important reason for leaving. Females at all levels of PERSTEMPO were
equivalent to men at 13+ weeks.)
> There were no significant differences for readiness, morale, stress, or job
satisfaction based on time away, EXCEPT for those enlisted members at 13+
weeks who felt more "ready" than those at less than one week away, AND officers
who were away more than 13 weeks felt their current job and family relations were
more stressful than officers who were away less than one week.
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Pierce, P.F. 1998 Retention of Air Force Military Psychology, 10, > Time 1 - 525 > Women who either X > Questionnaires X
women serving during 195-213. served in the Air Force
Desert Shield and Desert > Time 2 - 484 on active duty or were > Phone Interviews
Storm. active members of the
> Time 3 - 456 guard or reserve during
> Partner data -
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Pierce, P.F. > Demographics > Financial Strain - Three Item Index > Leaving versus > Not Specified
staying in the military
> Financial strain > Job Stress - 20 Item Measure (Frone et al., 1992),
work overload, lack of autonomy, role ambiguity,
> Job stress lack of responsibility
> Job distress > Job Distress - Eight items. Six items from Kandel,
Davies, & Raveis (1985). Two Items added by
> Job involvement authors - concerning gender-related issues.
> Social undermining by > Job Involvement - Five item scale adapted by
supervisors and Frone et al. (1992) from measure by Kanungo
coworkers (1982). Extent to which job is central to one's self-
concept or sense of identity.
> Attitude toward the military
> Social Undermining - (2) Six item scales. One
> Beliefs about military regarding supervisor and one regarding coworkers.
versus civilian work Degree that others criticize, insult, make life difficult,
act in unpleasant or angry manner toward
> Disruption to children respondent.
> Attitude Toward Military - Single item
questions specific to the impact of participating in
Desert Shield/Storm in a variety of areas.
> Beliefs About Military Versus Civilian Work - 23
Items (French, Doehrman, Davis-Sacks, & Vinokur,
1983), the work itself, direct benefits, work
conditions, and secondary benefits.
> Disruption to Children - Eight items corresponding
with eight potential events that
could have occurred in child's life as a result of
Desert Shield/Storm (e.g., change of residence).
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Pierce, P.F. > More active duty and reservists left the military than guardsmen > Interesting and important topic. Much more > Family NR
research needed in this area. adjustment
> Desert Storm did not predict decisions to stay or leave
> A number of measures created by the authors for > Social aupport
> Those staying had experienced more "activations" than those leaving and were the purpose of the study.
slightly older, had longer military experience, more dependent children, reported
more disruptions in their children's lives, and less financial strain. > Low alphas (e.g., .69, .58) for a couple measures.
> Women who gave birth between the beginning of the war and the time of the > Good that the authors attempted to use theory to
survey were twice as likely to leave than women who did not. guide selection of measures.
> The greatest leaving frequency occurred with women who had placed their > Largely an exploratory study.
children with ex-spouses during their absence. Among this group, the degree of
child disruption was a significant predictor of leaving.
> Leavers held a more negative view of military service than non-leavers
> No significant difference between leavers and stayers on measures of job stress,
job distress, job involvement, quality of work life, undermining from coworkers,
amount of social support at work, or sexual harassment experiences at work.
> Leavers had a higher preference for civilian work conditions than stayers.
> Leavers held stronger beliefs that secondary benefits were better in the Air
Force than civilian life.
> Reasons given in the interview for leaving (in order of importance): (1)
deployment, (2) separation from friends/family, (3) lack of promotion/recognition,
(4) conflict with work/family, (5) dissatisfaction with Air Force policies, (6)
dissatisfaction with work conditions/environment, (7) financial issues/pay, (8) time
to make a change.
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Schumm, W. R., Jurich, A. 1998 Attitudes of reserve Psychological Reports, > 963 > Guard and Reserve > Questionnaire Pros-
P., Stever, J. A., Sanders, component service 83, 983-989. members pective
D., Castelo, C., & Bollman, members
S. R. regarding the
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Schumm, W. R., Jurich, A. > Previous deployment > Previously deployed to Gulf during war or > How increased > Having difficulty keeping same civilian job
P., Stever, J. A., Sanders, other overseas mission deployment of reserves
D., Castelo, C., & Bollman, > Still in military versus not would affect various > Having severe difficulty with marriage or other
S. R. outcomes. family relationships
> Re-enlisting in reserve/guard
> Staying in reserve/guard until eligible to retire
> Enlisting for the first time in the reserve/national
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Schumm, W. R., Jurich, A. > Those who were deployed were more pessimistic about the influence on family > Prospective: Doesn't tell what actually would > Family NR
P., Stever, J. A., Sanders, and initial enlistment. happen, but what people think will happen. adjustment
D., Castelo, C., & Bollman,
S. R. > Those who were still in the military were less pessimistic about having problems
with civilian jobs, family life, and retirement intentions.
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Johnson, P. L. 1996 Social environment and ADB 225 872. > 194 > Active duty female X X > Questionnaire in ? ?
stress factors that relate to soldiers group setting
well-being, satisfaction, and > married
attitudes toward retention > married w/ children
and deployment in married > single parents
and single parent female
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Johnson, P. L. > Marital status > Work Environment Survey > Job satisfaction > Job Satisfaction Scale
> Number of children > Work Change Events Survey > Life satisfaction > Army Life Satisfaction
> Stress variables > Interrole Conflict Scale > Retention attitudes > Beck Depression Inventory
> Family Index of Regenerativity and Adaptation- > Stress and > Intent to Remain on Active Duty
Military adjustment to
deployment > Readiness/Attitude toward Deployment
> Maternal Separation Anxiety Scale
> Survey of Perceived Organizational Support
> Perceived Social Support Scale
> Work Apgar Scale
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Johnson, P. L. > Social support measures didn't correlate significantly with intent to stay > Note that this is a study of correlation only > Social support KK
> Best predictors of intent to stay: maternal separation anxiety, family coherence, > Not directly looking at deployment > Family
interrole conflict, and work environment adjustment
> Bunch of things thrown together to see what pops
> Best predictors of attitude toward deployment: coworker support, general social up significantly > Mental health
support, family coherence, work environment, and maternal separation anxiety
> Not much detail on the measures used (e.g.,
> Social support was significantly correlated with both stress and adjustment attitude toward deployment and readiness for
variables deployment are talking about the same thing - I think
- but there is no description of the items)
> Those who reported high levels of social support experienced less family/job
stress, increased sense of well-being, more satisfaction with jobs and army life, > Doesn't provide correlation between deployment
and had more positive attitude toward deployment satisfaction and intent to stay
> Immediate work environment and global family stress and change were
predictors of adjustment
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Phelps, R.H., & Farr, B.J. 1996 Reserve component ADA321857. > N sizes vary > The 28th rotation part x x x > Interview x
soldiers as peacekeepers. according to of the Multinational
each sub-study Force and Observers > Observation
and source of (MFO) peacekeeping
data collection mission in the Sinai > Questionnaire
ratings, spouses, > The 4-505 Parachute
> Both of them
consisted of about 80
component (RC) and
20 percent Active
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Phelps, R.H., & Farr, B.J. > The study is very > NA (see IV construct) > Ease of recruitment > Ease of recruitment and selection: Percentages of
descriptive. There is no and selection available soldiers (RC) and percentage actually
clear IV, except for the deployed
group from where the data > Training procedures,
is coming. task, > Training procedures, task, and performance:
and performance Several different measures, most of them based on
> This was a test of how a supervisory ratings. Did the training process produce
battalion, composed mainly > Perceptions and a cohesive unit that could perform the mission?
by AC (80 attitudes towards the
percent), performs during a military > Perceptions and attitudes towards the military:
peacekeeping mission. Collected through questionnaires and interviews,
> Family Support (at several measures across time. For example: intent to
> The study was considered home) volunteer again
a test of how well a
composition like > Home unit impact > Family support (at home): Data from the military
this would work for future member and the spouse about how much support the
mission. family would receive at home
> Home unit impact: Interviews and questionnaires
with the senior leaders of the nine contribution infantry
battalions within the division. Also some junior leaders
and soldiers were surveyed
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Phelps, R.H., & Farr, B.J. > Ease of recruitment and selection: Although not all people originally interested in > Very descriptive study EB
volunteering actually were deployed, it was not difficult to replace them with other
member of the RC. Most soldiers volunteered for a challenging and adventurous > Interesting from the perspective of the attitudes
way to serve their country and/or to enhance change (for better or worse) that occurred in the RC
their military careers. members during the mission
> Training procedures, task, and performance: No main differences when regular
battalions were observed
> Perceptions and attitudes toward the military: Attitudes were similar to
prior all-AC rotation. However, there was a drop in soldier morale, and a significant
decline over the predeployment and deployment period in the number of RC
soldiers who reported that they would volunteer again (36 percent). This
decrement was attributed to expectations not met (higher cost and lower
> Family support (at home): Most soldiers and spouses indicated they used family
and non-Army friends as their primary means of support and problem solving.
When spouses used army services, their needs were satisfied. However, soldiers
were worried about the quality of their marriage affecting
their morale and job performance in the Sinai.
> Home unit impact: Predeployment senior leaders reported negative impact.
However, by the time volunteers had returned to their units after deactivation
the same leaders reported positive results (they returned better trained).
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Rosen, L.N., & Durand, 1995 The family factor and Military Psychology, 7, > 1,274 > Army spouses X X > Questionnaires X
D.B. retention among married 221-234. predeployment
soldiers deployed in > Separated into
Operation Desert Storm. > 776 junior enlisted and non-
postdeployment commissioned officers
> 5 Army
Bruce, R.A., & Burch, R.L. 1989 Officer career development: ADA210081. > 2 matched > Aviation warfare x > Questionnaire x
Modeling married aviator samples; 237 officers (AWOs) and administered
retention. "stayers" and their spouses
237 "leavers" (original sample in
Morrison & Cook,
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Rosen, L.N., & Durand, > Deployment-related stress >2 stress measures created by authors > Retention > Whether or not soldier was still active
D.B. >Single item: Consideration of divorce
> Marital issues >Spouses comfort dealing with Army service > Reenlistment intentions
> Emotional climate of work >The Rear Detachment Command (RDC)--
> Spouses' commitment to >The Army/Family Interface 4-item scale measures
the organization perceptions of compatibility between Army life and
Bruce, R.A., & Burch, R.L. > Commitment > Commitment: Scale developed by Porter, > Retention > Dichotomous variable
Steers, Mowday, and Boulian (1974)
> Career satisfaction > Individuals resigning from the Navy prior to January
> Career satisfaction: Five item scale measuring the 1985 were given a value of one
> Spousal support degree to which an individual obtains a
sense of worth and enjoyment from his or her career > Those individuals who were still in the Navy as of
> Job challenge January 1985 were given a value of two
> Spousal support: Single item: "How do you
> Evaluation of sea duty think your spouse feels towards your Navy career?"
> Promotability index > Job challenge: Four items
> Career intent > Evaluation of sea duty: Two items. The first is
a general evaluation of sea duty. The second is
the degree to whcih "family separation because of
deployment makes my Navy career less attractive"
> Promotability index: The index used was
constructed from fitness report data provided by the
>Career intent: One item: "How certain are you
that you will continue an active Navy career at least
until you are eligible for retirement?
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Rosen, L.N., & Durand, > Compared couples who left the Army with those who remained after ODS > Good use of control variables. > Marital RS
> Each of the IVs emerged as significant predictors of retention, but they differed >Interesting measures.
for junior enlisted and officer families--with the exception of marital problems.
Bruce, R.A., & Burch, R.L. > An individual's stated career intent is the best single predictor of future retention > Data for retention was taken four years after the >Spousal support EB
behavior (half of the variance on retention was accounted for) main survey and still career intent accounted for
large part of the variance >Attitudes
> A positive relationship between retention and promotability was found
> Spousal support was associated with retention and career intent
> Spousal support buffered the negative effect of family separation (because of
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Freniere, C. 1988 Potential effects of ADA 201509. > 375 > All active duty Air > The Rapid
relocation decisions on Force captains and Access Personnel
retention of Air Force dual- lieutenants with Survey on joint
officer couples. spouses in the same spouse matters
Teplitzky, M. L., Thomas, S. 1988 Dual Army career ADA 199 071. > 149 > Dual Army career > Questionnaire x
A., & Nogami, G. Y. officers: Job attitudes and officers
career intentions of male
and female officers.
Boesel, D., & Johnson, K. 1984 Why service members ADA 173559. > Members of Army, > Literature search
leave the military: Review of Navy, and Air Force on retention
the literature and analysis.
> Retention data
collected by the
services since 1980
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Freniere, C. > Relocation decisions > Sex, parental status, length of family > Retention > Career intent, current career status, career
separation decisions if faced with family separation
Teplitzky, M. L., Thomas, S. > Gender > Male versus female > Retention > Career intentions
A., & Nogami, G. Y. > Possibility of future separation
> Separation from family
Boesel, D., & Johnson, K. > Incentives > Incentives: Base pay, bonuses, allowances, > Reenlistment and > Those leave after first term
> promotion, job satisfaction first-term attrition
> Individual characteristics > Disincentives: Location, relocation, family
>Individual characteristics: Education, test scores,
sex, race, marital status
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Freniere, C. > Junior officers who have been successful with joint-spouse assignments show MG
high career commitment
> Length of separation and job desirability influence retention decisions
> Decision of whether or not to leave not affected by sex or parental status
Teplitzky, M. L., Thomas, S. > Men are more likely to have plans to make the Army a career than women for > Interviews were used to discover which concepts > Family KK
A., & Nogami, G. Y. those early in their careers (less than seven years). were important to put on in the questionnaires. adjustment
> If one is to compromise his/her career, it is more likely to be the female > Couples were only chosen for the study only if they
(probably because men generally have more experience - more investments in were currently living together.
> A larger percentage of female than male officers predict that they would leave
rather than to endure a one year plus separation from family.
> The ability to maintain a joint domicile was rated as a very important career
decision factor by both men and women more often than other factor in the survey.
> The longer a couple is together, the more likely they will have to either face
separation or one person forgo a good position, because there are fewer positions
higher on the career chain.
Boesel, D., & Johnson, K. > Pecuniary variables (incentives) are most important determinants of MG
reenlistment, while individual characteristics heavily affect attrition
> Higher education and test scores are negatively related to first-term
> Women are more likely to reenlist after the first term than men