; cataract newsletters
Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out
Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

cataract newsletters

VIEWS: 51 PAGES: 9

  • pg 1
									Editors: Janet M. Pollard, MPH; and Carol A. Rice, Ph.D., R.N.

H ealth H ints
Cataracts, however, can also occur in infants (i.e., congenital cataracts) or children and among people with illness, on certain types of medication, or who have had an injury to the eye4, 5 (i.e., secondary or traumatic cataracts). There are three types of cataracts; each is described by its location on the lens (center, cortex, or under the capsule at the back of the lens) and what group of people is most commonly at risk.6 “Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide.”1 Early identification of cataracts and appropriate treatment, however, can improve and even restore vision.

March 2008 Vol. 12, No. 3

Cataracts
Caring for your eyes
A cataract is the clouding of the natural lens of the eye. “When the lens of the eye becomes cloudy, light rays cannot pass through easily, and vision becomes blurry.”1 Some describe the sensation as if you were looking through a window that is frosted, fogged, or yellowed.2 Approximately 20.5 million Americans age 40 and older have cataracts, and more than 1.6 million cataract surgeries are performed in the U.S. each year.1 Cataracts are very common among older people. In fact, by age 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery.3 These are known as “age-related” cataracts.

Cataracts are very common among older people. In fact, by age 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery.3

• poor night vision; • double vision or multiple images in one eye (this symptom may clear as the cataract gets larger); • frequent prescription changes in your eyeglasses or contact lenses; and • sudden temporary improvement in close-up vision (sudden nearsightedness).1, 3, 5, 7 Note: These symptoms can also be a sign of other eye problems.3 If you have any of these symptoms, check with your eye doctor. Regular eye exams can catch an eye condition in the very early stages.8

Do I Have a Cataract? Signs & symptoms
The first thing to do if you suspect a cataract or any eye problem is to see your eye doctor (ophthalmologist or optometrist) and have a complete eye exam. Some common signs and symptoms of a cataract are: • painless clouding or blurring of vision; may also be described as dim vision; • needing brighter light to read; • colors seem faded or yellowed; • sensitivity to light; glare; headlights, lamps, or sunlight may appear too bright; a halo may appear around lights;

Detecting a Cataract The comprehensive eye exam
“By performing a thorough eye examination, your ophthalmologist (eye M.D.) can detect the presence

For information on other health topics, visit Extension’s Family & Consumer Sciences website: http://fcs.tamu.edu.

Optician, Optometrist, Ophthalmologist B Who Do I See?
Finding the right eye care specialist can be confusing. Here is some help: Optician – An optician fills prescriptions issued by an optometrist or ophthalmologist. These prescriptions may include eyeglasses, contact lenses, low vision aids, and ocular prostheses. An optician is not responsible, nor trained, for eye examinations or treatment solutions. An optician, however, may take eye measurements to ensure the eyeglass prescriptions are correct and fit properly. Opticians will help you select frames and adjust them to fit comfortably. An optician typically has a two-year college degree and may be certified by the American Board of Opticianry or The National Contact Lens Examiner, but these certifications are optional. Optometrist – An optometrist must have 2B4 years of undergraduate education plus a 4 year optometry degree. The optometrist does not have a medical degree and does not perform surgery. An optometrist is, however, called a doctor of optometry. An optometrist is a doctor who performs annual eye exams to treat any vision problems and detects signs of disease and abnormal conditions. An optometrist can diagnose eye disease and prescribe eyeglasses, contact lenses, vision therapy, and medications to treat eye diseases. In general, optometrists work more with patients who have “healthy” (i.e., without disease) eyes. Ophthalmologist (MD or DO) – An ophthalmologist is a medical doctor. An ophthalmologist must complete 4 years of undergraduate education, 4 years of medical school, and 4 years of residency and internship relating to the diagnoses and treatment of diseases of the eye, including eye surgery. Ophthalmologists diagnose and treat eye diseases, prescribe medications, and perform surgeries to improve or prevent the worsening of vision-related conditions. If you require cataract removal, you will see an ophthalmologist.9, 10, 11, 12 In short, opticians provide eye-wear. Optometrists provide eyewear and eye exams, and in some states low level eye treatment for diseases. Ophthalmologists provide eye exams, prescriptions, and surgeries.13 If you suspect a cataract, see an ophthalmologist. An optometrist may also detect the cataract but will ultimately need to refer you to an ophthalmologist for care. of a cataract.”2 A careful and comprehensive eye examination will also rule out any other conditions that may be causing blurred vision or other eye problems.2 The comprehensive eye exam to detect a cataract will likely include: • Visual acuity test – An eye chart test is used to measure how well you see at various distances.3 • Dilated eye exam – Drops are placed in the eyes to widen
HealthHints: Cataracts

eye doctor may do other tests to learn more about the structure and health of your eye.3 Talk with your eye doctor about what other tests are needed. It is important to understand that problems with other parts of the eye (e.g., cornea, retina, optic nerve) can be responsible for vision loss and may prevent vision improvement after cataract surgery. For this reason, if improvement in your vision is unlikely due to other complications, your doctor may not recommend cataract removal. Your ophthalmologist will tell you how much visual improvement is likely based on your individual case.2

Treatment for Cataracts Cataract surgery
If your eye doctor detects a cataract, you may be able to improve your vision for a while using new glasses, strong bifocals, magnification or magnifying lenses, brighter lighting, anti-glare sunglasses, or other visual aids.3, 14 When a cataract seriously impairs your vision and interferes with everyday activities (e.g., driving, cooking, and reading), the cataract will likely need to be removed. It is up to you to decide if you can see well enough to perform essential daily tasks. Discuss your vision and quality of life with your doctor. If you need to have a cataract(s) removed, surgery is the only option currently available. Cataracts cannot be treated with medicine or laser procedures.15, 16

(dilate) the pupils. A special magnifying lens is then used to examine the retina and optic nerve (at the back of your eye) for signs of damage or other eye problems. After the exam, your close-up vision may remain blurred for several hours. • Tonometry – An instrument measures the pressure inside the eye. Numbing drops may be applied to your eye for this test.3 These are just some of the tests that may commonly be done. Your
2

Texas AgriLife Extension Service

The good news is that more than 95 percent of cataract surgeries are performed without complications, and they result in significant improvement in vision.17 “It has proven to be a highly safe and effective procedure, with significant improvement in visual function and quality of life.”18

numb the eye, which may be done by using drops or an injection to keep the eye stable during surgery. Sedating medications may also be given, but they may not be required in all cases.7 “Cataract surgery is performed using a microscope. In most cases, a very small incision is made, and an ultrasound device is used to break up and remove the cloudy lens.”16 If your cataract has advanced to the point where the ultrasound device can’t break up the clouded lens, your surgery may require a larger incision so your surgeon can remove the lens in one piece.19 “When both eyes have cataracts, the worse eye is usually operated on first.”16 The second eye is typically operated on 4B8 weeks after the first, giving the first eye time to stabilize.3 After surgery (post-operative). Once the surgery is completed, your doctor may place a shield over your eye to protect it from rubbing, being poked, or getting debris inside. After a short stay in the outpatient recovery area, you will be ready to go home. Following surgery you will need to:
• Use eyedrops as prescribed. • Be careful not to rub or press on

• infection, • bleeding, • swelling, and • detachment of the retina.4

Call your ophthalmologist immediately if you have any of the following symptoms after surgery:
• pain not relieved by

nonprescription pain medication;
• loss of vision; • nausea, vomiting, or excessive

coughing; or
• injury to the eye.”

Before, During, & After Surgery What to expect
Before surgery (pre-operative). Before cataract surgery, discuss any medication and/or supplements (prescribed or overthe-counter) you are taking with your doctor. Decide if you should remain on these medications and/ or supplements. Also, ask your doctor whether or not you should eat prior to the surgery. During surgery. During cataract surgery, your ophthalmologist will make a small incision, remove the cloudy lens from your eye, and in most cases, replace the lens with a permanent, clear, artificial lens called an intraocular lens. “Through the use of careful measurements of the eye taken before surgery, your doctor will be able to select a lens power to correct for nearsightedness or farsightedness, helping to reduce dependence upon corrective eye wear after surgery.”16 Cataract surgery is usually done on an outpatient basis, either in a hospital, outpatient surgical center, or ambulatory surgery center. A local or topical anesthetic is used to
Texas AgriLife Extension Service

“Even if cataract surgery is successful, some patients may not see as well as they would like to.”4 Other eye problems such as macular degeneration (aging of the retina), glaucoma (elevated eye pressure), or diabetic retinopathy may limit vision after surgery. “Even with these problems, cataract surgery may still be worthwhile.”4 The benefits of modern cataract surgery can be many, including improved color vision, improved vision clarity, increased independence, improved quality of life, and reduced dependence on corrective eyeware.20

your eye.
• Avoid strenuous activities until

your ophthalmologist tells you to resume the activities.
• Ask your doctor when you can

resume driving.
• Wear eyeglasses or an eye shield,

as advised by your doctor. You can continue most normal daily activities after surgery. Overthe-counter pain medicine may be used, if necessary.4 “Though they rarely occur, serious complications of cataract surgery are:
3 HealthHints: Cataracts

Can Cataracts Be Prevented? What you can do
Although the exact cause of cataract formation is unknown, there are things that seem to influence cataract formation, and some of them are controllable. Some things that may increase the risk for cataracts include: • age; • family history; • medical problems, such as diabetes; • injury to the eye; • medications B especially steroids, but also possibly diuretics and major tranquilizers; • radiation; • long-term, unprotected exposure to sunlight; • previous eye surgery; • smoking; • heavy alcohol consumption; • air pollution; • premature birth; and • high salt intake.1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 14 Though many of these factors are uncontrollable, here are some things you can do to help prevent cataracts. Comprehensive eye exam. Because the risk of cataracts increases with age, you should have a comprehensive eye exam every 2B4 years from ages 40B64 years and every 1B2 years for people 65 years and older. If you have a history of eye problems or a medical condition, such as diabetes, that puts you at higher risk, you should have your eyes examined more often – once a year or as recommended by your doctor.5

Block ultra-violet (UV) light. One of the most important things you can do is to protect your eyes from the ultra-violet light of the sun. When outside in daylight, wear wraparound sunglasses that block 100 percent of UVA and UVB (see label on glasses), and wear a hat with a wide brim.3, 17 Stop smoking. If you smoke, quitting can help reduce your risk for cataracts. Reduce alcohol consumption. Drink alcohol only in moderation or not at all. Consider nutrition. Some evidence suggests that eating a diet high in antioxidants, which neutralize the action of free radicals and thereby prevent damage to cells, may forestall the development of cataracts.3, 14, 17, 21 Meanwhile, eating a lot of salt may increase your risk.14, 17 Antioxidants are found naturally in food (particularly plant sources) and include vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, and anthocyanidins. The minerals selenium and zinc are also factors for naturally occurring antioxidant enzymes.6, 21 Researchers recommend eating a variety of fruits and vegetables of various colors for antioxidant intake, and limiting your salt intake to reduce the risk for cataract development.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT). For women taking estrogen as part of HRT, there may also be some good news. “There is evidence that estrogen greatly decreases the risk of developing cataracts.”17 It is so important to take care of your eyes. Do all you can to reduce your risk for cataract development through regular eye exams, sun protection, unhealthy behavior reduction, and increased consumption of antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables. If you have a concern about your vision, always see your optometrist or ophthalmologist as soon as possible. Early detection of cataracts or other eye complications can help you get the information you need to best protect your vision.

Often, there is a sense of fear brought on by misconceptions about cataracts. Many medical improvements have been made over the years in caring for your eyes. Take time to read this important information on misconceptions about cataracts, and learn the truth to help dispel some of the natural fears that come with cataract detection.

This document is meant for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of your doctor or other health care provider.

To view the references used in this newsletter, go to: http://fcs.tamu.edu/health/ healthhints/2008/mar/ref.php

Educational programs of the Texas AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating

HealthHints: Cataracts

4

Texas AgriLife Extension Service

H ealth H ints
Three Types of Cataracts
There are three types of cataracts, each described by its location on the lens and what group of people is most commonly at risk.1 1. Nuclear Cataracts Nuclear cataracts are the most common type of cataract and are usually associated with aging. A nuclear cataract occurs in the center of the lens.1 A nuclear cataract can cause nearsightedness (myopia) B a temporary improvement in your reading vision sometimes referred to as second sight. Unfortunately, this second sight disappears as the cataract worsens.2 2. Cortical Cataracts Cortical cataracts are often found in people with diabetes and begin as wedge-shaped spokes in the cortex (softer material surrounding the innermost nucleus of the lens) of the lens. This type of cataract progresses, with spokes extending from the outside of the lens to the center.1 When the spokes reach the center, they interfere with the transmission of light and cause glare and loss of contrast. Though this type of cataract usually develops slowly, it may impair both distance and near vision significantly – potentially requiring surgery at a relatively early stage.2 3. Subcapsular Cataract Subcapsular cataracts are found in people with diabetes, as well as those with high myopia (nearsightedness), retinitis pigmentosa, or steroid intake. This type of cataract develops slowly and starts as a small opacity under the capsule, usually at the back of the lens.1 Significant visual symptoms may not appear with this type of cataract until it is well developed. Typical symptoms are glare and blurred vision.2 Sources: 1. American Academy of Ophthalmology (2000). New study indicated nutrition may play greater role in preventing cataracts. Retrieved January 21, 2008. From http://medem.com/search/ article_display.cfm?path=\\TANQUERAY\ M_ContentItem&mstr=/M_ContentItem/ ZZZ4MW8IJ7C.html&soc=AAO&srch_typ=NAV_ SERCH. 2. Stines, C. (2007). News from ACS: Open your eyes to the treatment and prevention of cataracts [on-line]. Retrieved January 21, 2008. From http:// medem.com/search/article_display.cfm?path=\\ TANQUERAY\M_ContentItem&mstr=/ M_ContentItem/ZZZS3V52U4D. html&soc=ACS&srch_typ=NAV_SERCH.

Educational programs of the Texas AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating

Cataracts — Caring for your eyes

March 2008 – Vol. 12, No. 3

H ealth H ints
Intraocular Lens Implants
During cataract surgery, your surgeon will remove the cloudy lens and, in most cases, replace it with a permanent, artificial lens called an intraocular lens (IOL). An IOL is a clear, plastic lens that requires no care and becomes a permanent part of your eye.1 You will not feel or see the IOL,1 and there is no risk of your eye rejecting the new lens.2 Some people cannot have an IOL implanted. They may have another eye disease or have problems during surgery. For these patients, a soft contact lens or eyeglasses that provide high magnification may be suggested.1 If you are scheduled to have an IOL implanted, your surgeon will take careful measurements of your eye before surgery. These measurements assist him/her in selecting the correct lens power. In other words, by controlling the power of your IOL implant, your surgeon can actually select a lens that helps correct any preexisting nearsightedness or farsightedness.3, 4 In fact, new IOLs are being developed all the time to make surgery less complicated for the surgeon and lenses more helpful to the patient.5 New implants are now available that can potentially correct astigmatism,4 and IOLs are being developed that could help with correcting presbyopia and block both ultraviolet and blue light rays that may be damaging to the eye.5 The power of your IOL will be selected to best improve your vision and reduce dependence on corrective eye wear after surgery.3 If you have questions about your IOL implant, talk with your doctor before surgery, and be sure he/she answers all of your questions before the procedure. You should feel comfortable with your surgeon and feel that all of your questions have been answered before undergoing surgery. Sources: 1. National Eye Institute (2006). Cataract [online]. Retrieved September 10, 2007. From http://www. nei.nih.gov/health/cataract/cataract_facts.asp. 2. Royal National Institute of Blind People (2006). Understanding cataracts [on-line]. Retrieved September 10, 2007. From http://www.rnib.org.uk/ xpedio/groups/public/documents/publicwebsite/ public_rnib003640.hcsp. 3. University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center (2008). Cataract surgery [on-line]. Retrieved January 17, 2008. From http://www.kellogg.umich.edu/ patientcare/surgery/cataract.surgery.html. 4. Pendleton Eye Center (2001) Latest developments in cataract surgery [on-line]. Retrieved September 10, 2007. From http://www.pendletoneye.com/ howiscat.htm. 5. Lee, J & Bailey, G (2007). Cataracts [on-line]. Retrieved September 10, 2007. From http:// allaboutvision.com/conditions/cataracts.htm.

Educational programs of the Texas AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating

Cataracts — Caring for your eyes

March 2008 – Vol. 12, No. 3

H ealth H ints
Misconceptions about Cataracts
Improvements in medicine
With time have come a number of discoveries and improvements in understanding and treating cataracts. Still, some hold to old notions and others to newly conceived notions about cataracts. Let’s address any misconceptions right away… vision.2 Still, “no one knows what causes the build-up of protein responsible for clouding the lens.”3 Misconception: Both eyes are usually affected by cataracts. Truth: A cataract can occur in one or both eyes.2 A cataract may be mild in one eye and develop at a denser rate in the other eye. A cataract may obstruct vision in one eye, while you may never develop a cataract in the second eye. Misconception: A cataract can spread from one eye to the other. Misconception: A cataract is a growth or film over the eye. Truth: A cataract is a clouding of the eye’s natural lens B the part of the eye that focuses light onto the retina at the back of the eye and adjusts the eye’s focus, letting us see things clearly both up close and far away.1 “The lens is mostly made of water and protein. The protein is arranged in a precise way that keeps the lens clear and lets light pass through it. But as we age, some of the protein may clump together and start to cloud a small area of the lens.”2 This is a cataract – a lens that has been clouded.2,3 “Over time, the cataract may grow larger and cloud more of the lens, making it harder to see.”2 Sometimes, the clear lens slowly changes to a yellowish/brownish color, adding a brownish tint to
Cataracts — Caring for your eyes

the eye.7 If you have eye pain, it is likely due to another source/ medical condition. Misconception: A cataract always requires surgery. Truth: If a cataract is not obstructing your vision or impairing your vision in a way that makes you unable to perform daily tasks, you likely don’t need cataract surgery. Changing your eyeglass prescription, using strong bifocals, magnification, or appropriate lighting may help to improve your vision for a while.1,8 Cataracts need to be removed when they interfere with your everyday activities, like driving, reading, cooking, etc. You do not have to rush into surgery. In most cases, delaying cataract surgery will not cause long-term damage to your eye or make eye surgery more difficult.2 Occasionally, if a cataract is interfering with the ability to examine or treat another eye problem (e.g., macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy), it will need to be removed before it obstructs vision.2 Cataract removal can also be critical in infants and children so that normal visual development can occur.9 Note: The information in this newsletter primarily addresses age-related cataracts. If you suspect a cataract in your child, see your eye doctor immediately, and you can read here for more information on cataracts in children. Cataracts
March 2008 – Vol. 12, No. 3

Truth: A cataract cannot spread from one eye to another.2 It is not an infection or virus that can spread. Misconception: A cataract leads to immediate loss of vision. Truth: Most cataracts form slowly.4 If the cloudiness in the eye is not near the center of the lens, you may not even be aware that a cataract is present. How quickly a cataract develops and progresses varies among individuals and may even be different between the two eyes.5 Eventually, cataracts do impair vision and can lead to blindness if treatment is not sought. “Cataracts do not go away with time or medication.”6 Misconception: Cataracts are painful. Truth: Cataracts do not cause pain.4, 7 A cataract does not cause itching, redness, or discharge from

may be treated differently among infants and children than in adults. Misconception: A cataract needs to “ripen” before surgery can be performed. Truth: In the past, eye specialists often waited until a cataract became “ripe” and vision was very poor before suggesting a cataract be removed. With modern surgery, however, it is no longer necessary for a cataract to become “ripe” before removing it. Cataracts are now typically removed as soon as they interfere with daily activities.5, 10 Misconception: A cataract can be removed with laser surgery. Truth: Cataracts simply cannot be removed with laser surgery.11 Although some corrections in vision can be made with lasers (such as LASIK eye surgery), cataracts require the removal of the clouded lens through a surgical incision. In most cases, the lens is then replaced with a permanent intraocular lens (IOL) implant.8 Occasionally, a laser procedure, known as a posterior capsulotomy, will be needed in the months or years after cataract surgery.8 This procedure is needed if the capsule behind (posterior) the new lens (IOL) becomes cloudy or wrinkled and interferes with vision. In this procedure, the ophthalmologist can use laser surgery to make an opening in the center of the posterior capsule to restore normal vision; it is not necessary to remove the entire posterior capsule.12 Misconception: The eye is taken out of its socket during surgery. Truth: Sometimes when faced with a decision about surgery, people will fear the worst possible scenario. “We want to assure you that your eye is not taken out of its socket during surgery.”10
March 2008 – Vol. 12, No. 3

Misconception: To remove cataracts, both eyes are operated on at the same time. Truth: Typically, both eyes are not operated on at the same time. If you have cataracts in both eyes, the worse eye is usually operated on first.11 The second eye can usually be operated on after the first eye has a chance to stabilize, usually about 4B8 weeks later.2

• high salt intake.1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 13 Sources: 1. Lee, J & Bailey, G (2007). Cataracts [on-line]. Retrieved September 10, 2007. From http:// allaboutvision.com/conditions/ cataracts.htm. 2. National Eye Institute (2006). Cataracts [on-line]. Retrieved September 10, 2007. From http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/ cataract/cataract_facts.asp. 3. WebMD (2005). Eye health: Cataracts and your eyes [online]. Retrieved September 10, 2007. From http://www.webmd. com/eye-health/cataracts/ health-cataracts-eyes. 4. American Academy of Ophthalmology (2004). Cataract surgery B the most successful eye surgery available [online]. Retrieved January 21, 2008. From http://medem. com/search/article_display. cfm?path=\\TANQUERAY\ M_ContentItem&mstr=/M_ ContentItem/ZZZQ5SZC3YD. html&soc=AAO&srch_ typ=NAV_SERCH. 5. American Academy of Ophthalmology (2007). Cataract: A closer look [online]. Retrieved January 21, 2008. From http://medem. com/search/article_display. cfm?path=\\TANQUERAY\ M_ContentItem&mstr=/M_ ContentItem/ZZZSXEVUF4C. html&soc=AAO&srch_ typ=NAV_SERCH. 6. Stines, C. (2007). News from ACS: Open your eyes to the treatment and prevention of cataracts [online]. Retrieved January 21, 2008. From http://medem. com/search/article_display.

Misconception: Scientists and doctors know exactly what causes cataracts. Truth: Unfortunately, no one knows exactly why cataracts develop. We do know, however, that some things (controllable and uncontrollable) put you at higher risk for cataracts, including: • age; • family history; • medical problems, such as diabetes; • injury to the eye; • medications, especially steroids, but also possibly diuretics and major tranquilizers; • radiation; • long-term, unprotected exposure to sunlight; • previous eye surgery; • smoking; • heavy alcohol consumption; • air pollution; • premature birth; and

Cataracts — Caring for your eyes

cfm?path=\\TANQUERAY\ M_ContentItem&mstr=/M_ ContentItem/ZZZS3V52U4D. html&soc=ACS&srch_ typ=NAV_SERCH. 7. Journal of the American Medical Association (2003). JAMA patient page: Cataracts [online]. Retrieved September 10, 2007. From http://www.medem. com/search/article_display. cfm?path=\\TANQUERAY\ M_ContentItem&mstr=/M_ ContentItem/ZZZ1BY12VLD. html&soc=JAMA/ Archives&srch_typ=NAV_ SERCH. 8. American Academy of Ophthalmology (2007). Cataract surgery [on-line]. Retrieved January 21, 2008. From http://medem. com/search/article_display. cfm?path=\\TANQUERAY\ M_ContentItem&mstr=/M_ ContentItem/ZZZY9VMAC8C. html&soc=AAO&srch_ typ=NAV_SERCH. 9. American Academy of Pediatrics (2000). Common vision and eye problems [on-line]. Retrieved January 21, 2008. From http://www. medem.com/search/article_ display.cfm?path=n:&mstr=/ ZZZ7DDGVR7C. html&soc=AAP&srch_ typ=NAV_SERCH.

10. Royal National Institute of Blind People (2006). Understanding cataracts [online]. Retrieved September 10, 2007. From http://www.rnib. org.uk/xpedio/groups/public/ documents/publicwebsite/ public_rnib003640.hcsp. 11. University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center (2008). Cataract surgery [on-line]. Retrieved January 17, 2008. From http:// www.kellogg.umich.edu/ patientcare/surgery/cataract. surgery.html. 12. University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center (2007). Capsulotomy [on-line]. Retrieved September 10, 2007. From http://www. kellogg.umich.edu/patientcare/ surgery/capsulotomy.html. 13. American Academy of Ophthalmology (2005). Cataracts [on-line]. Retrieved September 10, 2007. From http://medem. com/search/article_display. cfm?path=\\TANQUERAY\ M_ContentItem&mstr=/M_ ContentItem/ZZZ0XX23K4D. html&soc=AAO&srch_ typ=NAV_SERCH.

Educational programs of the Texas AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating

Cataracts — Caring for your eyes

March 2008 – Vol. 12, No. 3


								
To top