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					M. Plonsky, Ph.D. – Introductory Psychology Notes - Social                    Page 1 of 8




                           Social Psychology
I. Nonverbal Communication
II. Interpersonal Attraction
III. Social Influence
                             Nonverbal Communication
 Definition
 Types
 General Rules
 Animals
    Canine Communication
    Primates
 Humans

                                         Definition
   Communication without language (i.e., words).
   The purpose is to communicate with conspecifics (& others-ex. alarm calls).
   Information is typically emotional.
   Ex. Many common vocalizations in birds, amphibians, & insects serve 2 functions:
    1. Territorial
          I have one.
          I will defend it against intruders.
    2. Reproductive
          I am looking for a (or another) mate.
          I am ready to mate.
          I have a territory for raising a family.


                                            Types
1. Visual - Includes postures, facial expressions, & movements in general.
2. Auditory - Includes pitch, loudness, timing, & duration.
3. Olfactory - Often employs pheromones (chemical substances secreted by animals
   that have communication value).
4. Tactile - Involves the body parts used & forceful/gentle.
 Note - For a given species, one modality may play a more dominant role than others.
   Exs.:       Humans- vision        K9’s- olfaction    Rodents- tactile

                                      General Rule 1
 Posture size is typically related to the dominance/submission.
 Demo of guy walking down the street.
M. Plonsky, Ph.D. – Introductory Psychology Notes - Social                   Page 2 of 8



                                      General Rule 2
 The more social the species, the more subtle are the gradations in postures. In other
  words, the less social species have more stereotyped postures (they occur in the same
  manner each time they are performed).

                                      General Rule 3
 Babies are cute. Elicits nurturing.
   All Share Certain Characteristics
   Comparison by Species
   Changes Over the Lifespan

                         All Share Certain Characteristics
1.   Large rounded head shape
2.   Protruding forehead
3.   Large eyes
4.   Eyes below midline of head

                                   K9 Communication
    Visual
    Auditory
    Olfactory
    Tactile

                                            Visual
 Body
    Darwin’s Book
    Specific Postures
    Posture Changes with Emotion
 Face
 Tail
Note: Always eliminate physical causes before assuming that postures reflect what is
  on the dog’s mind.

                                      Darwin’s Book
 The Expression of Emotions in Men and Animals (1872).
 Picture of a dog when aggressive & friendly.

                                  Specific Postures 1
1. Hackles (or Piloerection) - Due to arousal of the autonomic N.S. An element of fear
   &/or anger is often present.
    Makes the dog look bigger
    Possibly directs attack to those areas.
M. Plonsky, Ph.D. – Introductory Psychology Notes - Social                    Page 3 of 8


2. T’ing Up - Dominant tries to orient perpendicular to subordinate who should show
   inguinal presentation (presenting anogenital area for inspection). Can include head
   &/or paw over the back.
3. Paw Up - Indicates Submission/tension/excitement.

                                  Specific Postures 2
4. Play Bow - Lowered shoulders with pawing. Indicates desire to play.

                                           Face 1
 Stare - threat
 Gaze/head Avoidance - fearful, submissive.
 Teeth - generally, the more they show, the more fear.
 Lip-Licking - a licking intention signal (analogous to blowing a kiss).
 Biting Air (with Snap) - often associated with defensive aggression.
 Yawning - tension.

                                            Tail 1
 Tail Wagging – some generalizations:
    High & slow - dominance.
    Fast circles - play/excitement.
    Low & fast - greeting, affection.

                                          Auditory
1.Whines - Excitement, distress & care soliciting.
2.Yelps - Pain, fear or submission.
3.Growls - Threat, warning for aggression.
4.Barks
5.Howls
 Note: These categories drastically underestimate the variety & variations in intensity
  of K9 vocalizations.

                                 Auditory - Bark Types
1.   Obedience
2.   Excitement
3.   Territoriality
4.   Frustration

                            Auditory - Howling Functions
1.   “Pep-Up” - before hunt
2.   Make Contact from a Distance
3.   Territorial Claim
4.   Communal Vocal Display
M. Plonsky, Ph.D. – Introductory Psychology Notes - Social                    Page 4 of 8



                                           Olfactory
 Pheromones
 Marking
 Rolling

                                          Pheromones
 Glands Involved:
    (Note: ? = means unknown if in dogs.)
    perianal or circumanal
    inter-digital or paw?
    nonfunctional tail
    perioral (corners of the mouth)?
 These glands, as well as urine, contain pheromones.

                                           Marking
 Urinate, defecate, & scratch the ground. (Note: RLU’s raise the sign up higher).
 Can probably tell:
    Who (individual & species)
    When
    How often
    Gender (& intact or neutered/spayed)
    How close to estrous (if intact female)
    Age
    What they have been eating (for feces)
    And ??

                                            Rolling
 Many K9’s will roll in (or urinate/defecate upon) strong smelling substances. The
  rolling may:
    Decrease the novelty of the substance through habituation.
    Attract attention from conspecifics (e.g., cologne or perfume).
    Decrease aggression from conspecifics.

                                            Tactile
1.   Licking
2.   Face/Jowl Nipping
3.   Inguinal Presentation
4.   Muzzle Biting & Nosing
5.   Hip-slamming (or Body Checking)
6.   Petting

                                            Licking
 Is the way the mom takes care of the pups (stimulating urination & defecation,
     cleaning, tending cuts & bruises).
 Grows into an affectionate & submissive gesture analogous to kissing.
M. Plonsky, Ph.D. – Introductory Psychology Notes - Social                     Page 5 of 8



                                   Face/Jowl Nipping
 Performed as puppies to get the mom to regurgitate food & thus grows into a
  friendly/submissive greeting.

                                 Inguinal Presentation
 Presentation of the anogenital region is a friendly or submissive gesture common in
  greetings.
    Can get in the way of putting on a leash.
    Can be used to get the dog to stand still.

                                Muzzle Biting & Nosing
 Muzzle Biting - An inhibited bite over the jaw is a reprimand.

                               Body Checking & Petting
 Hip-Slamming or Body Checking - Used during play & aggression to break the hold of
  a conspecific. May also be used as a friendly gesture when running (called bumping).
 Petting - When it is done vigorously, it excites the dog, Calm petting has the opposite
  effect. This can be used to “pump up” or calm the dog.

                                          Primates
 Macaque Facial Expressions
 Human Facial Expressions
 Chimpanzee Hoot

                                    Chimpanzee Hoot
Possible Functions:
1. Greeting & excitement
2. Keeps animals in contact
3. May be territorial
4. Dominance

                                          Humans
 Facial Expressions
    Universal Expressions
    Staring Study
 Postures
    Body Postures
    Gestures
 Verbal vs. Nonverbal
    Why Do We Need Both?
    Continuum

                               Interpersonal Attraction
Influential Factors:
M. Plonsky, Ph.D. – Introductory Psychology Notes - Social                  Page 6 of 8


1.   Proximity
2.   Familiarity
3.   Similarity
4.   Reciprocity
5.   Physical Appearance
6.   Competence

                                       Competence
 Generally the competent person is liked more. However, consider:
 The Pratfall Effect - college quiz bowl:
     Group                             Attrac. Rating
     Superior-Blunder                  Most
     Superior                          Second
     Average                           Third
     Average-Blunder                   Least

                                     Social Influence
 Conformity & Compliance
 Obedience
 Prosocial Behavior

                              Conformity & Compliance
 Definitions
 Asch Studies
 Factors Influencing

                                        Definitions
 Norm - Appropriate behavior for a given group.
 Conformity - When a person adopts a norm as a result of uncertainty.
 Compliance - When a person adopts a norm as a result of group pressure.

                                       Asch Studies
 Methods
 Results

                          Conformity - Influential Factors
1.   Group Unanimity
2.   Group Size
3.   Self Esteem
4.   Status of Conformer w/ in the Group
5.   Constitution of the Group
6.   Gender
M. Plonsky, Ph.D. – Introductory Psychology Notes - Social                           Page 7 of 8



                                        Obedience
 Definition - An automatic relatively unthinking response to an authority figure within a group
  - Berkowitz, 1980
 Stanley Milgram’s (1963)
    Procedures
    Findings
 Factors Influencing

                                 Milgram’s Procedures
 Teacher’s Panel
 Learner’s Responses
 Teacher Complaints
 Subject Recruitment

                                 Learner’s Responses
 75v - Complains
150v - Asks to be let out of experiment.
300v - Starts ranting & raving
315v - Becomes completely silent

                                  Teacher Complaints
When a “teacher” complained, they were told:
1. Please continue.
2. The experiment requires that you continue.
3. It is absolutely essential that you continue.
4. You have no choice but to go on.

                         Subject Recruitment - News Add
                          Persons Needed For a Study of Memory
        We will pay 500 New Haven men to help us complete a scientific study of
memory & learning. The study will be done at Yale University. Each person who
participates will be paid $4.00 (plus 50¢ carfare) for  1 hour’s time. No special training,
education, or experience needed. We want:
              Factory workers                    Business men
              Construction workers               City employees
              Clerks                             Salespeople
              Laborers                           Professional people
              White-collar workers               Barbers
              Telephone workers                  Others
All persons must be 20 - 50 years old. High school & college students cannot be used.

                           Obedience - Influential Factors
1. Proximity of Learner
2. Proximity of Experimenter
3. Prestige of Authority Figure
M. Plonsky, Ph.D. – Introductory Psychology Notes - Social                       Page 8 of 8


4. Personal Responsibility
5. Influence of Peers
6. Personality Type

                                     Prosocial Behavior
 Kitty Genovese Incident
 Forms of Prosocial Behavior
 Classic Study (Darley & Latanè)
 Influential Factors

                                     Pros. Beh. - Forms
 Cooperative Behavior - Occurs when two or more people work together for their
  mutual benefit.
 Helping Behavior - Occurs when one’s social behavior benefits another.

                          Classic Study - Darley & Latanè
 Methods - Led people to believe they would participate in a study of adjustment to
     college via intercom. First subject mentions has epilepsy, then has a seizure.
 Findings - The # people present was related to whether people helped as well as how
     quickly.

                           Pros. Beh. - Influential Factors
1.   Responsibility
2.   Cost of Helping
3.   Modeling
4.   Reciprocity
5.   Guilt
6.   Characteristics of the Victim
7.   Situational Factors
8.   Some Education