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									ETHICAL TREATMENT OF
      ANIMALS
 Home Assignment for next week…
 Access the websites on the next slide.
 Find at least two other sites, one that
 promotes animal welfare and one that
 promotes animal rights and bring the url
 for each.

                    AGST 3000
    Agriculture, Society, and the Natural World
       Some Interesting Sites
http://www.animalagalliance.org/main/home.cfm?Se
ction=Main&Category=Home

http://www.animalplace.org/

http://www.prorodeo.org/animals/

http://www.peta.org/

http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/index.html

http://www.hsus.org/ace/11513
                    History
   Animal Ethics issue began in Europe in the
    1960s.
        RuthHarrison’s Animal Machines
        Brambell Committee 1965



   1993 UK Farm Animal Welfare Council
    published the 5 new freedoms.
               HISTORY
1866 – Henry Bergh founds American Society
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
1896-1900 – Legislation is proposed in
Congress to restrict vivisection via a system
of regulations and periodic inspection of
laboratories.
1951 – Animal Welfare Institute founded
1954 – Humane Society of the United States
founded
                 HISTORY
1958 – Federal Humane Slaughter Act is passed.

1966 – Congress passes the American Welfare Act
(AWA)

1990 – The Animal Legal Defense Fund and the
HSUS both sue the USDA. The USDA extends AWA
coverage to horses and other farm animals used in
research.
               A Global Look
   New Zealand has had an Animal
    Protection Act of 1960, but as the issue
    of animal ethics evolved the Act became
    inadequate.
   Consumers, both domestic and overseas
    (the U.S.), wanted assurances that
    animals were being treated humanely.
       Est. Animal Welfare Act of 1999.
       It focuses on Preventing animal cruelty.
             A Global Look cont.
   Switzerland is another example of a
    country with an Animal Welfare Act.
       1981 Swiss Animal Protection Act - this
        act made Switzerland the first country to ban
        cages in egg production.
          Nests & perches
          800 sq. centimeter

   Swiss poultry farmers have made profits
    using this method.
      Two Major Points of View
   (1) Animal Rights - the goal is ending
    all animal use
          no food, clothing, entertainment, medical research
           or hunting
   (2) Animal Welfare – demands that
    animals must be treated and used
    humanely.
          Animals can be used for any purpose, but the
           responsibility of care and humane treatment lies
           with the human
ANIMAL WELFARE THOERY
Animal welfare is the theory which
maintains that it is morally
acceptable to use nonhuman animals
for human purposes as long as they
are treated humanely and do not
impose unnecessary suffering on
them.

The goal of animal welfare is the
regulation of animal use.
          ORGANIZATIONS

• The Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC)
• Animal Agriculture Alliance
• The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
• The American Veterinary Medical Association
(AVMA)
• The California Veterinary Medical Association
(CVMA)
 ANIMAL RIGHTS THOERY

The animal rights theory maintains
that we have no moral justification
for using nonhuman animals for
human purposes however humanely
we treat them.n

The goal of animal rights activists is
to abolish the use of animals.
       ORGANIZATIONS

• People for the Ethical Treatment of
Animals (PETA)
• The Animal Place
• The Humane Society of the United States
(HSUS)
      Understanding Agriculture
   Animal producers see themselves as more
    understanding of their animals’ needs than
    do the general public.

          During WWII farmers still relied on their animals
           for their livelihood.

          By the 70s there was a move to commercial
           production (industrialization of Agriculture).
    General Public might not be so well
               informed…
   Society is concerned with animal well-
    being and depending on who they listen to
    determines peoples impressions
       this has prompted a response from the food
        industry.

   Resulted in industry changes
          McDonald’s Animal Welfare Guiding Principles
          Wendy’s Animal Welfare Auditing Program
         Economic Significance
   Treating animals inhumanely results in
    economic costs.
       Bruising of animals costs the industries
        millions of dollars each year.
            Australia $36 million
   With Pigs, using electric prods causes
    bruising.
   Improvements in these areas will
    improve animal welfare as well as
    human safety.
Examples
            ISSUES
Animal Cruelty is against the Law!

   Difficult Topic, No Easy Answers

            Very Political

  Animal Rights vs. Animal Welfare
        How Animals are used

   Animals   for   meat
   Animals   for   milk
   Animals   for   fiber
   Animals   for   pharmaceutical production (live)
   Animals   for   pharmaceutical production (organs)
   Animals   for   research
   Animals   for   companionship
   Animals   for   exhibition
   Other?
   Animal Agriculture

Pastoral vs. Confinement

        Define
Pastoral vs. Confinement
               Example
Free-Range System offer chickens a choice
  between large indoor and outdoor runs.
        Agriculture as the target
   Why? Unscrupulous Producers…

   Media sensationalism

   PETA, ALF

   Again, what is justified, scientific, and valid…

   Continues to be a difficult area for most people
Specific Food and Fiber
 Specie Issues
   Husbandry practices:
       Based primarily on safety and health, consumer
        preference, and economics.

   Some specific practices, poorly understood by
    the public and are sources of misinformation
    disseminated by opponents of animal agriculture
                   CATTLE
1. Restraint

2. Management practices
  a. branding
  b. dehorning
  c. castration
  d. ear tagging/marking

3. Dairy Industry
  a. BST (Bovine Somatotropin)
  b. Genetics (bio-engineering)
  c. Calf rearing (confinement)
  d. Veal production (abuses)
             Industry Conflicts
   BEEF Industry:
       Practices such as dehorning, castration and
        branding which cause some pain and can
        be seen as animal cruelty.
       Dehorning: benefits both cattle and human
        handlers
       Castration: unwanted breeding, reduces
        male aggressiveness and produces better
        quality meat
       Branding: used for identification mainly in
        the Western States
                  BEEF cont.
    Another issue is the Feedlot vs Pastoral
    grazing.
       Carefully managed feed, receive the best
        health care, all their needs are met.
           Dairy Industry Issues
   Pastoral vs Confined
        Animal activists lean towards pastoral grazing
        In Sweden they passed legislation that says that
         grazing is a right.
        Problems with pasturing are:
              short grazing season
              inefficient nutrients required for high milk yield

   Tail Docking is an emerging issue (new
    Zealand).
Example
               Sheep
a.   Castration
b.   Ear tagging/marking
c.   Docking
d.   Shearing
             POULTRY
1. Confinement production
  a. caged laying hens
  b. large scale broiler

2. Production
  3. Force molting
  4. Beak Trimming
                SWINE
1. Confinement production
  a. farrowing crates
  b. market hog production
  c. gestation stalls

2. Management practices
  a. ear notching
  b. tail removal
  c. needle teeth removal
                 HORSES
1. Confinement

2. PMSG production
     (Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin)
    increases the number of follicles developing in
    the ovary of non-horse species

   Used to induce labor in horse and some other
    species


3. Show strategies
             Groups Involved

   American Veterinary Medical
    Association (AVMA) - focus on animal
    welfare
         proper housing, nutrition, humanely
          handling and humane deaths
   Promote point of view:
       advocate their policy on Federal
        legislation (they have a Governmental
        Relations Division)
       In Process: Amendment to the Humane
        Methods of Slaughter Act.
          Groups involved cont.
   Animal Welfare Institute (AWI) - animal
    welfare supporter
       work to protect endangered species, improve lives
        of animals used in experiments and advocate
        humane farm practices
   Promote:
       established Animal Welfare Approved: the
        program focuses on the animal in food production
       the standards try to emulate the animals natural
        behavior
                     Example
   Animal Welfare Approved Standards for
    Beef Cattle and Calves
          must be allowed to graze
          room to walk around and lay down on side

   Also promote through their legislative
    division, Society for Animal Protective
    Legislation (SAPL).
       They are dedicated to promoting and
        protecting animal welfare in local, Federal
        and International Legislation.
             Groups Involved cont.
   PETA (People for the Ethical
    Treatment of Animals) - animal rights
    supporter
       work to stop animal abuse
       compare animals to human children
   Promote: they get involved directly
          consumer boycotts
          recognition internationally due to the media and
           have been able to bring about long term changes
             Groups Involved cont.
   Animal Liberation Front (ALF) - animal
    rights advocate
       fighting the injustice which they compare to the
        fight to abolish slavery
       consider themselves “the ultimate freedom
        movement.”


   Promote: through direct action
            damage and destroy property and equipment
            free animals from laboratories
            use arson
         Laws and Regulations
   The Animal Welfare Act of 1966, 1970.
       Defines how animals are used, treated,
        housed, transported, processed, etc.


   Many different organizations have
    established rules and regulations:
            Professional Rodeo Association - have 60 rules
             and regulations.
   Humane Slaughter Act 1958
   Humane Methods of Slaughter Act 1978
          extended the 1958 policy to all Federally inspected
           slaughter plants


   Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
    enforces the Act
          veterinarian and inspectors present
    Animals used for Research
   Medical Research
   Consumer Research
   Agriculture Research
   Psychological and Social Research
   Environmental Research

   Are there alternatives?
        Laboratory Animals for Research
   23 million mice are used in research each year (95%)
   Rats make up the second largest group
   Followed by birds
         Companion Animals

 Animal   Cruelty
  Neglect

  Abuse

  Pet Shops
  Puppy mills

  Fighting
                  Tough one…
   It is up to the individual as to how they feel
    personally.

   Research the issues

What are the alternatives?

Vegetarian, human research subjects, no
  companion animals?

No easy answers!
                             Journal
1.   What is the difference between Animal Rights and Animal
     Welfare?

2.   What are some of the organizations that promote animal rights
     and what is their recurring theme(s)?

3.   What are some of the organizations that promote animal welfare
     and what is their recurring theme(s)?

4.   There are a large number of animals utilized for research. Do
     you think this is right ? Are there alternatives, what are they?

5.   Do you think that people should be allowed to have pets?

6.   Should we be concerned about how farm animals are treated?

7.   Where do you stand on this issue and why? (I believe that…)

								
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