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Exercises and Keys

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 9

									Exercises and Keys
I. Give brief answers to the following questions, using your own words as
                           1
much as possible:

1
    Key to Exercises
I.
1)It looks like a stylized Navaho rug or the aerial view of a railroad switching yard. It is made
mostly of silicon.
2) The computer of 25 years ago was as large as a room. The miracle chip of today is small, cheap,
easy to mass produce, fast, infinitely versatile and convenient.
3) At 7:30 a.m., when the alarm clock burrs, the bedroom curtains swing silently apart, the
venetian blinds snap up and the thermostat boosts the heat to a cozy 70'. The percolator in
the kitchen starts burbling; the back door opens to let out the dog. The TV set blinks on with the
day's first newscast. After the news on TV comes the morning mail, from correspondents who
have dictated their messages into the computer network. Mr. A., still in bed, then presses a
button on a bedside box and issues a string of business and personal, memos, which appear
instantly on the genie screen. After his shower, which has turned itself on at exactly the
right temperature at the right minute, Mr. A. is alerted by a buzzer and a blue light on the screen.
His boss is on his way to the office. Mr. A. dresses and goes out to the car, the engine of which is
running'"
    After her husband has kissed her goodbye, Mrs. A. uses the computer to do shopping for
tonight’s dinner party. Then she orders from the memory bank her favorite recipes, tells the
machine to compute the ingredients for six servings, and directs the ovens to reach the correct
temperature for each dish according to the recipe, starting at 7:15 p.m. She then joins a televised
discussion of art. Later she wanders into the computer room where she has just learned from his
headset that his drill in Latin verb conjugation was very good.
4) Home information management systems will take over me-mo pads, notebooks, files, bills and
the kitchen bulletin board. And housewives will be able to do their shopping by computer TV.
5) Hospital computers will take the place of doctors to talk to patients and they are programmed
not only to remind the pharmacy department to prepare prescriptions but also to alert nurses to
give the proper dosage at the right time.
6) In addition to the microprocessors under the hood that will help the machine operate more
efficiently, tiny computers will ease tensions and make life simpler for the driver and
passengers too. For example, at the push of a button, the driver can get a readout on the amount of
fuel in the tank, and the number of miles he can expect to go before a refill is necessary; or he can
find out the miles yet to go to a preset destination and the estimated arrival time. The best auto
will contain a small portable phone capable of reaching any number in the world in seconds,
automatic braking and a miniradar to avoid collisions.
7) In schools, computers will be more common than slide projectors, movie film projectors and
tape recorders. They' 11 be used from the moment school opens, through break, through
1) What does a miracle chip look like? What is it made of?
2) What was the computer of 25 years ago like? What is the miracle chip of today
like?
3) Describe a day of Mr. A and his wife.
4) How will a household computer work?
5) How will a hospital computer work?
6) How will the tiny computers help motorists of the future?
7) What role will computers play in education?
8) What is the significance of the computer revolution?
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II. Paraphrase:
1) The microelectronic revolution promises to ease, enhance and simplify life in ways
             undreamed of even by the utopians.
2) The custom-made object, now restricted to the rich, will be within everyone' s
reach.
3) The computer might appear to be a dehumanizing factor, but the opposite is in fact
true.
4) In no area of American life is personal service so precious as in medical care.
5) The widest benefits of the electronic revolution will accrue to the young.
6) For the mighty army of consumers, the ultimate applications of the computer
          revolution are still around the bend of a silicon circuit.


lunch period, and to the dosing of the school.
8) The computer revolution is stimulating intellects, liberating limbs and pushing mankind to a
higher level of existence.




2

II.
1) The breakthrough in microelectronics will change people's lives in ways no one has ever
thought of before.
2) Although at present only the rich man can afford custom-made goods, the average person will
be able to afford them in the future.
3) The computer might appear to make human beings machinelike, but it can bring some human
qualities into our lives as well.
4) Personal service in medical care is regarded as the most important part of the American life.
5) It is the young Americans who will gain most of the advantages from the electronic revolution.
6)Right now, millions of American computer users are not able to make full use of the computer.
                                                  3
III. Translate the following into Chinese:
1) Just as the Industrial Revolution took over an immense range of tasks from men's
    muscles and enormously expanded productivity, so the microcomputer is rapidly
    assuming huge burdens of drudgery from the human brain and thereby expanding
    the mind's capacities in ways that man has only begun to grasp.
2) Such painless, productive awakenings will in time be a familiar thing. And,
    barring headaches, tummy aches and heartaches, the American day should proceed
    as smoothly as it begins.
3) Public education, so often a dreary and capricious process in the U. S. , may be
    invested with the inspiriting quality of an Oxford tutorial--from preschool on.
4) Certainly the miracle chip will affect American life in ways both benign and
    productive. The computer revolution is stimulating intellects, liberating limbs and
    propelling mankind to a higher order of existence.

IV. Look up the following words in the dictionary and pat them into
                                                                           4
Chinese. Note the different meanings of the prefix ' micro-'.
     1) microbiology                         2) microcircuit
     3) microfilm                             4) micrograph
     5) microgroove                          6) microphotograph
     7) microreader                         8) microsecond
3

III.
1)正如工业革命取消了大量的体力劳动并极大地发展生产力一样,微型电子计算机正迅速地
承担起大量繁重的脑力劳动, 从而以各种方式扩大人脑的功能,人们现在才开始领会这些方
式。
2)早上醒来是这样舒适、富有成效。这将成为一件普通的事。如果没有头痛,胃痛或心痛,
美国人一天的生活将进行得如早晨开始时那样顺利。
3)公立学校的教育在美国经常是枯燥和多变的。现在计算机可以使从学龄前教育开始的各种
教育都像牛津个别指导制那样令人振奋;
4)神奇的硅片肯定会既有益又有效地影响美国生产,计算机革命正在推动智力发展,解放四
肢,把人类的生活提高到一个新的水平



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Ⅳ.
1)微生物学  2)微型电路     3)缩微胶卷;缩微照片   4)显微图;微动扩大器;微写器
5)密纹唱片  6)显微照片;缩微照片      7)显微阅读器     8)微秒(百万分之一秒)
9)使微小化;使超小化    10)微波
      9) microminiaturize                          10) microwave

V. Add either the prefix 'mini-' or 'super-' to the following words and pat
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them into Chinese:
         1) radar                                     2) powers
        3) skirt                                     4) pants
        5) fine                                      6) bus
        7) high frequency                             8) highway
        9) human                                     10) camera

VI. Proper names and trade names are sometimes used as common nouns.
                                                                6
Point out what the italicized words stand for.
       1) Ford Co. now offers buyers of its Continental Mark Vs an option called
"miles to empty".
      2) Drivers of General Motors' 1978 Cadillac Seville are also able to punch a
          button and find out the miles yet to go to a preset destination and the
          estimated arrival time.
      3) She drove in her Fiat to the theatre.
      4) He prefers zhonghua to daqianmen.
      5) Our Sony works very well.
      6) Would you care for a cup of iongjing?
      7) A Rolex is more expensive than an Omega.
      8) Those photos were taken with a Kodak.
      9) A Boeing 767 flew us to Shanghai.
      10) He put on his Mae West.
5

V.
1)miniradar 超小型雷达     2)superpower 超级大国           3)miniskirt 超短裙
4)minipants 超短裤   5)superfine 过分精细的,(商品)特级的
6)minibus 小型公共汽车,面包车            7)superhighfrequency 超高频率
8)superhighway 超级公路     9)superhuman 超人的,神的,超过常人的
10)minicamera 小型照相机




6

VI.
      1) car 2) car 3) car 4) cigarettes
      5) tape recorder (radio, TV set, stereo-equipment, etc)
      6) tea 7) watches 8) camera
      9) air-plane 10) life jacket
VII. Pick out from the text all the terms connected with the computer.

VIII. The following words and expressions are from the text. For each of

them give another word or expression of similar meaning also found in
               7
this text:

        Mode: mail -- letters
        1) took over                                       2) immense
       3) an immense range of tasks                         4) performed
       5) eventually                                       6) astonishing
       7) commandeer                                       8) hit a button
       9) sauntered                                       10) to compute

IX. Choose the right words from the list given below to complete the
                                                                           8
following sentences. Make changes where necessary.
        apparatus          appliances       applications        computerize
        vacuum tubes      silicon chips    program             capabilities
       information        calculations    computers           automakers
       read-out          microcomputer-controlled
1) Press the button, and you'll get a ______ on the screen.
2) In this factory, many devices will _______ very soon.
3) ________ use computers to view a prospective new car from any angle.
4) This language lab is equipped with new _______ imported from Japan.
5) It is said that the miracle chips can program practically all the household
6) In many industries, _________ design the products the companies sell.

7

VIII.
1) assumed, shouldered           2) vast, huge, hulking
3) huge burdens of drudgery, a vast array of tasks
4) conducted                5) in time      6) amazing
7) order        8) punch ( press, push ) a button
9) wandered          10) to calculate


8
  IX.
1) read-out     2) be computerized      3) automakers      4) apparatus
5) appliances     6) computers      7) vacuum tubes      8) capabilities
9) applications 10) silicon chips, microcomputer-controlled
11) calculation 12) information 13) program
7) Four generations of computer evolution -- ______ , transistors, simple integrated
    circuits and today's chips -- followed one another in rapid succession.
8) The _______ of computers are increasing at a fantastic rate.
9) The most exciting ________ of the miracle chips are yet to come.
10) Many firms in California are involved in manufacturing _______ , related
        semiconductor devices and products.
11) A program is a sequence of instructions prepared for the computer for_______.
12) Accuracy is one of the advantages of the computers -- provided they are given
accurate               to start with.
13) Fed a ________ that was mistaken, a military computer might send off missiles in
     the wrong direction or fire them at the wrong time.

X. Translate the following into English (using the following words or

expressions: to perform, to be capable of, capability, run- down, to

mass-produce, to be within the reach, to predict, to estimate, to program,
                                                                                                9
to affect, to evolve, tube, to be associated with, to be convenient to):
1)现代化的电子计算机除了数据处理以外,还有做出决定和选择的能力。                                                     .
2)这个装置能够在一、两秒钟之内把信息发到另一个半球去。

9

X.
1) In addition to processing data, the modern computers have the capabilities of making decisions
    and choices.
2) This device is capable of sending messages to the other hemisphere within a couple of seconds.
3) The new products are being mass-produced.
4) The students are collecting information associated with microtechnology.
5) In what ways do you think the mechanization in agriculture will affect the life of the peasants in
    our country?
6) Please give me a rundown of last week's news.
7) The adoption of computers made it possible for them to perform their task with high efficiency
    and speed.
8) In a few years, the TV set will be within the reach of the average family.
9) Calculating instruments were in existence long ago. And it was from those past calculators that
   the latter-day computers            evolved.
10) Despite their countless capabilities, the miracle chips must be programmed by human beings.
11) It is estimated that by the end of this year there will be 120,000 machine men (robots) working
     at various posts in             service of the human race.
12) This instrument is portable, therefore convenient for the prospectors.
13) I'm afraid your TV set needs repairing. It seems there is something wrong with the tube.
3)这种新产品正在成批地生产。
4)学生们正在收集与微型技术有关的材料。
5)你认为农业机械化会对我国农民的生活产生什么影响?
6)请你给我简要地总结一下上周的新闻。
7)采用电子计算机才使得他们有可能快速地高效地完成任务。
8)再过若干年,普通的家庭都可以买得起电视机了。
9)计算工具早在很久以前就存在了,而现代的电子计算机就是从过去的计算工具逐渐发展而
来的。
10)尽管这些神奇的集成线路片有数不清的性能,但还需要由人为它们编制程序。
11)据估计,到今年年底,全世界将有十二万个机器人在各个岗位上为人类服务。
12)这种仪器便于携带,因此对勘探人员很方便。
13)我看你的电视机需要修理一下,显像管似乎有点毛病。



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XI. Translate the following passage into Chinese:
      The electronic computers contain five basic sections:
      Input. This section translates information from a variety of devices into a code
that the computer understands. In early computers, the use of punched cards provided
the input. Today such cards, as well as punched tape, are still used. But they have
been supplemented by other methods, including magnetic tapes, discs and drums.
     Memory. It stores information until it is needed by other parts of the machine.
The most popular memory in modern computers has been the magnetic core variety.
The core memories are now being replaced by semiconductor memories on chips.
     Arithmetic and logic. To handle, direct and process the flood of information, the

10

XI.
  电子计算机包括以下五个基本部分:
  输入端:这部分将从各种装置获得的信息译成计算机懂得的电码。最初的计算机采用穿
孔卡片送入输入端。现在,这样的卡片以及穿孔带仍在使用,但增补了其他方法,其中包括
磁带、磁盘和磁鼓。
  存储器;信息就贮存在这部分里以供计算机其他部分需要时使用。现代化计算机最常见
的存储器是各种磁芯制成的。这种磁芯存储器正在被微型集成电路块上的半导体存储器所取
代。
  运算和逻辑部分:计算机依靠这部分来处理、指导、加工大量的信息。计算机在这里对
数字和数据进行运算和操纵。
  控制器:这是计算机的交通警,它使指令贮存在存储器中并对指令进行解释。它调节存
储器、运算和逻辑部分以及这些部分之间信息的流动。它还命令经过加工的数据从存储器移
动到输出端。
  输出端:这部分把经过加工的数据译成可以控制各式各样装置的电冲。这样,输出端可
以采用文字或数字两种读出形式,显示在高速打字机上或明亮的阴极射线管上。
computer relies on this unit. It is here that the computer does its number crunching
and data manipulation.
     Control. This is the computer's traffic cop. It gets instructions stored in the
memory section and interprets them; it regulates the memory and arithmetic-logic
sections and the flow of information between them, and orders processed data to
move from the memory to the output section.
     Output. Processed data are translated by this section into electrical impulses that
can control an almost endless variety of devices. Thus the output may take the form of
words or numbers "read-out" on high-speed printers or glowing cathode-ray tubes.

XII. Topics for oral work:
1) Is the computer a humanizing or dehumanizing factor?
2) The author tries to make his science writing interesting and popular. What are some of the
           methods he employs to achieve this?
                                                                              11
XIII. Write a short composition on the following topic:
      The role the computers will play in our four modernizations.




11

XIII.            The Role the Computers Will Play in Our Four Modernizations
      When the computers are 'widely used, we may have large numbers of computerized robots
which make our lives easier.
      Some of them, like the pocket calculator, can work much more quickly than human beings
can. And they rarely make mistakes.
      In some ways robots are better than people. They work quickly, but do not make mistakes.
They do not get bored doing the same job over and over again. And they never get tired.
      So robots are very useful in factories. They can be taught to do many different jobs. At first,
their electronic brains must be shown how the job is done. A person moves the robot' s "arms" and
"hands" through each part of the job. The robot's brain remembers each move. When the robot is
put to work on its own, its brain controls the rods, wheels and motors which move its arm. When
the robot is needed for a new job, its electronic memory is "wiped clean". Then it is taught how to
do its new task.
      Robots are also used for doing jobs which are dangerous. They can move objects which are
too hot or too heavy for people to handle. They can work in places which are too hot or too cold
for people. And they are not affected by poisonous fumes or gases. In scientific research, they may
be used for doing such jobs as handling radioactive materials.
      In short, the computers will play an important role in our four modernizations. With their
help, we will be relieved of tedious, hard or dangerous work and have more time for more
challenging and valuable things or e/ten for entertainment.

								
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