Analysis of floating body effects in thin film SOI by qdk21196

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									                            Analysis of Floating Body Effects in Thin Film SO1 MOSFETs
                                          using the GIDL Currlent Technique
                                                         Mohan V. Dunga, Aatish Kumar, and V. Ramgopal Rao
                                                            Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Bombay
                                                              IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai - 400076, India.
                                                 Phone: (91) 22-5767456 Fax: (91) 22-5723707 Email: rrao@ee.iitb.ac.in

                 Abstract: In this paper, we present an analysis of floating
                 body effects in lateral asymmetric channel (LAC) and
                 conventional homogeneously doped channel (uniform) SO1
                 MOSFETs using a novel Gate-Induced-Drain-Leakage                                                                                                   >o
                 (GIDL) current technique. The parasitic bipolar current gain
                 p has been experimentally measured for LAC and uniform
                 SO1 MOSFETs using the GIDL current technique. The
                 lower parasitic bipolar current gain observed in LAC SO1
                 MOSFETs is explained with the help of 2-D device
                 simulations.

                 1. Introduction                                                                                       SUBSTRATE                                I
                 An SO1 MOSFET with thin Si film offers several advantages
                 over bulk devices, which include reduced short-channel                                  Fip;.:Depletion regions in the gate-drain overlap
                 effects, low voltage operation and increased current drive.                                        repion in SOT nnder GTnl, hias
                 One of the challenges of SO1 CMOS technology is
                 understanding and controlling the floating body effects.
                 These effects are the counteraction of the perfect isolation
                 properties in a SO1 MOSFET and are caused by the majority
                 carriers that are generated by the high drain field and get
                 accumulated in the body. If the minority carrier lifetime is
                 high in the silicon film, the parasitic bipolar junction




                                                                                                                              &
                 transistor [l] present in the NPN structure of the MOSFET
                 amplifies the hole current generated by impact-ionization                                                                 Tunncling
                 near the drain. This further increases the net drain current                                                                clcctcon
                 and is known to cause second kink in the drain current. The
                 lateral parasitic bipolar transistor gain p has a major impact                                                               Hole
                 on the breakdown voltage of SO1 devices and is also
                 responsible for hysteresis and latch-up in severe cases.                                  Fig.: Band diagram near the gate-drain overlap
                                                                                                                         region under GIDL bias
                 LAC SO1 devices tend to offset these harmful effects by                         Re:ferring to Fig. 1, this leakage current for negative bias is
                 reducing the drain field and thus impact ionization. In                         due to tunneling current in the deep depletion region. In this
                 addition to that, LAC devices also prevent short channel
                                                                                                 gate-to-drain overlap region, the tunneling of valence-band
                 effects like     roll-off, DIBL and reliability issues like hot                 electrons into the conduction band generates electron-hole
                 carrier effects. LAC SO1 MOSFETs therefore promise many                         pairs. This occurs because of the high vertical electric field
                 advantages over homogeneously doped SO1 MOSFETs [2]-                            in .the gate-drain overlap region. Fig. 2 shows band diagram
                 [4]. It is thus necessary to examine how the floating body                      near the gate-to-drain overlap region at high             v,
                                                                                                                                                    and device
                 effects differ in LAC SO1 from uniform SO1 MOSFETs. In                          in the off state or in accumulation.
                 order to measure the lateral bipolar transistor current gain p
                 of LAC SO1 MOSFETs, Gate Induced Drain Leakage                                  The GIDL current due to Band-to-Band tunneling follows
                 (GIDL) mechanism has been used.                                                 the: relationship given by [6]:
                 2. GIDL
                 In an n-MOSFET when the gate potential is very low or                            I,,   = AE,   exp(- B / E ~ )                                     (1)
                 negative, in which case the front channel is off or in
                 accumulation and a high drain potential is applied, tunneling                    where A is a constant and B equals about 21.3 MVIcm. E,
                 current flows from drain to substrate. Since this is a form of                   can be expressed as
                 undesired leakage current caused at low gate voltages it is
                 called Gate Induced Leakage Current (GIDL) [5].                                  ET    = (VDC -   v
                                                                                                                   ,       )/(3TOX    )                             (2)




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                            ~
               where V D= (VD-V~).     VsUw is the surface potential of the                     significant, which is not the case with long channel devices.
               depleted region at the onset of B-B tunneling and is equal to                    This indicates a method for extraction of p for an SO1
               1.2 Volts.                                                                       device. By finding the ratio of drain currents of a short
                                                                                                channel device and long channel device under GIDL bias,
               Due to the vertical field present in the overlap region, these                   the value of p can be obtained. This is a very good method
               electrons and holes are collected by the drain and substrate,                    since it does not require a body contact.
               respectively. As the gate voltage is made more negative or
               the drain potential is increased, the vertical field increases                   4. Results Obtained for Bulk MOSFET
               leading to an increase in GIDL leakage current. Reduction in                     The GIDL behaviour was first studied for Bulk MOSFETs.
               current was obtained for LDD devices under GIDL bias.                            Devices used in the experiments had channel lengths of 10
               This is due to reduction in the electric field in the gate-drain                 pm, 5 pm, 1 pm and 0.25 pm. A GIDL bias of -1.0 Volt was
               overlap region. GIDL was used earlier to characterise                            applied and drain voltage was swept from 0 to 3volts. The
               interface traps and later on to measure oxide charge trapping                    GIDL currents measured for different channel lengths are
               using GIDL transients [7].                                                       shown in fig. 4. The GIDL current was more or less constant
                                                                                                with respect to the channel length. This indicates the validity
                                                                                                of the statement that GIDL remains constant with varying
                                                                                                channel lengths. This can be explained by the fact that
                                                                                                Band-to-Band tunneling depends on VDc and hence is
                                                                                                independent of channel length. Also, since the holes flow
                                                                                                into the substrate, there is no parasitic bipolar action in bulk
                                                                                                MOSFET. Thus, it is correct to assume that GIDL current
                            I                   \ -                 I                           remains constant with respect to channel length.



                            I
                            I
                                        SUBSTRATE
                                                                    I
                                                                    I



                 Fig.: Schematic of current flow in a SO1 MOSFET
                                under GIDL bias

               3. GIDL in SO1 MOSFET
               The origin of GIDL remains identical even in the case of
               SO1 MOSFETs [SI as in the case of bulk MOSFETs. The
               front channel in the device is kept in off state or in
               accumulation. Fig. 3 shows the schematic diagram of current
               flow in an SO1 n-channel MOSFET in GIDL mode with the
               front channel tumed off. The high electric field in the gate-                                   Fin. 4: GIDL curre%yor bulk MOSFET with
               drain overlap region causes electron tunneling fiom valence                                               GIDL bias of VG= -1 .O V
               band to conduction band. The electrons, as in the case of
               bulk device, move out from the drain. However, the holes,
               unlike in bulk device, cannot flow out to the substrate due to                           1.41
                                                                                                                 -V,=          - 0.50 V
                                                                                                                 -v,=-             1.oov
               the buried oxide present. As a result, the holes flow to the                             1E-5
               floating body and forward bias the source-body junction.
               This junction is the emitter-base junction of the parasitic                              1E-6

               BJT. The GIDL current, thus, serves as the base current for                              1E-7 -
               the lateral bipolar transistor as shown in Fig. 3. This GIDL                      h


               which is independent of the channel length, is amplified by                       9      1E-8-
                                                                                                 - 0

               the gain of the lateral BJT. The resultant current at the drain                          lE-9-
               is thus given as:                                                                       1E-10

                                                                                                       1E-11
                                                                                    (3)

               where p is the gain of the lateral BJT                                                            0.0
                                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                                         0.5
                                                                                                                               .     I
                                                                                                                                    1.0
                                                                                                                                          -     I
                                                                                                                                               1.5
                                                                                                                                                     '    I
                                                                                                                                                         2.0
                                                                                                                                                               '   1
                                                                                                                                                                   2.5
                                                                                                                                                                         .   I
                                                                                                                                                                             3.0

                                                                                                                                              VJV,
               The current gain of the lateral BJT increases as the base
               width decreases. Therefore, for short channel devices, p is                               Fig. 5: GIDL current variation with Gate Voltage




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                  5. Effect of variation of VGon GIDL                                                   7. P'osults obtained for LAC SO1 MOSFET
                  Fig 5 shows the variation of GIDL current with change in                              F,b. 7 shows the output characteristics of uniform SO1
                  applied gate voltage. As the applied gate voltage VG                                  MOlSFET and LAC SO1 MOSFET. The kink effect in the
                  increases, the vertical field in the gate-drain overlap region                        case of LAC SO1 MOSFET is exhibited at higher drain
                  increases. This leads to an increase in the Band-to-Band                              voltages depicting a suppression of floating body effects in
                  tunnelling current. Since the base current increases, the                             these devices.
                  resultant off-state leakage current also increases. The results
                  have been plotted for a Uniform SO1 MOSFET. Similar
                  trends were noted for bulk and LAC SO1 MOSFET also.

                  6. Results Obtained for Uniform SO1 MOSFET
                  GIDL experiments were performed to measure the lateral
                  parasitic bipolar gain present in the Uniform SO1 MOSFET.
                  The devices used had channel lengths 10 pm, .5 pm, 1 pm
                  and 0.25 pm. The gate oxide thickness was 3.9 nm and the
                  channel width was 20 pm. A GIDL bias of -1.0 Volt was
                  applied and drain voltage was swept from 0 to 3 Volts. The
                  drain currents measured for different channel lengths are
                  shown in fig. 6. As the channel length decreases, the off-
                                                                                                                        0.0               0.5                1 .o          1.5
                  state leakage current increases. For devices of lengths 10 pm                                                                 vDS    (v)
                  and 5 pm, currents are low due to an absence of lateral BJT
                  gain p. As the channel length decreases, the base width of                                       Fig. 7: Output Characteristics of LAC and
                  the lateral parasitic bipolar transistor also decreases. Hence,                                           Uniform SO1 MOSFETs
                  the GIDL current is amplified and is higher than that for
                  long-channel devices. This can be seen for devices of lengths                         In order to determine the efficacy of LAC SO1 in reducing
                                                                                                        the parasitic bipolar action, GIDL measurements were also
                  1 pm and 0.25 pm in which currents are high due to the
                  presence of amplification factor. Comparing the devices of                            performed on them. The devices used had channel lengths 10
                                                                                                        pm, 5 pm, 1 pm and 0.25 pm. GIDL bias of -1.0 Volt was
                  lengths 10 pm and 0.25 pm, we see that for low VD, the
                                                                                                        appllied and drain voltage was swept from 0 to 3 Volts. Fig 8
                  currents are equal. This is because p is very small at very
                                                                                                        shows the off-state leakage current trends in LAC SOL
                  low collector current levels. The current gain p increases                            Lateral parasitic bipolar gain was calculated using equation
                  with increasing collector current level. The value of p is                            (3). The value of p for L= 0.25 pm device is 5.6 and for the
                  obtained using equation (3), assuming that IGrDLis constant
                                                                                                        L=l pm device, it is equal to 2.0. This measured value of p
                  with respect to channel length. This was proved in the earlier
                                                                                                        is llower than that of uniform SO1 MOSFET. As the length of
                  section using the GIDL currents present in bulk MOSFETs.
                                                                                                        the device decreases, the effectiveness of lateral asymmetric
                  For VD = 2.7.5 Volts, the value of p is 28.75 for L = 0.25 pm                         channel doping increases. It thus shows that the LAC SO1
                  device and for L= 1 pm device, p is 1.52. Thus, the value of                          MOSFET shows immense promise towards reduction of p of
                  p increases with decrease in channel length and the resultant                         the lateral bipolar transistor and in minimisation of floating
                  enhancement of off-state gate-induced-drain-leakage current                           body effects.
                  becomes significant for short-channel SO1 MOSFETs.

                                 4
                          1E-5

                                      -     L = 0.25 pm
                                      4 - L = 1 pm
                                                                                                               1E-5

                                                                                                               1E-6 1         -       L = 0.25pm

                          1E-7,       --L=5pn
                                      -L=       10pm
                                                                                                               1E-7 ;         --L         = 5pm
                          1E-81                                                                                               -L=          10pm
                                                                                                         e
                                                                                                         .     1E-8 7

                          1E-9 -
                                                                                                         9
                                                                                                         -P    1E-9;

                         1E-107                                                                               1E-10,

                         1E-11                                                                                1E-11

                                                                                                              1,-121
                         1E-12-4             I    '    I    '    I    '    I    '    I    .
                                     0.0    0.5       1.0       1.5       2.0       2.5       2
                                                                                                                        0.0         0.5    1.0         1.5     2.0   2.5         3.0
                                                            VJV)
                                                                                                                                                       ,W
                                                                                                                                                      V(
                              Fip. 6: GIDL current enhancement in uniform                                     Fig. 8: Suppression of GIDL enhancement i LAC
                                                                                                                                                      n
                                       SO1 MOSFET for VG = - 1.O V                                                              SO1 MOSFET




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               This can be attributed to lower electric field in the gate-drain                  Channel Profile and Ge Pre-amorphization Salicide
               overlap region as compared to Uniform SO1 MOSFET. Fig.                            Technology”, Proceedings of the IEEE SOI Conference,
               9 shows the electric field variation along the channel for                        October 5-8, Stuart, Florida, USA, 1998
               uniform and LAC SO1 MOSFETs. The peak transverse                               [3] B.Cheng, A.Inani, V.Ramgopa1 Rao, and J.C.S.Woo,
               electric field for LAC SO1 MOSFET is lower, indicating a                          “Channel Engineering for High Speed Sub-1.O V Power
               wider drain depletion region (due to the lower doping near                          Supply Deep Sub-Micron CMOS”, Technical Digest,
               the drain side of the channel). This results in reduced Band-                       1999 Symposium on VLSI Technology, June 14-19,
               to-Band tunnelling and thus lower hole production. Since p                          Kyoto, Japan
               is a function of current and the current levels are lower in                   [4] B.Cheng, V. Ramgopal Rao, B.Ikegami, and J.C.S.Woo,
               LAC SOI, the value of p in LAC SO1 is less compared to                             “Realization of sub 100 nm asymmetric Channel
               uniform SOL At high drain voltages, where impact                                     MOSFETs with Excellent Short-Channel Performance
               ionization comes into play, the asymmetric doping profile                            And Reliability“ Technical Digest, 28 th European
               offers lower field near drain in the case of LAC which thus                          Solid-State Device Research Conference (ESSDERC),
               leads to suppression of floating body effects in LAC SOI.                            Bordeaux, France, 1998
                                                                                              [5] T. Y. Chan, J. Chen, P. K. KO, and C. Hu, “The impact of




                        2t
                                                                                                  gate-induced-drain-leakage on MOSFET scaling”,
                                                                                                  IEDMTech. Dig.,    Dec. 1987, p. 718.
                                 -LAC1: Tilt=lOO                                              [6] S. M. Sze, “Physics of Semiconductor Devices“, 2nd ed.,




                .


                E
                W
                3
                 0
                 3



                 a,
                        1
                                      CON



                                                                n                                 New York: Wiley, 1981.
                                                                                              [7] T. Wang, T. Chang, L. Chiang, C. Wang, N. Zous, and
                                                                                                  C. Huang, “Investigation of Oxide Charge Trapping and
                                                                                                  Detrapping in a MOSFET by Using a GIDL Current
                                                                                                  Technique”, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 45,
                                                                                                   pp. 1511-1517, 1998.
                                                                                              [SI J. Chen, F. Assaderaghi, P. -K. KO, and C. Hu, “The
                                                                                                  enhancement of Gate-Induced-Drain-Leakage current in
                Y;                                                                                short-channel SO1 MOSFET and its application in
                 c?
                el                                                                                measuring lateral bipolar current gain p”, IEEE Electron
                        0                                                                         Device Lett., vol. 13, pp. 572-574, 1992.
                         -0.1       -0.05            0           0.05           0.1
                                          Lateral Position (pm)

                      Fig. 9: Electric field variation along the channel for
                                Uniform and LAC SO1 MOSFETs


               8. Conclusions
               The enhancement of off-state gate-induced drain leakage
               current is significant for short-channel SO1 MOSFETs. The
               parasitic bipolar current gain values for uniform and LAC
               SO1 MOSFETs have been experimentally evaluated using
               GIDL current technique. LAC SO1 MOSFETs have been
               shown to give rise to reduced floating body effects as a
               result of lower channel doping near the drain region. The
               extracted parasitic bipolar gain values are an order of
               magnitude lower for the LAC SO1 MOSFETs.

               Acknowledgements: Authors wish to acknowledge
               Baohong Cheng and Jason Woo of the University of
               California, Los Angeles for providing the samples used in
               these experiments.

               References
               [ 11 J. -Y. Choi, and J. G. Fossum, “Analysis and Control
                    of Floating-body Bipolar Effects in Fully Depleted
                    Submicrometer SO1 MOSFETs”, IEEE Trans.
                    Electron Devices, vol. 38, pp. 1384-139‘1, 1991.
               [2] B. Cheng, V. Ramgopal Rao, and J. C. S. Woo, “Sub
                    0.18 um SO1 MOSFETs Using Lateral Asymmetric




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