STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN GANGA BASIN by qdk21196

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									STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN
            GANGA BASIN




  CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD
STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN
            GANGA BASIN




  CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD
        ‘Parivesh Bhawan, East Arjun Nagar
                  Delhi-110032.
                            CONTENTS

                            CHAPTER I
                            INTRODUCTION

1.1      DOMESTIC WASTEWATER
1.2     NATIONAL STATUS OF WASTEWATER GENERATION AND
         TREATMENT
1.3     THE GANGA BASIN
                            CHAPTER II
STATUS OF SEWAGE GENERATION AND TREATMENT IN THE GANGA BASIN

2.1     URBAN CENTRES AND STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT
2.2     YAMUNA ACTION PLAN AND SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN DELHI,
        HARYANA AND UTTAR PRADESH

                              CHAPTER III
        OPERATIONAL STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

3.1     INSPECTION AND MONITORING OF STP’S
3.2     OPERATION & MAINTENANCE OF STP’s

                           CHAPTER IV
        TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

4.1     TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY ADOPTED UNDER GANGA ACTION PLAN.
4.2     DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER
4.3     OPERATIONAL STATUS OF STP’S
4.4     PERFORMANCE OF STP’S
4.5     EXPENDITURE TOWARDS OPERATION & MAINTENANCE( O&M)
4.6     STATE WISE SPECIFIC OBSERVATIONS
4.6.1   UTTARANCHAL
4.6.2   UTTAR PRADESH
4.6.3   BIHAR
4.6.4   WEST BENGAL

                            CHAPTER V
                 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     CONCLUSION
5.2     RECOMMENDATIONS
                        LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1   DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER IN GANGA BASIN, FROM CLASS-I
            CITIES AND CLASS-II TOWNS
Table 2.2   WASTEWATER GENERATION IN           TOWNS ALONG THE
            TRIBUTARIES OF GANGA
Table 2.3   SUMMARY OF SEWAGE GENERATION TREATMENT AND
            DISPOSAL IN THE GANGA BASIN
Table 2.4   STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT IN DELHI (TOTAL
            CAPACITY VS ACTUAL FLOW)
Table 2.5   SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT CAPACITY UNDER YAMUNA
            ACTION PLAN IN HARYANA, DELHI AND UTTAR PRADESH.
Table 3.1   DESIGN CAPACITY AND PROCESS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT
            PLANTS IN THE STATE OF UTTARANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH,
            BIHAR & WEST BENGAL
Table 4.1   TREATMENT SYSTEMS UNDER GAP PHASE-I IN UTTRANCHAL,
            UTTAR PRADESH, BIHAR AND WEST BENGAL
Table 4.2   DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER FROM THE TOWNS COVERED
            UNDER GANGA ACTION PLAN IN UTTRANCHAL, UTTAR
            PRADESH, BIHAR & WEST BENGAL.
Table 4.3   PERFORMANCE OF STPS UNDER GANGA ACTION PLAN IN
            UTTRANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH,BIHAR AND WEST BENGAL
Table 4.4   PERCENT (%) REDUCTION OF BOD,COD AND TSS IN EACH STP
            IN UTTRANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH, BIHAR & WEST BENGAL.
Table 4.5   EXPENDITURE FOR O&M OF STPS IN UTTARANCHAL, UTTAR
            PRADESH,BIHAR & WEST BENGAL

                       LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1    STATUS OF STP’S LOCATED IN GANGA BASIN
Figure 2    DECADAL GROWTH OF WASTEWATER GENERATION AND
            TREATMENT JOINING AMUNA RIVER
                                    FOREWORD


The Ganga is the largest and the most important river of India. The 2,525 kilometres
long river carries off the drainage of a vast basin area 861,404 kilometres covering
26.2 percent area of India’s total geographical area. The watershed of the river
Ganga spreads over ten States of India, namely Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,
Jharkhand, West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh
and Delhi.

Discharge of untreated sewage from urban centres is a major cause of river water
quality degradation. Since local authorities are not able to cope with the problem due
to paucity of resources, Govt. of India came forward and launched a programme for
cleaning the river Ganga, called Ganga Action Plan.

In Ganga Action Plan Phase-1,35 Sewage Treatment Plant’s were planned ( 3
STP’s in Uttaranchal, 10 STP’s in Uttar Pradesh, 7 STP’s in Bihar, and 15 STP’s in
West Bengal). Among them, 32 are commissioned and 29 were found functioning.
The sewage treatment plants found under loaded are Jajmau-Kanpur, DLW-
Varanasi, Naini-Allahabad whereas over loaded plants are Dinapur and Bhagwanpur
at Varanasi. The sewage treatment plants need upgradation are Swargashram-
Rishikesh, Kankhal-Haridwar, Jajmau - Kanpur, Bhatpara-E, Titagarh and Panihati
in West Bengal.

In the present report an attempt is also made to identify the gap in wastewater
generation and treatment in the entire Ganga basin. The total wastewater generation
from 222 towns in Ganga basin is 8250 MLD, out of which 2538 MLD is directly
discharged into the Ganga River, 4491 MLD disposed into tributaries of river Ganga
and 1220 MLD is disposed on land or low lying areas.

We hope the findings of the study will be useful to all concerned with the wastewater
management and water quality improvement programmes for rivers in India.




                                                                        (Dilip Biswas)
                                                                             Chairman
                                     CONTRIBUTION


Planning and Coordination              Dr.B.Sengupta, Member Secretary
and Report Preparation                 Dr.R.C.Trivedi,Additional Director
                                       Mr. R.M. Bhardwaj, Sc.C

Inspection and Monitoring of STP’s     Mr. R.M.Bhardwaj,Sc.’C’
                                       Mr. N.C. Durgapal, Sc. C
                                       Mr. B.P. Shukla,SEE
                                       Mr. B.R. Naidu,SEE
                                       Ms. Mita Sharma,SEE
                                       Ms. Kokil Mehrotra,JRF

Report Typing and Graphics             Shri Satish Changra, UDC
                                       Shri Suresh Sharma,DEO
                                       CHAPTER I

                                   INTRODUCTION

1.1   DOMESTIC WASTEWATER

      Urban centers are discharging wastewater in the water bodies and for
      irrigation in the agriculture fields. In the early stages of human history,
      wastewater discharges did not pose problem to water bodies as the nature
      had the capacity and the system to degrade wastes and restore normal
      condition. Nature still does, but with the advent of urbanization,
      industrialization and resultant concentrated massive wastewater discharges,
      the aquatic systems are overloaded. The major source of organic pollution in
      fresh water bodies is sewage. In India, all the cities and towns did not have
      sewage treatment facilities. Untreated or improperly treated human wastes
      disposed into aquatic resources from where the downstream city’s water
      requirements are drawn, constitute a big public health hazard in terms of their
      potential for spreading water borne diseases.

1.2        NATIONAL STATUS OF              WASTEWATER GENERATION AND
TREATMENT
    The total wastewater generated by the 299 class I cities is 16,662 Mld
    approximately 81% of the water supplied. The state of Maharashtra alone
    contributes about 23%, while Ganga river basin contributes about 31% of the
    waste generated. Only 74% of the total wastewater generated is collected. Out
    of 299 class I cities 160 cities have sewerage coverage for more than 75% of
    the population and 92 cities have between 50 and 75% of population coverage.
    On the whole 70% of the population of class I cities are provided with sewerage
    facility. The type of sewerage system is either open or closed or piped.

      As per the latest estimate out of 22,900 Mld of wastewater generated, only
      about 5900 Mld (26%) is treated before letting out, the rest i.e., 17000 Mld is
      disposed of untreated. Twenty-seven cities have only primary treatment
      facilities and forty-nine have primary and secondary treatment facilities. The
      level of treatment available in cities with existing treatment plant varies from
      2.5% to 89% of the sewage generated.

1.3   THE GANGA BASIN

      The Ganga is the largest and the most important river of India. The 2525
      kilometer long river carries off the drainage of a vast basin bounded by the
      snow peaks of the Himalaya on the north, and the Peninsular uplands and
      the Vindhya range on the south.The Ganga basin encompasses an area of
      1,060,000 (one million sixty thousand) square kilometers spread over four
      countries: India, Nepal, Bangladesh and China. The catchment area of the
      river Ganga in India is 861,404, covering 26.2 percent area of India’s total
    geographical area. The watershed of river Ganga spread over ten States of
    India, namely: Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal,
    Himachal Pradesh,Rajasthan,Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Delhi.
.
    The main river, rising in the northern most part of Uttranchal, flows through
    Uttranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal and finally falls into the
    Bay of Bengal. The Ganga Basin is bound on the north by the Himalayas and
    on the south by the Vindhyas. The ridge between the Indus system and the
    Ganga system, the Great desert of Rajasthan and the Aravalli hills form the
    boundary on the west. After traversing a length of 1450 km in U.P. and 110
    km in the boundary between U.P. and Bihar, the river enters Bihar and flows
    for 445 km, more or less through the middle of the State. The length of the
    river (measured along the Bhagirathi and the Hugli during its course in West
    Bengal is about 520 km.

    The Ganga has a large number of tributaries.Some of these are of Himalayan
    origin and have considerable large flow. The important tributaries within India,
    are the Kali, the Ramganga, the Yamuna, the Gomti, the Ghaghara, the
    Gandak and the Kosi. The Yamuna although a tributary of the Ganga, is
    virtually a river by itself and its major tributaries are the Chambal, the Sind,
    the Betwa and the Ken. The main plateau tributaries of the Ganga are the
    Tons, the Sone, the Damodar and the Kasai-Haldi.

    It served as the cradle of the Indian civilization. The river houses the towns
    like Rishikesh, Haridwar, Garhmukteswar, Kannauj, Allahabad, Mirzapur,
    Varanasi and Nabadwip, that are important pilgrim centers with a very large
    number of people taking dips in the river. In fact, all along the course of the
    Ganga, from its source at Gaumukh to its mouth at Sagar Island is
    considered holy and millions of people take bath in it every day to purge away
    the sins. The rich soils of the basin provide the home of more than one third
    of Indian Population.
                                         CHAPTER II

        STATUS OF SEWAGE GENERATION AND TREATMENT IN THE
                          GANGA BASIN


2.1     URBAN CENTRES AND STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT

        Urban population consisting of Class I Cities and Class II Towns in the Ganga
        basin is 57 million (as per 1991) which is projected to be over 72 million in
        2002. There are 101 Class I cities and 122 Class II towns in the basin. The
        recent survey of Class I and Class II cities indicated that about 8250 mld of
        wastewater is generated in the Ganga basin out of which treatment facilities
        are available only for 3500 mld of wastewater . Out of 3500 mld treatment
        capacity,880 mld is created under the Ganga Action Plan, 720 mld under the
        Yamuna Action Plan and about 2189 mld is created by Govt. of Delhi for
        restoration of water quality of river Yamuna. The treatment facilities at 48
        additional towns along the Ganga and 23 towns on its tributaries/sub-
        tributaries are

          Table 2.1 : DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER IN GANGA BASIN, FROM
                     CLASS-I CITIES AND CLASS-II TOWNS

State               Amount of        Amount of            Amount of      Total
                    Wastewater       wastewater           wastewater     wastewater
                    directly         discharged into      discharged     (mld)
                    discharged       the tributaries      on land/low    disposal in
                    into the         or sub-              lying areas    Ganga
                    Ganga from       tributaries of the   from class I   Basin
                    class I cities   Ganga from           cities and
                    & class II       class I cities and   class II
                    towns (mld)      class II towns       towns (mld)
                                     (mld)
Bihar               412.1            171.5                87.8           671.4
Jharkhand           -                119.6                11.6           131.2
Haryana             -                136.9                72.6           209.5
Madhya Pradesh      -                503.0                123.5          626.5
Rajasthan           -                210.7                249.6          460.3
Uttar Pradesh       653.8            881.6                225.8          1761.2
Uttaranchal         42.5             24.0                 46.9           113.4
West Bengal         1429.2           93.6                 52.5           1575.3
Delhi               -                2350.0               350.0          2700.0
Total               2537.6           4490.9               1220.3         8248.8
      being created under Ganga Action Plan Phase-II and National River Action
      Plan. It is expected that after completion of these plans, an additional
      capacity of about 1500 mld will be created. However, still there will be a large
      gap between the wastewater generation ( 8250 mld) and treatment capacity (
      3500 mld) (table 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3).

       Table 2.2 : WASTEWATER GENERATION IN TOWNS ALONG THE
                         TRIBUTARIES OF GANGA

Tributary           Towns                      State           Wastewater
                                                               Generation (mld)
A) Betwa               4 Bhopal                MP              189.3
                       5 Mandideep             MP              -
                       6 Vidisha               MP              8.6

                        1.Kesharaipatan        Rajasthan       -
B) Chambal
                        2.Kota                 Rajasthan       112
                        3.Nagda                MP                10

C) Damodar              1.Andal                West Bengal     -
                        2.Asansol              West Bengal     22.6
                        3.Bokaro-Kargali       Jharkhand       56.3
                        4.Chicunda             Jharkhand       -
                        5.Dugdha               Jharkhand       -
                        6.Durgapur             West Bengal     29.7
                        7.Jharia               Jharkhand       -
                        8.Ramgarh              Jharkhand       5.8
                        9.Raniganj             West Bengal     5.4
                       10.Sindri               Jharkhand       -
                       11.Sudamdin             Jharkhand       -
                       12.Telumoncbu           Jharkhand       -

D) Gomti                1.Jaupur               UP              18.2
                        2.Lucknow              UP              106.0
                        3.Sultanpur            UP              9.7

E) Khan                 1.Indore               UP              145.0
F) Kshipra              2.Ujjain               UP               27.0


      Total            23 towns                                745.6
Table 2.3: SUMMARY OF SEWAGE GENERATION TREATMENT AND
           DISPOSAL IN THE GANGA BASIN
                        (i)SEWAGE GENERATION
1.Total number of towns generating significant amount of             222
  sewage ( class I cities and class II towns )
2.Sewage generation from 222 towns                                 8250 mld
3.Sewage directly disposed into the Ganga river                    2538 mld
4.Sewage disposed into tributaries of the Ganga                    4491 mld
5.Sewage disposed on land or low lying areas                        1220 mld


                                 (ii)SEWAGE TREATMENT
1.Sewage Treatment capacity created under Ganga Action                882 mld
 Plan Phase-I
2.Sewage treatment capacity created along the Yamuna                 2631 mld
3.Additional towns (48 towns) where sewage treatment capacity is     (600 mld)
  being created under GAP Phase-II
4. Number of towns where sewage treatment capacity is being          (750 mld)
  created on tributaries of the Ganga


       The Ganga river basin report indicated that Uttar Pradesh contributed the
       major share of more than 55% of the total urban industrial pollution load to
       the basin.

2.2    YAMUNA ACTION PLAN AND SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN DELHI,
       HARYANA AND UTTAR PRADESH
                        Delhi generates about 3600 mld of wastewater. Out of which treatment facility
                        is available for only 2109 mld. Plant-wise sewage treatment capacity is
                        provided in Table 2.4. It is observed that there is continuous efforts by the
                        Govt. Of National Capital Territory of Delhi to augment the treatment capacity.
                        However, the exponential population growth is nullifying the results. Following
                        figure present the decadal growth of sewage generation and its treatment.
                        Figure 2 indicates that the gap is continuously widening inspite of the efforts
                        of the authorities and monitoring of the Hon’ble Supreme Court.
                                 FIGURE 2 : DECADAL GROWTH OF WASTEWATER
                               GENERATION AND TREATMENT JOINING YAMUNA RIVER
                        5000
Volume of Wastewater,




                        4000
                                                                          Untreated      2040
                        3000
                                                                          Treated
        mld




                        2000
                                                                            850
                        1000                                                             2300
                                                125            450
                                   50                                       1090
                                  310           475            630
                          0
                                  1961         1971            1981         1991         2001
                                                             YEAR

                        The Cities and Towns discharging municipal wastewater in the River Yamuna
                        in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh are taken up under Yamuna Action Plan.
                        There are 12 Towns in Haryana and 8 Towns in Uttar Pradesh considered for
                        setting up of sewage treatment plants.Two sewage treatment plants in Delhi
                        also constructed under this plan at Sen Nursing Home Drain and Delhi Gate
                        Drain with a design capacity of 10 Mld each. Under the plan 34 STP’s are
                        commissioned with a treatment capacity of 743.25 Mld.The deatails of STP’s
                        in each town, capacity and the type of sewage treatment plant is presented in
                        table 2.5.

                        Table 2.4: STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT IN DELHI (TOTAL
                                   CAPACITY VS ACTUAL FLOW)

                         Name            of           Total      Capacity       Actual Flow(Million
                         Sewage                       (Million litres per       litres per day )
                         Treatment Plant              day )
                         Mehrauli                     22.7                      Nil
                         Vasant Kunj                  22.7                      18.16
                         Okhla                        635                       684.00
                         Najafgarh                    22.7                      Nil
                         Papan Kalan                  90.8                      40.86
                         Kesho Pur                    327.5                     338.21
                         Nilothi                      181.6               Under Construction
                         Coronation Pillar            178                       123.57
                         Rohini                       68.1                Under Construction
 Narela                        45.4                      1.68
 Rithala                       363.2                     198.45
 Yamuna Vihar                  45.4                      32.08
 Kondli                        204.5                     133.4
 SenNursing                    10                        9.08
 Home
 DelhiGate                     10                        10.69
 Rajghat
 Nehru      Vihar              27.24                     8.1
 Oxidation Pond
 Total                         2254.84                   1598.28


Table 2.5: SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT CAPACITY UNDER YAMUNA
           ACTION PLAN IN HARYANA, DELHI AND UTTAR PRADESH

S.No                  Town             NO. OF STPs   CAPACITY      TYPE
                                                       (MLD)
       I        HARYANA
       1      Yamuna nagar               STP-I         10          UASB
                                         STP-II         25         UASB
       2      Karnal                     STP-I         40          UASB
                                         STP-II         8           OP
       3      Panipat                    STP-I         10          UASB
                                         STP-II         35         UASB
       4      Sonepat                    STP-I         30          UASB
       5      Gurgaon                    STP-I         30          UASB
       6      Faridabad                  STP-I         20          UASB
                                         STP-II         45         UASB
                                         STP-III       50          UASB
        7     Chhchhrauli                 STP           1           OP
        8     Gharaunda                   STP           3           OP
        9     Gohana                      STP          3.5          OP
       10     Indri                       STP          1.5          OP
       11     Palwaal                     STP           9           OP
       12     Radaur                      STP           1           OP
              Sub total :                  17          322
       II     DELHI
       13     Delhi                      STP-I          10          OP
                                         STP-II         10         OP
              Sub total :                  2            20
       III    UTTAR
              PRADESH
       14     Sharanpur                  STP            38         UASB
       15     Muzaffar Nagar             STP           32.5         OP
       16     Ghaziabad                  STP-I          70         UASB
                                                        3           KT
                                         STP-II         56         UASB
       17     Noida                      STP-I          34         UASB
                                         STP-II         27         UASB
                                         STP-III         9          OP
       18     Vrindavan                  STP-I           4          OP
                                         STP-II            0.5     OP
      19          Mathura                STP-I            14.5     OP
                                         STP-II           12.5     OP
      20          Agra                   STP-I             78     UASB
                                         STP-II            10      OP
                                         STP-III          2.25     OP
      21          Etawah                  STP              10      OP
                     Sub total :           15            401.25
                  GRAND TOTAL              34            743.25

BCT--> Bio-Chemical Technology, KT-->Karnal Technology
*---> Inculded in one I&D scheme of Vrindavan
UASB--> Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket
OP--->Oxidation Pond
                                       Chapter III

      OPERATIONAL STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

3.1      INSPECTION AND MONITORING OF STP’S

         Inspection and monitoring of STP’s carried out during May and June 2001,
         jointly by CPCB and respective State Pollution Control Board for the 35
         sewage treatment plants in Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Bihar and West
         Bengal. A list of 35 STP’s indicating the Design capacity and process of
         sewage treatment plants in the State of Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar &
         West Bengal is given in Table 3.1. The location of STP’s is indicated in figure
         1.

Table 3.1: DESIGN CAPACITY AND PROCESS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT
           PLANTS IN THE STATE OF UTTARANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH,
           BIHAR & WEST BENGAL

Sl.No.      STP Town               STP         STP Capacity      STP
                                   Capacity    New    Plant      Commissioned/
                                   Old Plant   (MLD)             not
                                   (MLD)                         commissioned
UTTARANCHAL
1.     Swargashram-                -           0.33 RBRC         Commissioned
       Rishikesh
2.     Lakkar       Ghat,          -           6.00 OP           Commissioned
       Rishikesh
3.     Kankhal- Hardwar            -           18 ASP            Commissioned
UTTAR PRADESH
1.     Farukhabad                  -           3.96 OP           Commissioned
2.     Kanpur-Jajmau               -           36 UASB           Commissioned
3.     Kanpur-Jajmau               -           130 ASP           Commissioned
4.     Kanpur-Jajmau-              -           5 UASB            Commissioned
       CETP
5.     Chorme Recovery             -           0.0045            Commissioned
       Plant
6.          Allahabad              -           60 ASP            Commissioned
7.          Mirzapur               -           14 UASB           Commissioned
8.          Varanasi-Bhagwanpur    1.2TF       8 ASP             Commissioned
9.          Varanasi Dinapur       -           80 ASP            Commissioned
10.         Varanasi-SPT-DLW       -           12 ASP            Commissioned
BIHAR
1.          Chapra                             2 OP              Commissioned
2.          Patna, Eastern Zone                4 OP              Not
                                                                 Commissioned
3.       Patna- Saidpur         28 ASP       17 ASP            Commissioned
4.       Patna- Beur            20 ASP       15 ASP            Commissioned
5.       Patna-Sourther Zone    -            25 AL             Commissioned
6.       Munger                 -            13.50 AL          Not
                                                               Commissioned
7.      Bhagalpur               -            11 AL             Commissioned
West Bengal
1.      Garden Reach            -            47 ASP            Commissioned
2.      South Suburban (E)      -            30 OP             Not
                                                               Commissioned
3.       Cossipore- Chitpur (                45 ASP            Commissioned
         Bangur)
4.       Bhatpara,E             -            10 OP             Commissioned
5.       Bhatpara,B             8.5 ASP      10 ASP            Commissioned
                                4.5 ASP
6.       Titagarh               4.5 OP       14 OP             Commissioned
                                4.5 ASP
7.       Panihati               -            12 OP             Commissioned
8.       Baranagar-Kamarhati    -            40 TF             Commissioned
9.       Serampore                           18.90 TF          Commissioned
10.      Kalyani                11 TF        6 OP              Commissioned
11.      Behrampore             -            4 OP              Commissioned
12.      Howrah                 45 TF        -                 Commissioned
13.      Nabadwip               -            4.0P              Commissioned
14.      Chandannagore          4.54 OP      18.16 TF          Commissioned
15.      North Howrah- Kona     -            30 OP             Commissioned
         (Bally)

      Note:- RBRC :          Rotating Biological Rope Contractor
               OP :          Oxidation pond
              ASP :          Activated sludge process
             UASB :          Up flow anerobic sludge blanket
                AL :         Aerated lagoon
                TF : Trickling Filter

3.2   OPERATION & MAINTENANCE OF STP’s

      The operation and maintenance of STP’s are being done by Uttar Pradesh
      Jal Nigam in Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh, by Bihar Rajya Jal Parishad in
      Bihar and by three agencies viz. Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority
      (CMDA), Calcutta Municipal Water and Sanitation Authority (CMWSA) and
      Public Health Engineering Department (PHED) in West Bengal.

      In compliance to Hon,ble Supreme Court’s direction in the matter of Writ
      Petition(Civil) No.3727/85, MC Mehta V/S UOI & others, CPCB carried out a
      detailed inspection of STPs including performance studies. The findings of
      the study are presented in chapter IV.
                                  Chapter IV

      TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

4.1   TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY ADOPTED UNDER GANGA ACTION PLAN.

      The STP’s were either renovated or constructed to treat the domestic sewage
      by adopting treatment technologies such as low cost waste stabilisation
      ponds, conventional Activated Sludge Process (ASP) Trickling Filter (TF)
      and Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) treatment systems. The
      details are provided in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1 TREATMENT SYSTEMS UNDER GAP PHASE- I IN UTTRANCHAL,
          UTTAR PRADESH, BIHAR AND WEST BENGAL

Sl.No. Treatment          Total         Total       Names of towns
       System             Nos.       Capacity of
                                     STP (MLD)
1.     Oxidation Pond     11        134.04          UTTARANCHAL (1)
                                                    Lakkar Ghat- Rishikesh
                                                    UTTAR PRADESH(1)
                                                    Farukhabad,
                                                    BIHAR (2)
                                                    Chapra, Patna Eastern Zone
                                                    WEST BENGAL (9)
                                                    South,Suburban, Bhatpara,
                                                    Titagarh (2), Panihati, Bally,
                                                    Kalyani,        Bahrampore,
                                                    Nabadwip
2.     Activated          12        507.5           UTTARANCHAL (1)
       Sludge Process                               Kankhal-Hardwar
                                                    UTTAR PRADESH(5)
                                                    Kanpur,Alllahabad, Varanasi-
                                                    BHU, Varanasi Dinapur &
                                                    Varanasi SPT-DLW
                                                    BIHAR (2)
                                                    Patna - Saidpur,Patna, Beur
                                                    WEST BENGAL (4)
                                                    Garden Reach, Cossipore-
                                                    Chitpur (Bangur), BhatparaB,
                                                    Titagarh
3.     Trickling Filter   5         134.26          West Bengal (5)
                                                    Baranagar-Kamarhatti,
                                                    Kalyani, Serampore, Howrah,
                                                           Chandannagore
4.        RBRC                1          0.33              UTTARANCHAL (1)
                                                           Swargashram- Rishikesh
5.        UASB                3          55                UTTAR PRADESH (3)
                                                           Kanpur(2),Mirzapur
6.        Aerated Lagoon      3          49.5              BIHAR(3)
                                                           Patna-    Sourthern  Zone,
                                                           Munger,Bhagalpur
Note:-         RBRC :      Rotating Biological Rope Contractor
               OP     :    Oxidation pond
               ASP :       Activated sludge process
               UASB :      Up flow anaerobic sludge blanket
               AL   :     Aerated lagoon
               TF   :     Trickling Filter

4.2      DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER

         It was observed that in most cases a sizeable volume of the treated effluent
         was being disposed into the river Ganga. The Table 4.2 provides a
         comprehensive picture of the mode of disposal of the final treated effluent
         from the STPs. As revealed from the Table there are instances when a
         significant volume was being utilised for either irrigation or for pisciculture.
         The STPs under GAP were set up to treat domestic sewage from the Class I
         towns. Most of the industrial units in these towns are discharging their waste
         water after necessary treatment through sewer lines leading to STPs.

Table 4.2 DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER FROM THE TOWNS COVERED
          UNDER GANGA ACTION PLAN IN UTTRANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH,
          BIHAR & WEST BENGAL.

Sl.No      STP Town                             Mode of Wastewater disposal
.
UTTARANCHAL
1      Rishikesh                                Irrigation, river Song, River Ganga
2.     Hardwar                                  Irrigation river Ganga
UTTAR PRADESH
1.     Farukhabad                               Irrigation, river Ganga
2.     Kanpur                                   Irrigation, River Ganga, river Pandu
                                                through Sisamau drain
3.         Allahabad                            Irrigation in Naini and Dandi farm,
                                                river Ganga
4.         Mirzapur                             Irrigation,river Ganga through Ghode
                                                Sahid Nallah.
5.         Varanasi                             Irrigation, river Ganga through Assi
                                                Nallah
BIHAR
1.    Chapra                            Irrigation, river Ganga
2.    Patna                             Irrigation, river Punpun, river Ganga
3.    Munger                            Irrigation, river Ganga
4.    Bhagalpur                         Irrigation, river Ganga
WEST BENGAL
1.    Garden Reach                      Via Monikhali Canal to Ganga
2.    South Suburban (E)                Discharged into the Churial Khal
                                        extension which leads to river
                                        Ganga, STP yet to be commissioned
3.       Cossipore-Chitpur (Bangur)     Disposed to Bagjola Canal which
                                        leads River ganga partly used in
                                        irrigation
4.       Bhatpara,E                     Discharged into the Muktapur
                                        Nikashi leads to river Ganga
5.       Bhatpara,B                     Discharged into the Bhatpara
                                        Nikashi which leads to river Ganga
6.       Titagarh                       River Ganga via Khardha Khal,
                                        irrigation
7.       Panihati                       Irrigation and piscicultre
8.       Baranagar- Kamarhati           River Ganga through Bagjola Canal
                                        and Udaypur Khal
9.       Serampore                      River Ganga, Pisciculture
10.      Kalyani                        Irrigation, river Ganga
11.      Behrampore                     River Ganga,
12.      Howrah                         River Ganga
13       Nabadwip                       River Ganga
14.      Chandannagore                  River Ganga through Garh
15.      North Howrah- Kona (Bally      Irrigation, river Ganga through
                                        Howrah drainage channel

4.3   OPERATIONAL STATUS OF STP’S

      The quality of raw and treated wastewater is presented in Table 4.3 for
      COD,BOD and total suspended solid with respect to individual STP’s for
      evaluation of their performance.

Table 4.3: PERFORMANCE OF STP’S UNDER GANGA ACTION PLAN IN
           UTTRANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH, BIHAR & WEST BENGAL.
Sl. State and STP Town      Raw Wastewater    Treated Wastewater
No.                              mg/l                mg/l
                                COD   BOD     TSS     COD      BOD     TSS
      Uttranchal
1.    Rishikesh - Munikireti    369   162     214     83       15      61
2.    Rishikesh-                676   357     317     319      133     125
        Swargashram-
3.      Hardwar- Kankhal             323     131     278     ---       66     147
        Uttar Pradesh
1.      Farukhabad                   278     60       121    120       17     71
2.      Kanpur-Jajmau-UASB           967     173      1424   171       28     46
3.      Kanpur-Jajmau-CETP           1110 331         1083   471       105    78
4.      Kanpur-Jajmau-ASP            463     121      483    117       54     40
5.      Kanpur-Chrome                Not in operation
        recovery Plant
6.      Allahabad- Naini             239     60      231     122       17     91
7.      Mirzapur                     302     111     316     84        25     44
8.      Varanasi-Dinapur             275     120     304     94        28     72
9.      Varanasi- Bhagwanpur         147     42      132     53        19     43
10      Varanasi- DLW                90      28      86      40        10.5   60
Bihar
1.   Chapra                          Sewage is not reaching to STP
2.   Patna-Saidpur                   Does not operate continuously, power problem
3.   Patna-Beur                      Does not operate continuously, power problem
4.   Patna-Pahari                    Does not operate
5.   Patna- Karmalichak              Plant under construction
     (Eastern Zone)
6.   Munger                          Plant under construction
7.   Bhagalpur                       Does not operate continuously, power problem
West Bengal
1.   Garden Reach                    86     78       80       30       22     20
2.   South Suburban(E)               The Plant is under construction
3.   Cossipore-Chitpur               161    99       187      40       23     15
4.   Bhatpara,E                      485    245      248      112      58     30
5.   Bhatpara,B-1                    174    94       199      56       28     52
5(a) Bhatpara,B-2                    89     21       27       19       8      27
6.   Titagarh (ASP)                  315    123      -        112      43     -
6(a) Titagarh( OP)                   -      -        -        108      37     -
6(b) Titagarh (Bandipur)             304    109      -        28       12     -
7    Panihati (Natagarh)             70     43       78       147      59     51
8    Baranagar Kamarhati             100    46       129      46       21     19
9    Serampore                       106    63       70       34.2     10     12
10   Kalyani                         211    147      229      40       11     62
11   Behrampore                      56     24       53       46       18     52
12   Howrah                          175    74       254      33       10     18
13   Nabadwip                        205    155      344      72       21     59
14   Chandannagore                   34     15       35       19       11     13
15   North Howrah-Kona               295    124      395      47       14     99
Note: BOD: Biochemical Oxygen Demand,
     COD : Chemical Oxygen Demand,
      TSS : Total Suspended Solids.
4.4     PERFORMANCE OF STP’S

        As part of the exercise in assessing the performance of the STPs the percent
        reduction in pollution load was computed and is presented in Table 4.4. In
        most of the STP’s the percent reduction in BOD, COD and TSS load was
        more than 60%.

Table 4.4 :  PERCENT (%) REDUCTION OF BOD,COD AND TSS IN EACH STP
             IN UTTRANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH, BIHAR & WEST BENGAL.
Sl.No. STP Town                Type       COD    BOD        TSS
       Uttranchal
1.     Rishikesh – Munikireti  OP         78     91         72
2.     Rishikesh- Swargashram- RBRC       53     63         61
3.     Hardwar- Kankhal        ASP        90     95         91
       Uttar Pradesh
1.     Farukhabad              OP         56.8   71.6       41.3
2.     Kanpur-Jajmau-UASB      UASB       82.3   83.8       96
3.     Kanpur-Jajmau-CETP      UASB       57.1   68.2       92.7
4.     Kanpur-Jajmau-ASP       ASP        74.7   55.3       91.7
5.     Kanpur-Chrome recovery  Not in operation
       Plant
6.     Allahabad- Naini        ASP        49     71         61
7.     Mirzapur                UASB       73     78         86
8.     Varanasi-Dinapur        ASP        66     77         76
9.     Varanasi- Bhagwanpur    ASP        64     55         67.5
10     Varanasi- DLW           ASP        56     64         30
Bihar
1.     Chapra                  Sewage is not reaching to STP
2.     Patna-Saidpur           Does not operate continuously, power
                               problem

3.       Patna-Beur                   Does not operate continuously, power
                                      problem
4.       Patna-Pahari                 Does not operate
5.       Patna- Karmalichak           Plant under construction
6.       Munger                       Does not operate
7.       Bhagalpur                    Does not operate continuously, power
                                      problem
West Bengal
1.     Garden Reach                   ASP       65       72          75
2.     South Suburban(E)              The Plant is under construction
3.     Cossipore-Chitpur              ASP       75       77          73
4.     Bhatpara,E                     OP        77       76          88
5.        Bhatpara,B-1                  ASP       68        70          74
5(a)      Bhatpara,B-2                  ASP       79        62          -
6.        Titagarh(Bandipur)            OP        79-91     81-89       62-92
6(a).     Titagarh                      OP&AS     64        65          75
6(b)      Titagarh                      P
7         Panihati (Natagarh)           OP        -         -           35
8         Baranagar Kamarhati           TF        74        54          85
9         Serampore                     TF        68         84     83
10        Kalyani                       TF&OP     77-92      71-82  71-75
11        Behrampore                    OP        STP not functioning, civil
                                                  structure failure
12        Howrah                        TF        81         86     93
13        Nabadwip                      OP        65         86     98
14        Chandannagore                 TF        44         27     63
15        North Howrah-Kona             OP        84         96     75

4.5      EXPENDITURE TOWARDS OPERATION & MAINTENANCE( O&M)

         As per the information provided by the agencies responsible for operation and
         maintenance of the STPs, the annual expenditure incurred for O&M is given
         in table 4.5.

Table 4.5 : EXPENDITURE FOR O&M OF STP’S IN UTTARANCHAL, UTTAR
            PRADESH, BIHAR & WEST BENGAL

Sl.No.     STP Town                 Fund            Fund allocation             ( Rs.in
                                    requirement (in lacs)
                                    lacs)
           Uttranchal
1.         Rishikesh - Munikireti   -                  133.76(Total amount for three
                                                       plants in Rishikesh and Hardwar
2.         Rishikesh-                                  -
           Swargashram-
3.         Hardwar- Kankhal                            -
           Uttar Pradesh
1.         Farukhabad                                  17.66
2.         Kanpur-Jajmau-UASB                          16.05
3.         Kanpur-Jajmau-CETP                          203.5
4.         Kanpur-Jajmau-ASP                           394.85
5.         Kanpur-Chrome                               -
           recovery Plant
6.         Allahabad- Naini                            229.038
7.         Mirzapur                                    141.54
8.         Varanasi-Dinapur                            174.95
9.         Varanasi- Bhagwanpur                        58.10
10         Varanasi- DLW                               6.5 ( Power chemical         etc
                                                       provided by DLW works.
         Bihar
1.       Chapra                  18.2              0.84( Plant not operation
2.       Patna-Saidpur           79.60             7.08
3.       Patna-Beur              125               11.04
4.       Patna-Pahari            78.15             43.3
5.       Patna- Karmalichak      under construction
6.       Munger                  under construction
7.       Bhagalpur               -                 16.2
         West Bengal
1.       Garden Reach            -                 23.80
2.       Cossipore-Chitpur       -                 29.80
3.       Bhatpara,E              -                 42.90
4.       Bhatpara,B              -                  6.35
5.       Titagarh(Bandipur)      -                 1.00
6.       Titagarh                -                 29.50
7        Panihati (Natagarh)     -                 1.00
8        Baranagar Kamarhati     -                 19.25
9.       Serampore               -                 25.90
10       Kalyani                 -                 46.80
11       Behrampore              -                 9.70
12       Howrah                  -                 23.25
13       Nabadwip                -                 33.80
14       Chandannagore           -                 12.70
15       North Howrah-Kona       -                 1.25

4.6    STATE WISE SPECIFIC OBSERVATIONS

       The state wise specific findings on the basis of inspection carried out are
       given in para 4.6.1 to 4.6.4 for Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West
       Bengal respectively. .

4.6.1 UTTARANCHAL

i)     All the 3 STPs were found operational. The plants are being managed by
       U.P. Jal Nigam.

ii)    The entire expenses for the operation and maintenance were borne by Govt.
       of U.P. the Govt. of Uttaranchal has agreed to bear the expenses for the
       same in future.

iii)   The performance of 2 out of 3 STPs at Uttranchal is satisfactory however the
       performance of 1 STP (Swargashram) is far below the expected norms. This
       can be improved by more sincere efforts in operation and maintenance. The
       Plant also needs up-gradation if it has to comply with the prescribed norms.
iv)    STPs did not obtain a consent from the State Pollution Control Board under
       Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 for discharging their
       wastewater in the environment.

v)     Revenue generation from the STPs is insignificant. This can be increased
       with efforts. However, this will be a small fraction of the total cost involved in
       the operation and maintenance, and thus the plants cannot become self
       sustaining. In case of privatization, probably the expenses can be reduced to
       a certain extent.

vi)    There are provision for stand by power through DG sets in case of power
       failure.

4.6.2 UTTAR PRADESH

i)     Out of the 9 plants established, 8 are sewage treatment plants, and 1
       Chromium recovery plant at Pioneer Tannery, Kanpur.

ii)    The chromium recovery plant at Kanpur was found non operational and all
       other plants found operational, though some of them only partially.

iii)   The performance of the sewage treatment plants at Mirzapur, Allahabad,
       DLW and Bhagwanpur ( Varanasi) were found satisfactory with almost all the
       units in operation. Most of these plants could achieve the prescribed norms,
       primarily due to the facts that they are over- designed, and the existing
       organic (BOD) load is much below the design load. Thus, even though they
       don’t perform upto the mark, surplus capacity enable them to achieve the
       limits. The over design of plants is probably due to the fact that while
       designing the plants, the concerned agency has not monitored the actual
       sewage characteristics.

iv)    Some of the STPs are overloaded, for example Dinapur and Bhagwanpur
       STP at Varanasi. The plant management needs to ensure that they are
       operated only at the designed capacity of the plant and in no case beyond the
       designed capacity as the biological system provided is very sensitive and the
       overloading may completely spoil the performance of the plant by washing
       out the biomass from the system.

v)     Some of the STPs are under loaded. The plant that was found to be grossly
       under- loaded was 130 MLD STP at Jajmau, Kanpur, which operates merely
       at 25% of the installed capacity. This results in discharge of more than 100
       MLD untreated sewage to irrigation field or to the river Ganga, despite
       facilities having been installed. Few other plants found under loaded are STP
       at DLW, Varanasi, and STP at Allahabad.
vi)    There are provision for stand by power through DG sets in case of power
       failure.

4.6.3 BIHAR

i)     In Bihar, seven STPs were sanctioned for construction in four towns with a
       total capacity of 87.5 MLD by the Ganga Project Directorate. These towns are
       Patna, Chapra, Munger and Bhagalpur. The Bihar Rajya Jal Parishad is
       responsible for construction and operation of all the STPs in Bihar.

ii)    In Patna, the locations of STPs are Saidpur, Beur, Pahari ( Southern zone)
       and Karmali Chak ( Eastern zone). The STPs of Saidpur and Beur were old
       plants and constructed during 1936 and 1969 respectively with a capacity of
       28 and 20 MLD. Under Ganga Action Plan, treatment capacity augmented
       (17 MLD in Saidpur and 15 MLD in Beur) in two STPs and other two STPs
       with a capacity of 25 MLD (Pahari) and 4 MLD (Karmali Chak) were planned.
       The STP at Pahari have been commissioned, whereas the construction of
       STP at Karmali Chak has so far not been completed except that of earthwork.

iii)   The present population of Patna city is 13.2 lakhs and the total water supply
       in the town is about 175 MLD. The wastewater generation is about 143 MLD.
       The total sewage treatment capacity created in the town is of the order of
       101.45 MLD putting together the capacity of Saidpur, Beur and Pahari STPs.
       But, due to various, problems in the functioning of STPs, only 49 MLD
       capacity could be made operational. Thus, there is a gap of about 94 MLD,
       which is not at all getting treatment and is discharged into river Ganga and
       river Punpun ( which ultimately joins river Ganga).

iv)    The designed capacity of Saidpur STP(Central Zone) is 45 MLD and is
       treating the sewage by activated sludge process. The actual flow to the plant
       is about 33 MLD. One unit of this plant having the capacity of 4.55 MLD is not
       functioning since November 1997 and all the mechanical components are
       badly corroded. This unit require special repair, in case it has to be made
       operational. Besides this, two digesters are out of order and needs overall
       repair and replacement of screw pumps. The treated sewage from this plant
       is disposed in open channel which is ultimately going to Pahari Jalla. The
       STP is under-utilized due to insufficient pumping by the intermediate pumping
       stations. The capacity of sludge drying beds is inadequate and should be
       enhanced. The plant is not working continuously due frequent power failure.

v)     The designed capacity of Beur STP is 35 MLD, out of this, 15 MLD capacity
       is only for Primary treatment and 20 MLD can be treated through Activated
       Sludge Process. The actual flow to the plant is about 16 MLD and it remains
       under utilised. There are two digesters in this plant. The digestors are in
       operation, but gas produced in them is not utilized for power generation but
       flared up. The wastewater collection system through intermediate pumping is
      not properly managed and as a result the sufficient volume of wastewater is
      not reaching to STP. The treated sewage from this plant is disposed through
      effluent channel starting from effluent lifting station situated at Beur village
      and meeting Badshahi Pan. The treated sewage is utilized for irrigation
      otherwise reaching to river Punpun.The capacity of sludge drying beds is
      inadequate and should be enhanced. The plant is not working continuously
      due frequent power failure.

      It is observed during the inspection and composite sampling of Beur and
      Saidpur STPs that the power supply is one of the main hindrance besides the
      shortage of skilled ( technically) manpower and sincerity of operations. The
      STPs with activated sludge process are biologically controlled rather than
      chemically and hence the operation of treatment system should be
      continuous and assured round the clock. Otherwise, the bacterial population
      working as tool, dies off enormously because of anaerobic conditions. This
      may reduce efficiency of treatment system. The financial resources available
      to the STP are grossly inadequate for optimum operation of STPs.

iv)   The designed capacity of Pahari STP in Patna is 25 MLD and the plant is
      designed to treat the sewage by aeration in the lagoon. The plant is not in
      operation due to one or the other technical as well as electrical faults. The
      fish pond of this plant was observed to be full of algae, which indicates that
      the aerated lagoon is not in operation for a considerable period of time. There
      was no fish in the pond. During inspection there was serious problems with
      the pumps,in the sump, receiving sewage from Kankarbag outfall drain. It is
      observed that the power supply is also one of the main hindrance.

v)    This STP at Karmali Chak in Patna was designed for 4.0 MLD and the plant
      will treat the sewage by natural aeration in the oxidation ponds. The
      construction of plant has not been completed due to the problem of
      acquisition of land. The work of land acquisition has now taken place and the
      construction work is again started but it is unlikely to complete during the year
      2001. There are certain problems about cost escalation. The likely expenses
      for completing the STP shall be around Rupees one crore. The physical
      progress of construction work related to STP is about 43% and the laying of
      sewer for transport of sewage is about 86% . There are number of peripheral
      work, which are yet to be started.

vi)   The total water supply in Chapra town is about 11 MLD and resultant the
      wastewater generation is 8.74 MLD. The STP in Chapra was designed for 2.0
      MLD and is located in the Sherpur area. The plant is designed to treat the
      sewage by natural aeration in oxidation pond. The plant is not getting the
      sewage from the drain passing through the town due to various reasons. The
      slope of the drain is such that it is carrying only about half of the waste
      generated from the town towards the pumping station. During the inspection,
      the STP was completely dry and perhaps the sewage has not reached here
        since its inception. In view of its distant location ( about 5 km), its utility is
        doubtful in the present circumstance. The Chapra municipality has initiated
        desilting work of drain and once the work is over, operation of pumping
        station for STP may taken up for transport of sewage. There shall be a gap
        of about 6.74 MLD wastewater treatment capacity in the town, even if, the
        present STP becomes operational.

         The STP at Munger is designed for 13.5 MLD and is located at Bagh
        Chapra, Sherpur. The plant is designed to treat the sewage by aeration in the
        lagoons. The construction work of plant is not yet completed. There shall be
        one anaerobic , two aerobic lagoons and one fish pond in the STP. About
        50% civil work is completed and afterwords project went into disputes with
        the contractor because the work was not done as per work order. The
        antisocial elements hampered the progress of construction and now funds
        are not available for resuming the work. In the present circumstances, the
        possibility of getting the project completed in near future seems to be remote.

Viii)   The STP in Bhagalpur was designed for 11 MLD and is located near
        Bhagalpur University. The plant is designed to treat the sewage by aeration in
        the lagoons. The plant consists of primary settling tank, two aerated lagoons
        and one fish pond. The plant receives about 4.0 MLD sewage due to non
        functioning of three intermediate pumping stations. The plant was not in
        operation during the inspection due to various reasons such as electrical
        faults, non operation of motors and leakages. The amount of sewage
        received in the plant also by-passed and plant does not virtually work, as a
        result the entire sewage from the town find its way to the river Ganga. The
        total water supply in Bhagalpur town is 35 MLD and resultant wastewater
        generation is around 28 MLD.There shall be gap of 24 MLD wastewater
        discharged, which remain untreated even if the present STP is operated.

IX)     Although all the STPs are required to take consent to operate under the
        Water Act 1974, it was observed that none of them have taken consent from
        the Bihar Pollution Control Board


X)      There are no provisions for stand by power arrangement; the power cut is
        extending from couple of hours to number of days.


4.6.4 WEST BENGAL

i)      It was estimated that about 527 million liters of waste water fall into the river
        Ganga from the 15 class I cities located along its bank. The Calcutta
        Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) under the Department of Urban
        Development, Government of West Bengal was designated as the nodal
        organisation for implementation of the GAP Phase I schemes with the help of
        CMWSA and the Public Health Engineering Department.

ii)     Different conventional sewage treatment technology were adopted at various
        locations. Low cost treatment methods were used in some places where land
        were available and were found to be most suitable to reduce the bacterial
        load.

iii)    Performance of individual sewage treatment plant is satisfactory but the
        influent sewage strength in terms of its organic matter content (BOD value) in
        most locations were found to be low in comparison to the prior assumption.
        Thus the STPs are mostly operated at under load condition.

iv)     It is observed that there are gaps in sewer lines and thus the sewage is not
        reaching to the treatment plant. The sewer lines are also silted and thus the
        sewage cannot flow smoothly towards treatment plant.

v)      Algae and water hyacinth growth was observed in low cost treatment plant.

vi)     Sewage treatment plant at Beharampur is non functional due to absence of
        sewage. A stretch of 150 meter of sewer line leading to main pumping station
        could not be laid properly due to some construction difficulties. Some
        alternative arrangements are required to be formulated to make the system
        operational.

vii)    Although all the STPs are required to take consent to operate under the
        Water Act 1974, it was observed that none of them have taken consent from
        the West Bengal Pollution Control Board.

viii)   The STPs were not provided with stand-by power arrangement. However, the
        power supply was reasonably stable at the ASPs and trickling filters.
                                    Chapter V
                    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1   CONCLUSIONS

5.1.1 Out of 35 STPs planned under GAP Phase I ( 3 STPs in Uttaranchal, 10
      STPs in UP, 7 STPs in Bihar, and 15 STPs in West Bengal), 32 are
      commissioned and 29 were found functioning.

5.1.2. Adequate fund allocation for O&M of STPs is not provided particularly in
       Bihar and U.P.

5.1.3. A number of sewage treatment plants are under loaded e.g. Jajmau Kanpur,
       DLW Varanasi, Naini Allahabad and some are over loaded e.g. Dinapur and
       Bhagwanpur at Varanasi.

5.1.4 Many treatment plants need upgradation e.g. all the STPs of Bihar,
      Swargashram at Rishikesh, Kankhal Haridwar, Jajmau Bhatpra E Titagarh,
      Panihati.

5.1.5 Out of 1345 mld of sewage joining the Ganga as estimated during 1985, the
      STPs were planned for only 875 mld. Since then, the volume of sewage has
      significantly increased.

5.1.6. In Bihar, the treatment plants at Karmali Chak (Patna), and Munger are yet to
       be constructed. Similarly STP at Chapra and Bhagalpurare under-designed
       as their capacity is 2 MLD & 11 MLD against 8.74 and 28 MLD respectively.
       The Chapra STP is not receiving the sewage as it is located
       far away ( 5 km) and there is siltation in the drain which is supposed to carry
       the sewage through gravity flow.

5.1.7 None of the STPs has obtained consent from the concerned State Pollution
      Control Boards although it which is obligatory under the Water Act, 1974.

5.1.8. Inadequacy of trained personal for O&M work is a major shortcoming.

5.1.9. Non- availability of uninterrupted power is another problem in most of the
       places. Since the STPs are biological in nature, their continuous operation is
       a must in order to maintain the biological growth at activated level.

5.1.10.In most of the cities/towns included in GAP, is proper sewerage system does
       not exist and the sewage flows in open drains causing scenic and odour
       probloem. In rainy season, the run-off water generally mixes with sewage.
       Since the diversion of drains through pumping is taking care of only dry
       weather flow, during rainy season it cannot pump the additional load of run-off
        water. Thus, such interception will not be effective in controlling pollution of
        the river during rainy season.

5.1.11.In many cities, the sewage is not reaching the STPs due to non- existence
       or non-functioning of sewage transport system.

5.1.12 There are 21 towns under Yamuna action plan,3 under Gomti action plan and
       12 under Damodar action plan,3 under Betwa action plan, 3 under Chambal
       action plan and one each under river Shipra and khan

5.1.13 There are 223 cities/ towns (Municipalities/Corporation) generating significant
       amount of sewage in the Ganga basin. These cities/ towns generate about
       8250 mld ( million litre per day) of wastewater, out of which about 2460 mld is
       directly discharged into the Ganga river, about 4570 mld is discharged into its
       tributaries or sub- tributaries and about 1220 mld is disposed on land or in
       low- lying areas

5.1.14 Out of 8250 mld of wastewater generated in the Ganga basin, the treatment
        facilities are available only for 3500 mld of wastewater ( town-wise treatment
        capacity is provided. Out of 3500 mld treatment capacity, 880 mld is created
        under the Ganga Action Plan, 720 mld is created under the Yamuna Action
        Plan by NRCD, MoEF Govt of India and about 2189 mld treatment capacity
        is created by the Govt. of Delhi for restoration of water quality in Yamuna
        river

5.1.15 That, the treatment facilities at 48 additional towns along the Ganga and 23
      towns on its tributaries/ sub- tributaries are being created under GAP Phase-
      II and National River Action Plan. It is expected that after completion of these
      plans, an additional capacity of about 1500 mld will be created. However, still
      there will be a large gap between the wastewater generation ( 8250 mld )
      and treatment capacity (3500 mld).

5.2     RECOMMENDATIONS

        O&M OF TREATMENT PLANTS

5.2.1        Since operation and maintenance of STPs and Pumping stations is the
             weakest part in GAP, the O&M needs to be addressed on priority basis.

5.2.2        There should be a nodal office in each of the States to monitor and to
             review the O&M works of all the STPs and pumping stations.

5.2.3        Each treatment plant should have basic minimum manpower and fund
             required for O&M as follows:-
MANPOWER REQUIREMENT
_______________________________________________
Oxidation Pond        Operator             1
                      Guard /Sweeper       3
                      Analyst              1
                                        ______
                                 Total     5
                                        _______

UASB/ASP/TF           Operator Mechanical      3
                      Operator Electrical      3
                      Fitter                   2
                      Sweeper                  3
                      Analyst                  2
                      Lab. Attendant           2
                                          _________
                      Total                    15
      __________________________________________________________

Note:- Besides the operational staff, supervisory staff may be considered as per the
       requirement and the above number may be decided according to local
       situation size of the plant, sharing of laboratory and treatment of technology.

FUND REQUIREMENT FOR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF STP( PER
ANNUM)

Operation   & Oxidation             Oxidation      UASB/ASP/TF       UASB/ASP/TF
Maintenance   Pond      (capacity   Pond           (capacity less    (capacity more
cost          less than 5 mld)      (capacity      than 5 mld) Rs.   than 5 mld )Rs.
              Rs. in lacs           more than 5    in lacs           in lacs
                                    mld) Rs. in
                                    lacs
Per       MLD 2 .0                  0.5            5.0               3.0
treatment
Pumping       2.0                   2.0            2.0               2.0
Stations each

Note: the cost mentioned above is indicative based on experience of other STPs
       under GAP. However, this can be decided according to local requirement and
       depending on the size, capacity and treatment technology.

5.2.4 The staff responsible for O&M should be professionally qualified and trained .
      There should be detailed operation manual for each STP. The operation
      manual should be available to each staff. The staff should be fully aware of
      trouble shooting. There should be qualified staff for collection and analysis of
      samples.
5.2.5 Each staff member should be given responsibility in terms of specific activity
      alongwith date and time in writing. The duty assignment records should be
      maintained in a Master File which should be checked by officers of Nodal
      office and State Pollution Control Board on regular basis.

5.2.6 There should be at least one Laboratory in each town where ASP is
      functioning. In case of Oxidation Pond , one Laboratory can cater to the
      service of other towns depending on distance and transport facilities, for daily
      sampling. The Laboratory should have basic facilities for analysing pH,
      conductivity, BOD,COD,SS, Volatile SS and dissolved Oxygen.

5.2.7 Training of O&M staff should be planned and implemented properly.

5.2.8 Separate provision of funds for O&M should be earmarked and sufficient
       autonomy be given to the staff for remedial measures and smooth
       functioning of STPs.

5.2.9      Strict action is required to be taken against the staff in case of default.
           Each staff member show submit a monthly report indicating duty performed
           by him and how it is matching with the assignment given to him. In case of
           deviation, sufficient reason should be recorded.

5.2.10     Every treatment plant should be monitored for its performance on daily
           basis, for BOD COD and SS. The monitoring results should be compiled
           on monthly basis and submitted to the Nodal office in the form of a monthly
           report. The monthly report should include following aspects:
         -     Name of STP
         -     Type
         -     Capacity, mld
         -     Actual treatment, mld ( average of the mld)
         -     Performance in terms of % reduction in BOD,COD & SS on daily
               basis.
         -     MLSS and dissolved Oxygen level in aeration tank on daily basis in
         case of ASP.
         -     Raw sewage quality on daily basis in terms of BOD,COD & SS
         -     Final effluent quality on daily basis in terms of BOD COD & SS
         -     Unit-wise performance on daily basis
         -     Abnormal situation encountered
         -     Malfunctioning of any unit which needs repair
         -     Abnormal situation like raid and storm water contribution etc.
         -     Complete record of power failure alongwith date and duration.

-          The report should be reviewed by the Nodal Office. In case of any problem
           in O&M of STPs or its performance, the Nodal Officer should discuss it with
           incharge of the treatment plant and suggest remedial measures.
-        There should be a quarterly meeting of all the incharges of STPs including
         operators to discuss the findings of monitoring results and other issues
         related to O&M of STPs during the quarter. The outcome of the meeting
         should be recorded in form of minutes and communicated to State
         Pollution Control Board within 15 days of the meeting.

5.2.11   There should be a separate cell in the State Pollution Control Board for
         monitoring management of sewage treatment plants. This cell should
         constantly interact with the Nodal Officer on O&M of the STPs and other
         related issues.The cell should also conduct vigilance monitoring of the
         STPs atleast once in a month. The monitoring should include checking of
         records of STPs and their functioning alongwith collection of samples and
         analysis of BOD, COD and SS to evaluate their performance and
         compliance of standards. In case of unsatisfactory results, the cell should
         issue notice to the Nodal Officer under Water Act, 1974.

5.2.12    An annual report on the performance of STPs and O&M record should
         be prepared State-wise and submitted to the State Boards, CPCB and
         NRCD, highlighting all the important points including deficiencies and
         annual expenditure.

5.2.13   It may be useful to involve local communities in monitoring the functioning
         of assets created under NRCD

PROFESSIONAL STAFF IN MUNICIPALITIES

5.2.14   It is necessary to have a cadre of professional staff in municipalities
         headed by technically qualified chief executives for planning and
         implementation of water supply, wastewater and solid waste management
         programme.

         As of now, the chief executive are mostly drawn from administrative cadre
         who are often posted for a brief tenure within which they are unable to
         comprehend, organise and implement any meaningful initiative.

DECENTRALISED TREATMENT FOR NEW SETTLEMENTS

5.2.15 Decentralised approach in          management of sewage needs          to be
      encouraged. Co-operative group housing societies, multi storyed housing
      complexes, big hotels etc. need to set up appropriate on-site waste water
      treatment facilities for recycling of waste water for gardening and other non-
      domestic uses to the extent feasible.
CONSENT TO OPERATE STP UNDER THE WATER ACT

5.2.16       STPs should be brought under regulatory mechanism for effective
monitoring and pollution control. The Municipalities must apply and obtain consent
from respective Pollution Control Board under Water (Prevention & Control of
Pollution) Act, 1974.

								
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