STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN GANGA BASIN CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN GANGA BASIN CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD ‘Parivesh Bhawan, East Arjun Nagar Delhi-110032. CONTENTS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 DOMESTIC WASTEWATER 1.2 NATIONAL STATUS OF WASTEWATER GENERATION AND TREATMENT 1.3 THE GANGA BASIN CHAPTER II STATUS OF SEWAGE GENERATION AND TREATMENT IN THE GANGA BASIN 2.1 URBAN CENTRES AND STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT 2.2 YAMUNA ACTION PLAN AND SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN DELHI, HARYANA AND UTTAR PRADESH CHAPTER III OPERATIONAL STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT 3.1 INSPECTION AND MONITORING OF STP’S 3.2 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE OF STP’s CHAPTER IV TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 4.1 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY ADOPTED UNDER GANGA ACTION PLAN. 4.2 DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER 4.3 OPERATIONAL STATUS OF STP’S 4.4 PERFORMANCE OF STP’S 4.5 EXPENDITURE TOWARDS OPERATION & MAINTENANCE( O&M) 4.6 STATE WISE SPECIFIC OBSERVATIONS 4.6.1 UTTARANCHAL 4.6.2 UTTAR PRADESH 4.6.3 BIHAR 4.6.4 WEST BENGAL CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 CONCLUSION 5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER IN GANGA BASIN, FROM CLASS-I CITIES AND CLASS-II TOWNS Table 2.2 WASTEWATER GENERATION IN TOWNS ALONG THE TRIBUTARIES OF GANGA Table 2.3 SUMMARY OF SEWAGE GENERATION TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL IN THE GANGA BASIN Table 2.4 STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT IN DELHI (TOTAL CAPACITY VS ACTUAL FLOW) Table 2.5 SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT CAPACITY UNDER YAMUNA ACTION PLAN IN HARYANA, DELHI AND UTTAR PRADESH. Table 3.1 DESIGN CAPACITY AND PROCESS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE STATE OF UTTARANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH, BIHAR & WEST BENGAL Table 4.1 TREATMENT SYSTEMS UNDER GAP PHASE-I IN UTTRANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH, BIHAR AND WEST BENGAL Table 4.2 DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER FROM THE TOWNS COVERED UNDER GANGA ACTION PLAN IN UTTRANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH, BIHAR & WEST BENGAL. Table 4.3 PERFORMANCE OF STPS UNDER GANGA ACTION PLAN IN UTTRANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH,BIHAR AND WEST BENGAL Table 4.4 PERCENT (%) REDUCTION OF BOD,COD AND TSS IN EACH STP IN UTTRANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH, BIHAR & WEST BENGAL. Table 4.5 EXPENDITURE FOR O&M OF STPS IN UTTARANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH,BIHAR & WEST BENGAL LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 STATUS OF STP’S LOCATED IN GANGA BASIN Figure 2 DECADAL GROWTH OF WASTEWATER GENERATION AND TREATMENT JOINING AMUNA RIVER FOREWORD The Ganga is the largest and the most important river of India. The 2,525 kilometres long river carries off the drainage of a vast basin area 861,404 kilometres covering 26.2 percent area of India’s total geographical area. The watershed of the river Ganga spreads over ten States of India, namely Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Delhi. Discharge of untreated sewage from urban centres is a major cause of river water quality degradation. Since local authorities are not able to cope with the problem due to paucity of resources, Govt. of India came forward and launched a programme for cleaning the river Ganga, called Ganga Action Plan. In Ganga Action Plan Phase-1,35 Sewage Treatment Plant’s were planned ( 3 STP’s in Uttaranchal, 10 STP’s in Uttar Pradesh, 7 STP’s in Bihar, and 15 STP’s in West Bengal). Among them, 32 are commissioned and 29 were found functioning. The sewage treatment plants found under loaded are Jajmau-Kanpur, DLW- Varanasi, Naini-Allahabad whereas over loaded plants are Dinapur and Bhagwanpur at Varanasi. The sewage treatment plants need upgradation are Swargashram- Rishikesh, Kankhal-Haridwar, Jajmau - Kanpur, Bhatpara-E, Titagarh and Panihati in West Bengal. In the present report an attempt is also made to identify the gap in wastewater generation and treatment in the entire Ganga basin. The total wastewater generation from 222 towns in Ganga basin is 8250 MLD, out of which 2538 MLD is directly discharged into the Ganga River, 4491 MLD disposed into tributaries of river Ganga and 1220 MLD is disposed on land or low lying areas. We hope the findings of the study will be useful to all concerned with the wastewater management and water quality improvement programmes for rivers in India. (Dilip Biswas) Chairman CONTRIBUTION Planning and Coordination Dr.B.Sengupta, Member Secretary and Report Preparation Dr.R.C.Trivedi,Additional Director Mr. R.M. Bhardwaj, Sc.C Inspection and Monitoring of STP’s Mr. R.M.Bhardwaj,Sc.’C’ Mr. N.C. Durgapal, Sc. C Mr. B.P. Shukla,SEE Mr. B.R. Naidu,SEE Ms. Mita Sharma,SEE Ms. Kokil Mehrotra,JRF Report Typing and Graphics Shri Satish Changra, UDC Shri Suresh Sharma,DEO CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 DOMESTIC WASTEWATER Urban centers are discharging wastewater in the water bodies and for irrigation in the agriculture fields. In the early stages of human history, wastewater discharges did not pose problem to water bodies as the nature had the capacity and the system to degrade wastes and restore normal condition. Nature still does, but with the advent of urbanization, industrialization and resultant concentrated massive wastewater discharges, the aquatic systems are overloaded. The major source of organic pollution in fresh water bodies is sewage. In India, all the cities and towns did not have sewage treatment facilities. Untreated or improperly treated human wastes disposed into aquatic resources from where the downstream city’s water requirements are drawn, constitute a big public health hazard in terms of their potential for spreading water borne diseases. 1.2 NATIONAL STATUS OF WASTEWATER GENERATION AND TREATMENT The total wastewater generated by the 299 class I cities is 16,662 Mld approximately 81% of the water supplied. The state of Maharashtra alone contributes about 23%, while Ganga river basin contributes about 31% of the waste generated. Only 74% of the total wastewater generated is collected. Out of 299 class I cities 160 cities have sewerage coverage for more than 75% of the population and 92 cities have between 50 and 75% of population coverage. On the whole 70% of the population of class I cities are provided with sewerage facility. The type of sewerage system is either open or closed or piped. As per the latest estimate out of 22,900 Mld of wastewater generated, only about 5900 Mld (26%) is treated before letting out, the rest i.e., 17000 Mld is disposed of untreated. Twenty-seven cities have only primary treatment facilities and forty-nine have primary and secondary treatment facilities. The level of treatment available in cities with existing treatment plant varies from 2.5% to 89% of the sewage generated. 1.3 THE GANGA BASIN The Ganga is the largest and the most important river of India. The 2525 kilometer long river carries off the drainage of a vast basin bounded by the snow peaks of the Himalaya on the north, and the Peninsular uplands and the Vindhya range on the south.The Ganga basin encompasses an area of 1,060,000 (one million sixty thousand) square kilometers spread over four countries: India, Nepal, Bangladesh and China. The catchment area of the river Ganga in India is 861,404, covering 26.2 percent area of India’s total geographical area. The watershed of river Ganga spread over ten States of India, namely: Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh,Rajasthan,Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Delhi. . The main river, rising in the northern most part of Uttranchal, flows through Uttranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal and finally falls into the Bay of Bengal. The Ganga Basin is bound on the north by the Himalayas and on the south by the Vindhyas. The ridge between the Indus system and the Ganga system, the Great desert of Rajasthan and the Aravalli hills form the boundary on the west. After traversing a length of 1450 km in U.P. and 110 km in the boundary between U.P. and Bihar, the river enters Bihar and flows for 445 km, more or less through the middle of the State. The length of the river (measured along the Bhagirathi and the Hugli during its course in West Bengal is about 520 km. The Ganga has a large number of tributaries.Some of these are of Himalayan origin and have considerable large flow. The important tributaries within India, are the Kali, the Ramganga, the Yamuna, the Gomti, the Ghaghara, the Gandak and the Kosi. The Yamuna although a tributary of the Ganga, is virtually a river by itself and its major tributaries are the Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa and the Ken. The main plateau tributaries of the Ganga are the Tons, the Sone, the Damodar and the Kasai-Haldi. It served as the cradle of the Indian civilization. The river houses the towns like Rishikesh, Haridwar, Garhmukteswar, Kannauj, Allahabad, Mirzapur, Varanasi and Nabadwip, that are important pilgrim centers with a very large number of people taking dips in the river. In fact, all along the course of the Ganga, from its source at Gaumukh to its mouth at Sagar Island is considered holy and millions of people take bath in it every day to purge away the sins. The rich soils of the basin provide the home of more than one third of Indian Population. CHAPTER II STATUS OF SEWAGE GENERATION AND TREATMENT IN THE GANGA BASIN 2.1 URBAN CENTRES AND STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT Urban population consisting of Class I Cities and Class II Towns in the Ganga basin is 57 million (as per 1991) which is projected to be over 72 million in 2002. There are 101 Class I cities and 122 Class II towns in the basin. The recent survey of Class I and Class II cities indicated that about 8250 mld of wastewater is generated in the Ganga basin out of which treatment facilities are available only for 3500 mld of wastewater . Out of 3500 mld treatment capacity,880 mld is created under the Ganga Action Plan, 720 mld under the Yamuna Action Plan and about 2189 mld is created by Govt. of Delhi for restoration of water quality of river Yamuna. The treatment facilities at 48 additional towns along the Ganga and 23 towns on its tributaries/sub- tributaries are Table 2.1 : DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER IN GANGA BASIN, FROM CLASS-I CITIES AND CLASS-II TOWNS State Amount of Amount of Amount of Total Wastewater wastewater wastewater wastewater directly discharged into discharged (mld) discharged the tributaries on land/low disposal in into the or sub- lying areas Ganga Ganga from tributaries of the from class I Basin class I cities Ganga from cities and & class II class I cities and class II towns (mld) class II towns towns (mld) (mld) Bihar 412.1 171.5 87.8 671.4 Jharkhand - 119.6 11.6 131.2 Haryana - 136.9 72.6 209.5 Madhya Pradesh - 503.0 123.5 626.5 Rajasthan - 210.7 249.6 460.3 Uttar Pradesh 653.8 881.6 225.8 1761.2 Uttaranchal 42.5 24.0 46.9 113.4 West Bengal 1429.2 93.6 52.5 1575.3 Delhi - 2350.0 350.0 2700.0 Total 2537.6 4490.9 1220.3 8248.8 being created under Ganga Action Plan Phase-II and National River Action Plan. It is expected that after completion of these plans, an additional capacity of about 1500 mld will be created. However, still there will be a large gap between the wastewater generation ( 8250 mld) and treatment capacity ( 3500 mld) (table 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3). Table 2.2 : WASTEWATER GENERATION IN TOWNS ALONG THE TRIBUTARIES OF GANGA Tributary Towns State Wastewater Generation (mld) A) Betwa 4 Bhopal MP 189.3 5 Mandideep MP - 6 Vidisha MP 8.6 1.Kesharaipatan Rajasthan - B) Chambal 2.Kota Rajasthan 112 3.Nagda MP 10 C) Damodar 1.Andal West Bengal - 2.Asansol West Bengal 22.6 3.Bokaro-Kargali Jharkhand 56.3 4.Chicunda Jharkhand - 5.Dugdha Jharkhand - 6.Durgapur West Bengal 29.7 7.Jharia Jharkhand - 8.Ramgarh Jharkhand 5.8 9.Raniganj West Bengal 5.4 10.Sindri Jharkhand - 11.Sudamdin Jharkhand - 12.Telumoncbu Jharkhand - D) Gomti 1.Jaupur UP 18.2 2.Lucknow UP 106.0 3.Sultanpur UP 9.7 E) Khan 1.Indore UP 145.0 F) Kshipra 2.Ujjain UP 27.0 Total 23 towns 745.6 Table 2.3: SUMMARY OF SEWAGE GENERATION TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL IN THE GANGA BASIN (i)SEWAGE GENERATION 1.Total number of towns generating significant amount of 222 sewage ( class I cities and class II towns ) 2.Sewage generation from 222 towns 8250 mld 3.Sewage directly disposed into the Ganga river 2538 mld 4.Sewage disposed into tributaries of the Ganga 4491 mld 5.Sewage disposed on land or low lying areas 1220 mld (ii)SEWAGE TREATMENT 1.Sewage Treatment capacity created under Ganga Action 882 mld Plan Phase-I 2.Sewage treatment capacity created along the Yamuna 2631 mld 3.Additional towns (48 towns) where sewage treatment capacity is (600 mld) being created under GAP Phase-II 4. Number of towns where sewage treatment capacity is being (750 mld) created on tributaries of the Ganga The Ganga river basin report indicated that Uttar Pradesh contributed the major share of more than 55% of the total urban industrial pollution load to the basin. 2.2 YAMUNA ACTION PLAN AND SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN DELHI, HARYANA AND UTTAR PRADESH Delhi generates about 3600 mld of wastewater. Out of which treatment facility is available for only 2109 mld. Plant-wise sewage treatment capacity is provided in Table 2.4. It is observed that there is continuous efforts by the Govt. Of National Capital Territory of Delhi to augment the treatment capacity. However, the exponential population growth is nullifying the results. Following figure present the decadal growth of sewage generation and its treatment. Figure 2 indicates that the gap is continuously widening inspite of the efforts of the authorities and monitoring of the Hon’ble Supreme Court. FIGURE 2 : DECADAL GROWTH OF WASTEWATER GENERATION AND TREATMENT JOINING YAMUNA RIVER 5000 Volume of Wastewater, 4000 Untreated 2040 3000 Treated mld 2000 850 1000 2300 125 450 50 1090 310 475 630 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 YEAR The Cities and Towns discharging municipal wastewater in the River Yamuna in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh are taken up under Yamuna Action Plan. There are 12 Towns in Haryana and 8 Towns in Uttar Pradesh considered for setting up of sewage treatment plants.Two sewage treatment plants in Delhi also constructed under this plan at Sen Nursing Home Drain and Delhi Gate Drain with a design capacity of 10 Mld each. Under the plan 34 STP’s are commissioned with a treatment capacity of 743.25 Mld.The deatails of STP’s in each town, capacity and the type of sewage treatment plant is presented in table 2.5. Table 2.4: STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT IN DELHI (TOTAL CAPACITY VS ACTUAL FLOW) Name of Total Capacity Actual Flow(Million Sewage (Million litres per litres per day ) Treatment Plant day ) Mehrauli 22.7 Nil Vasant Kunj 22.7 18.16 Okhla 635 684.00 Najafgarh 22.7 Nil Papan Kalan 90.8 40.86 Kesho Pur 327.5 338.21 Nilothi 181.6 Under Construction Coronation Pillar 178 123.57 Rohini 68.1 Under Construction Narela 45.4 1.68 Rithala 363.2 198.45 Yamuna Vihar 45.4 32.08 Kondli 204.5 133.4 SenNursing 10 9.08 Home DelhiGate 10 10.69 Rajghat Nehru Vihar 27.24 8.1 Oxidation Pond Total 2254.84 1598.28 Table 2.5: SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT CAPACITY UNDER YAMUNA ACTION PLAN IN HARYANA, DELHI AND UTTAR PRADESH S.No Town NO. OF STPs CAPACITY TYPE (MLD) I HARYANA 1 Yamuna nagar STP-I 10 UASB STP-II 25 UASB 2 Karnal STP-I 40 UASB STP-II 8 OP 3 Panipat STP-I 10 UASB STP-II 35 UASB 4 Sonepat STP-I 30 UASB 5 Gurgaon STP-I 30 UASB 6 Faridabad STP-I 20 UASB STP-II 45 UASB STP-III 50 UASB 7 Chhchhrauli STP 1 OP 8 Gharaunda STP 3 OP 9 Gohana STP 3.5 OP 10 Indri STP 1.5 OP 11 Palwaal STP 9 OP 12 Radaur STP 1 OP Sub total : 17 322 II DELHI 13 Delhi STP-I 10 OP STP-II 10 OP Sub total : 2 20 III UTTAR PRADESH 14 Sharanpur STP 38 UASB 15 Muzaffar Nagar STP 32.5 OP 16 Ghaziabad STP-I 70 UASB 3 KT STP-II 56 UASB 17 Noida STP-I 34 UASB STP-II 27 UASB STP-III 9 OP 18 Vrindavan STP-I 4 OP STP-II 0.5 OP 19 Mathura STP-I 14.5 OP STP-II 12.5 OP 20 Agra STP-I 78 UASB STP-II 10 OP STP-III 2.25 OP 21 Etawah STP 10 OP Sub total : 15 401.25 GRAND TOTAL 34 743.25 BCT--> Bio-Chemical Technology, KT-->Karnal Technology *---> Inculded in one I&D scheme of Vrindavan UASB--> Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket OP--->Oxidation Pond Chapter III OPERATIONAL STATUS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT 3.1 INSPECTION AND MONITORING OF STP’S Inspection and monitoring of STP’s carried out during May and June 2001, jointly by CPCB and respective State Pollution Control Board for the 35 sewage treatment plants in Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Bihar and West Bengal. A list of 35 STP’s indicating the Design capacity and process of sewage treatment plants in the State of Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar & West Bengal is given in Table 3.1. The location of STP’s is indicated in figure 1. Table 3.1: DESIGN CAPACITY AND PROCESS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE STATE OF UTTARANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH, BIHAR & WEST BENGAL Sl.No. STP Town STP STP Capacity STP Capacity New Plant Commissioned/ Old Plant (MLD) not (MLD) commissioned UTTARANCHAL 1. Swargashram- - 0.33 RBRC Commissioned Rishikesh 2. Lakkar Ghat, - 6.00 OP Commissioned Rishikesh 3. Kankhal- Hardwar - 18 ASP Commissioned UTTAR PRADESH 1. Farukhabad - 3.96 OP Commissioned 2. Kanpur-Jajmau - 36 UASB Commissioned 3. Kanpur-Jajmau - 130 ASP Commissioned 4. Kanpur-Jajmau- - 5 UASB Commissioned CETP 5. Chorme Recovery - 0.0045 Commissioned Plant 6. Allahabad - 60 ASP Commissioned 7. Mirzapur - 14 UASB Commissioned 8. Varanasi-Bhagwanpur 1.2TF 8 ASP Commissioned 9. Varanasi Dinapur - 80 ASP Commissioned 10. Varanasi-SPT-DLW - 12 ASP Commissioned BIHAR 1. Chapra 2 OP Commissioned 2. Patna, Eastern Zone 4 OP Not Commissioned 3. Patna- Saidpur 28 ASP 17 ASP Commissioned 4. Patna- Beur 20 ASP 15 ASP Commissioned 5. Patna-Sourther Zone - 25 AL Commissioned 6. Munger - 13.50 AL Not Commissioned 7. Bhagalpur - 11 AL Commissioned West Bengal 1. Garden Reach - 47 ASP Commissioned 2. South Suburban (E) - 30 OP Not Commissioned 3. Cossipore- Chitpur ( 45 ASP Commissioned Bangur) 4. Bhatpara,E - 10 OP Commissioned 5. Bhatpara,B 8.5 ASP 10 ASP Commissioned 4.5 ASP 6. Titagarh 4.5 OP 14 OP Commissioned 4.5 ASP 7. Panihati - 12 OP Commissioned 8. Baranagar-Kamarhati - 40 TF Commissioned 9. Serampore 18.90 TF Commissioned 10. Kalyani 11 TF 6 OP Commissioned 11. Behrampore - 4 OP Commissioned 12. Howrah 45 TF - Commissioned 13. Nabadwip - 4.0P Commissioned 14. Chandannagore 4.54 OP 18.16 TF Commissioned 15. North Howrah- Kona - 30 OP Commissioned (Bally) Note:- RBRC : Rotating Biological Rope Contractor OP : Oxidation pond ASP : Activated sludge process UASB : Up flow anerobic sludge blanket AL : Aerated lagoon TF : Trickling Filter 3.2 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE OF STP’s The operation and maintenance of STP’s are being done by Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam in Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh, by Bihar Rajya Jal Parishad in Bihar and by three agencies viz. Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA), Calcutta Municipal Water and Sanitation Authority (CMWSA) and Public Health Engineering Department (PHED) in West Bengal. In compliance to Hon,ble Supreme Court’s direction in the matter of Writ Petition(Civil) No.3727/85, MC Mehta V/S UOI & others, CPCB carried out a detailed inspection of STPs including performance studies. The findings of the study are presented in chapter IV. Chapter IV TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 4.1 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY ADOPTED UNDER GANGA ACTION PLAN. The STP’s were either renovated or constructed to treat the domestic sewage by adopting treatment technologies such as low cost waste stabilisation ponds, conventional Activated Sludge Process (ASP) Trickling Filter (TF) and Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) treatment systems. The details are provided in Table 4.1. Table 4.1 TREATMENT SYSTEMS UNDER GAP PHASE- I IN UTTRANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH, BIHAR AND WEST BENGAL Sl.No. Treatment Total Total Names of towns System Nos. Capacity of STP (MLD) 1. Oxidation Pond 11 134.04 UTTARANCHAL (1) Lakkar Ghat- Rishikesh UTTAR PRADESH(1) Farukhabad, BIHAR (2) Chapra, Patna Eastern Zone WEST BENGAL (9) South,Suburban, Bhatpara, Titagarh (2), Panihati, Bally, Kalyani, Bahrampore, Nabadwip 2. Activated 12 507.5 UTTARANCHAL (1) Sludge Process Kankhal-Hardwar UTTAR PRADESH(5) Kanpur,Alllahabad, Varanasi- BHU, Varanasi Dinapur & Varanasi SPT-DLW BIHAR (2) Patna - Saidpur,Patna, Beur WEST BENGAL (4) Garden Reach, Cossipore- Chitpur (Bangur), BhatparaB, Titagarh 3. Trickling Filter 5 134.26 West Bengal (5) Baranagar-Kamarhatti, Kalyani, Serampore, Howrah, Chandannagore 4. RBRC 1 0.33 UTTARANCHAL (1) Swargashram- Rishikesh 5. UASB 3 55 UTTAR PRADESH (3) Kanpur(2),Mirzapur 6. Aerated Lagoon 3 49.5 BIHAR(3) Patna- Sourthern Zone, Munger,Bhagalpur Note:- RBRC : Rotating Biological Rope Contractor OP : Oxidation pond ASP : Activated sludge process UASB : Up flow anaerobic sludge blanket AL : Aerated lagoon TF : Trickling Filter 4.2 DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER It was observed that in most cases a sizeable volume of the treated effluent was being disposed into the river Ganga. The Table 4.2 provides a comprehensive picture of the mode of disposal of the final treated effluent from the STPs. As revealed from the Table there are instances when a significant volume was being utilised for either irrigation or for pisciculture. The STPs under GAP were set up to treat domestic sewage from the Class I towns. Most of the industrial units in these towns are discharging their waste water after necessary treatment through sewer lines leading to STPs. Table 4.2 DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER FROM THE TOWNS COVERED UNDER GANGA ACTION PLAN IN UTTRANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH, BIHAR & WEST BENGAL. Sl.No STP Town Mode of Wastewater disposal . UTTARANCHAL 1 Rishikesh Irrigation, river Song, River Ganga 2. Hardwar Irrigation river Ganga UTTAR PRADESH 1. Farukhabad Irrigation, river Ganga 2. Kanpur Irrigation, River Ganga, river Pandu through Sisamau drain 3. Allahabad Irrigation in Naini and Dandi farm, river Ganga 4. Mirzapur Irrigation,river Ganga through Ghode Sahid Nallah. 5. Varanasi Irrigation, river Ganga through Assi Nallah BIHAR 1. Chapra Irrigation, river Ganga 2. Patna Irrigation, river Punpun, river Ganga 3. Munger Irrigation, river Ganga 4. Bhagalpur Irrigation, river Ganga WEST BENGAL 1. Garden Reach Via Monikhali Canal to Ganga 2. South Suburban (E) Discharged into the Churial Khal extension which leads to river Ganga, STP yet to be commissioned 3. Cossipore-Chitpur (Bangur) Disposed to Bagjola Canal which leads River ganga partly used in irrigation 4. Bhatpara,E Discharged into the Muktapur Nikashi leads to river Ganga 5. Bhatpara,B Discharged into the Bhatpara Nikashi which leads to river Ganga 6. Titagarh River Ganga via Khardha Khal, irrigation 7. Panihati Irrigation and piscicultre 8. Baranagar- Kamarhati River Ganga through Bagjola Canal and Udaypur Khal 9. Serampore River Ganga, Pisciculture 10. Kalyani Irrigation, river Ganga 11. Behrampore River Ganga, 12. Howrah River Ganga 13 Nabadwip River Ganga 14. Chandannagore River Ganga through Garh 15. North Howrah- Kona (Bally Irrigation, river Ganga through Howrah drainage channel 4.3 OPERATIONAL STATUS OF STP’S The quality of raw and treated wastewater is presented in Table 4.3 for COD,BOD and total suspended solid with respect to individual STP’s for evaluation of their performance. Table 4.3: PERFORMANCE OF STP’S UNDER GANGA ACTION PLAN IN UTTRANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH, BIHAR & WEST BENGAL. Sl. State and STP Town Raw Wastewater Treated Wastewater No. mg/l mg/l COD BOD TSS COD BOD TSS Uttranchal 1. Rishikesh - Munikireti 369 162 214 83 15 61 2. Rishikesh- 676 357 317 319 133 125 Swargashram- 3. Hardwar- Kankhal 323 131 278 --- 66 147 Uttar Pradesh 1. Farukhabad 278 60 121 120 17 71 2. Kanpur-Jajmau-UASB 967 173 1424 171 28 46 3. Kanpur-Jajmau-CETP 1110 331 1083 471 105 78 4. Kanpur-Jajmau-ASP 463 121 483 117 54 40 5. Kanpur-Chrome Not in operation recovery Plant 6. Allahabad- Naini 239 60 231 122 17 91 7. Mirzapur 302 111 316 84 25 44 8. Varanasi-Dinapur 275 120 304 94 28 72 9. Varanasi- Bhagwanpur 147 42 132 53 19 43 10 Varanasi- DLW 90 28 86 40 10.5 60 Bihar 1. Chapra Sewage is not reaching to STP 2. Patna-Saidpur Does not operate continuously, power problem 3. Patna-Beur Does not operate continuously, power problem 4. Patna-Pahari Does not operate 5. Patna- Karmalichak Plant under construction (Eastern Zone) 6. Munger Plant under construction 7. Bhagalpur Does not operate continuously, power problem West Bengal 1. Garden Reach 86 78 80 30 22 20 2. South Suburban(E) The Plant is under construction 3. Cossipore-Chitpur 161 99 187 40 23 15 4. Bhatpara,E 485 245 248 112 58 30 5. Bhatpara,B-1 174 94 199 56 28 52 5(a) Bhatpara,B-2 89 21 27 19 8 27 6. Titagarh (ASP) 315 123 - 112 43 - 6(a) Titagarh( OP) - - - 108 37 - 6(b) Titagarh (Bandipur) 304 109 - 28 12 - 7 Panihati (Natagarh) 70 43 78 147 59 51 8 Baranagar Kamarhati 100 46 129 46 21 19 9 Serampore 106 63 70 34.2 10 12 10 Kalyani 211 147 229 40 11 62 11 Behrampore 56 24 53 46 18 52 12 Howrah 175 74 254 33 10 18 13 Nabadwip 205 155 344 72 21 59 14 Chandannagore 34 15 35 19 11 13 15 North Howrah-Kona 295 124 395 47 14 99 Note: BOD: Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD : Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS : Total Suspended Solids. 4.4 PERFORMANCE OF STP’S As part of the exercise in assessing the performance of the STPs the percent reduction in pollution load was computed and is presented in Table 4.4. In most of the STP’s the percent reduction in BOD, COD and TSS load was more than 60%. Table 4.4 : PERCENT (%) REDUCTION OF BOD,COD AND TSS IN EACH STP IN UTTRANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH, BIHAR & WEST BENGAL. Sl.No. STP Town Type COD BOD TSS Uttranchal 1. Rishikesh – Munikireti OP 78 91 72 2. Rishikesh- Swargashram- RBRC 53 63 61 3. Hardwar- Kankhal ASP 90 95 91 Uttar Pradesh 1. Farukhabad OP 56.8 71.6 41.3 2. Kanpur-Jajmau-UASB UASB 82.3 83.8 96 3. Kanpur-Jajmau-CETP UASB 57.1 68.2 92.7 4. Kanpur-Jajmau-ASP ASP 74.7 55.3 91.7 5. Kanpur-Chrome recovery Not in operation Plant 6. Allahabad- Naini ASP 49 71 61 7. Mirzapur UASB 73 78 86 8. Varanasi-Dinapur ASP 66 77 76 9. Varanasi- Bhagwanpur ASP 64 55 67.5 10 Varanasi- DLW ASP 56 64 30 Bihar 1. Chapra Sewage is not reaching to STP 2. Patna-Saidpur Does not operate continuously, power problem 3. Patna-Beur Does not operate continuously, power problem 4. Patna-Pahari Does not operate 5. Patna- Karmalichak Plant under construction 6. Munger Does not operate 7. Bhagalpur Does not operate continuously, power problem West Bengal 1. Garden Reach ASP 65 72 75 2. South Suburban(E) The Plant is under construction 3. Cossipore-Chitpur ASP 75 77 73 4. Bhatpara,E OP 77 76 88 5. Bhatpara,B-1 ASP 68 70 74 5(a) Bhatpara,B-2 ASP 79 62 - 6. Titagarh(Bandipur) OP 79-91 81-89 62-92 6(a). Titagarh OP&AS 64 65 75 6(b) Titagarh P 7 Panihati (Natagarh) OP - - 35 8 Baranagar Kamarhati TF 74 54 85 9 Serampore TF 68 84 83 10 Kalyani TF&OP 77-92 71-82 71-75 11 Behrampore OP STP not functioning, civil structure failure 12 Howrah TF 81 86 93 13 Nabadwip OP 65 86 98 14 Chandannagore TF 44 27 63 15 North Howrah-Kona OP 84 96 75 4.5 EXPENDITURE TOWARDS OPERATION & MAINTENANCE( O&M) As per the information provided by the agencies responsible for operation and maintenance of the STPs, the annual expenditure incurred for O&M is given in table 4.5. Table 4.5 : EXPENDITURE FOR O&M OF STP’S IN UTTARANCHAL, UTTAR PRADESH, BIHAR & WEST BENGAL Sl.No. STP Town Fund Fund allocation ( Rs.in requirement (in lacs) lacs) Uttranchal 1. Rishikesh - Munikireti - 133.76(Total amount for three plants in Rishikesh and Hardwar 2. Rishikesh- - Swargashram- 3. Hardwar- Kankhal - Uttar Pradesh 1. Farukhabad 17.66 2. Kanpur-Jajmau-UASB 16.05 3. Kanpur-Jajmau-CETP 203.5 4. Kanpur-Jajmau-ASP 394.85 5. Kanpur-Chrome - recovery Plant 6. Allahabad- Naini 229.038 7. Mirzapur 141.54 8. Varanasi-Dinapur 174.95 9. Varanasi- Bhagwanpur 58.10 10 Varanasi- DLW 6.5 ( Power chemical etc provided by DLW works. Bihar 1. Chapra 18.2 0.84( Plant not operation 2. Patna-Saidpur 79.60 7.08 3. Patna-Beur 125 11.04 4. Patna-Pahari 78.15 43.3 5. Patna- Karmalichak under construction 6. Munger under construction 7. Bhagalpur - 16.2 West Bengal 1. Garden Reach - 23.80 2. Cossipore-Chitpur - 29.80 3. Bhatpara,E - 42.90 4. Bhatpara,B - 6.35 5. Titagarh(Bandipur) - 1.00 6. Titagarh - 29.50 7 Panihati (Natagarh) - 1.00 8 Baranagar Kamarhati - 19.25 9. Serampore - 25.90 10 Kalyani - 46.80 11 Behrampore - 9.70 12 Howrah - 23.25 13 Nabadwip - 33.80 14 Chandannagore - 12.70 15 North Howrah-Kona - 1.25 4.6 STATE WISE SPECIFIC OBSERVATIONS The state wise specific findings on the basis of inspection carried out are given in para 4.6.1 to 4.6.4 for Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal respectively. . 4.6.1 UTTARANCHAL i) All the 3 STPs were found operational. The plants are being managed by U.P. Jal Nigam. ii) The entire expenses for the operation and maintenance were borne by Govt. of U.P. the Govt. of Uttaranchal has agreed to bear the expenses for the same in future. iii) The performance of 2 out of 3 STPs at Uttranchal is satisfactory however the performance of 1 STP (Swargashram) is far below the expected norms. This can be improved by more sincere efforts in operation and maintenance. The Plant also needs up-gradation if it has to comply with the prescribed norms. iv) STPs did not obtain a consent from the State Pollution Control Board under Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 for discharging their wastewater in the environment. v) Revenue generation from the STPs is insignificant. This can be increased with efforts. However, this will be a small fraction of the total cost involved in the operation and maintenance, and thus the plants cannot become self sustaining. In case of privatization, probably the expenses can be reduced to a certain extent. vi) There are provision for stand by power through DG sets in case of power failure. 4.6.2 UTTAR PRADESH i) Out of the 9 plants established, 8 are sewage treatment plants, and 1 Chromium recovery plant at Pioneer Tannery, Kanpur. ii) The chromium recovery plant at Kanpur was found non operational and all other plants found operational, though some of them only partially. iii) The performance of the sewage treatment plants at Mirzapur, Allahabad, DLW and Bhagwanpur ( Varanasi) were found satisfactory with almost all the units in operation. Most of these plants could achieve the prescribed norms, primarily due to the facts that they are over- designed, and the existing organic (BOD) load is much below the design load. Thus, even though they don’t perform upto the mark, surplus capacity enable them to achieve the limits. The over design of plants is probably due to the fact that while designing the plants, the concerned agency has not monitored the actual sewage characteristics. iv) Some of the STPs are overloaded, for example Dinapur and Bhagwanpur STP at Varanasi. The plant management needs to ensure that they are operated only at the designed capacity of the plant and in no case beyond the designed capacity as the biological system provided is very sensitive and the overloading may completely spoil the performance of the plant by washing out the biomass from the system. v) Some of the STPs are under loaded. The plant that was found to be grossly under- loaded was 130 MLD STP at Jajmau, Kanpur, which operates merely at 25% of the installed capacity. This results in discharge of more than 100 MLD untreated sewage to irrigation field or to the river Ganga, despite facilities having been installed. Few other plants found under loaded are STP at DLW, Varanasi, and STP at Allahabad. vi) There are provision for stand by power through DG sets in case of power failure. 4.6.3 BIHAR i) In Bihar, seven STPs were sanctioned for construction in four towns with a total capacity of 87.5 MLD by the Ganga Project Directorate. These towns are Patna, Chapra, Munger and Bhagalpur. The Bihar Rajya Jal Parishad is responsible for construction and operation of all the STPs in Bihar. ii) In Patna, the locations of STPs are Saidpur, Beur, Pahari ( Southern zone) and Karmali Chak ( Eastern zone). The STPs of Saidpur and Beur were old plants and constructed during 1936 and 1969 respectively with a capacity of 28 and 20 MLD. Under Ganga Action Plan, treatment capacity augmented (17 MLD in Saidpur and 15 MLD in Beur) in two STPs and other two STPs with a capacity of 25 MLD (Pahari) and 4 MLD (Karmali Chak) were planned. The STP at Pahari have been commissioned, whereas the construction of STP at Karmali Chak has so far not been completed except that of earthwork. iii) The present population of Patna city is 13.2 lakhs and the total water supply in the town is about 175 MLD. The wastewater generation is about 143 MLD. The total sewage treatment capacity created in the town is of the order of 101.45 MLD putting together the capacity of Saidpur, Beur and Pahari STPs. But, due to various, problems in the functioning of STPs, only 49 MLD capacity could be made operational. Thus, there is a gap of about 94 MLD, which is not at all getting treatment and is discharged into river Ganga and river Punpun ( which ultimately joins river Ganga). iv) The designed capacity of Saidpur STP(Central Zone) is 45 MLD and is treating the sewage by activated sludge process. The actual flow to the plant is about 33 MLD. One unit of this plant having the capacity of 4.55 MLD is not functioning since November 1997 and all the mechanical components are badly corroded. This unit require special repair, in case it has to be made operational. Besides this, two digesters are out of order and needs overall repair and replacement of screw pumps. The treated sewage from this plant is disposed in open channel which is ultimately going to Pahari Jalla. The STP is under-utilized due to insufficient pumping by the intermediate pumping stations. The capacity of sludge drying beds is inadequate and should be enhanced. The plant is not working continuously due frequent power failure. v) The designed capacity of Beur STP is 35 MLD, out of this, 15 MLD capacity is only for Primary treatment and 20 MLD can be treated through Activated Sludge Process. The actual flow to the plant is about 16 MLD and it remains under utilised. There are two digesters in this plant. The digestors are in operation, but gas produced in them is not utilized for power generation but flared up. The wastewater collection system through intermediate pumping is not properly managed and as a result the sufficient volume of wastewater is not reaching to STP. The treated sewage from this plant is disposed through effluent channel starting from effluent lifting station situated at Beur village and meeting Badshahi Pan. The treated sewage is utilized for irrigation otherwise reaching to river Punpun.The capacity of sludge drying beds is inadequate and should be enhanced. The plant is not working continuously due frequent power failure. It is observed during the inspection and composite sampling of Beur and Saidpur STPs that the power supply is one of the main hindrance besides the shortage of skilled ( technically) manpower and sincerity of operations. The STPs with activated sludge process are biologically controlled rather than chemically and hence the operation of treatment system should be continuous and assured round the clock. Otherwise, the bacterial population working as tool, dies off enormously because of anaerobic conditions. This may reduce efficiency of treatment system. The financial resources available to the STP are grossly inadequate for optimum operation of STPs. iv) The designed capacity of Pahari STP in Patna is 25 MLD and the plant is designed to treat the sewage by aeration in the lagoon. The plant is not in operation due to one or the other technical as well as electrical faults. The fish pond of this plant was observed to be full of algae, which indicates that the aerated lagoon is not in operation for a considerable period of time. There was no fish in the pond. During inspection there was serious problems with the pumps,in the sump, receiving sewage from Kankarbag outfall drain. It is observed that the power supply is also one of the main hindrance. v) This STP at Karmali Chak in Patna was designed for 4.0 MLD and the plant will treat the sewage by natural aeration in the oxidation ponds. The construction of plant has not been completed due to the problem of acquisition of land. The work of land acquisition has now taken place and the construction work is again started but it is unlikely to complete during the year 2001. There are certain problems about cost escalation. The likely expenses for completing the STP shall be around Rupees one crore. The physical progress of construction work related to STP is about 43% and the laying of sewer for transport of sewage is about 86% . There are number of peripheral work, which are yet to be started. vi) The total water supply in Chapra town is about 11 MLD and resultant the wastewater generation is 8.74 MLD. The STP in Chapra was designed for 2.0 MLD and is located in the Sherpur area. The plant is designed to treat the sewage by natural aeration in oxidation pond. The plant is not getting the sewage from the drain passing through the town due to various reasons. The slope of the drain is such that it is carrying only about half of the waste generated from the town towards the pumping station. During the inspection, the STP was completely dry and perhaps the sewage has not reached here since its inception. In view of its distant location ( about 5 km), its utility is doubtful in the present circumstance. The Chapra municipality has initiated desilting work of drain and once the work is over, operation of pumping station for STP may taken up for transport of sewage. There shall be a gap of about 6.74 MLD wastewater treatment capacity in the town, even if, the present STP becomes operational. The STP at Munger is designed for 13.5 MLD and is located at Bagh Chapra, Sherpur. The plant is designed to treat the sewage by aeration in the lagoons. The construction work of plant is not yet completed. There shall be one anaerobic , two aerobic lagoons and one fish pond in the STP. About 50% civil work is completed and afterwords project went into disputes with the contractor because the work was not done as per work order. The antisocial elements hampered the progress of construction and now funds are not available for resuming the work. In the present circumstances, the possibility of getting the project completed in near future seems to be remote. Viii) The STP in Bhagalpur was designed for 11 MLD and is located near Bhagalpur University. The plant is designed to treat the sewage by aeration in the lagoons. The plant consists of primary settling tank, two aerated lagoons and one fish pond. The plant receives about 4.0 MLD sewage due to non functioning of three intermediate pumping stations. The plant was not in operation during the inspection due to various reasons such as electrical faults, non operation of motors and leakages. The amount of sewage received in the plant also by-passed and plant does not virtually work, as a result the entire sewage from the town find its way to the river Ganga. The total water supply in Bhagalpur town is 35 MLD and resultant wastewater generation is around 28 MLD.There shall be gap of 24 MLD wastewater discharged, which remain untreated even if the present STP is operated. IX) Although all the STPs are required to take consent to operate under the Water Act 1974, it was observed that none of them have taken consent from the Bihar Pollution Control Board X) There are no provisions for stand by power arrangement; the power cut is extending from couple of hours to number of days. 4.6.4 WEST BENGAL i) It was estimated that about 527 million liters of waste water fall into the river Ganga from the 15 class I cities located along its bank. The Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) under the Department of Urban Development, Government of West Bengal was designated as the nodal organisation for implementation of the GAP Phase I schemes with the help of CMWSA and the Public Health Engineering Department. ii) Different conventional sewage treatment technology were adopted at various locations. Low cost treatment methods were used in some places where land were available and were found to be most suitable to reduce the bacterial load. iii) Performance of individual sewage treatment plant is satisfactory but the influent sewage strength in terms of its organic matter content (BOD value) in most locations were found to be low in comparison to the prior assumption. Thus the STPs are mostly operated at under load condition. iv) It is observed that there are gaps in sewer lines and thus the sewage is not reaching to the treatment plant. The sewer lines are also silted and thus the sewage cannot flow smoothly towards treatment plant. v) Algae and water hyacinth growth was observed in low cost treatment plant. vi) Sewage treatment plant at Beharampur is non functional due to absence of sewage. A stretch of 150 meter of sewer line leading to main pumping station could not be laid properly due to some construction difficulties. Some alternative arrangements are required to be formulated to make the system operational. vii) Although all the STPs are required to take consent to operate under the Water Act 1974, it was observed that none of them have taken consent from the West Bengal Pollution Control Board. viii) The STPs were not provided with stand-by power arrangement. However, the power supply was reasonably stable at the ASPs and trickling filters. Chapter V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 CONCLUSIONS 5.1.1 Out of 35 STPs planned under GAP Phase I ( 3 STPs in Uttaranchal, 10 STPs in UP, 7 STPs in Bihar, and 15 STPs in West Bengal), 32 are commissioned and 29 were found functioning. 5.1.2. Adequate fund allocation for O&M of STPs is not provided particularly in Bihar and U.P. 5.1.3. A number of sewage treatment plants are under loaded e.g. Jajmau Kanpur, DLW Varanasi, Naini Allahabad and some are over loaded e.g. Dinapur and Bhagwanpur at Varanasi. 5.1.4 Many treatment plants need upgradation e.g. all the STPs of Bihar, Swargashram at Rishikesh, Kankhal Haridwar, Jajmau Bhatpra E Titagarh, Panihati. 5.1.5 Out of 1345 mld of sewage joining the Ganga as estimated during 1985, the STPs were planned for only 875 mld. Since then, the volume of sewage has significantly increased. 5.1.6. In Bihar, the treatment plants at Karmali Chak (Patna), and Munger are yet to be constructed. Similarly STP at Chapra and Bhagalpurare under-designed as their capacity is 2 MLD & 11 MLD against 8.74 and 28 MLD respectively. The Chapra STP is not receiving the sewage as it is located far away ( 5 km) and there is siltation in the drain which is supposed to carry the sewage through gravity flow. 5.1.7 None of the STPs has obtained consent from the concerned State Pollution Control Boards although it which is obligatory under the Water Act, 1974. 5.1.8. Inadequacy of trained personal for O&M work is a major shortcoming. 5.1.9. Non- availability of uninterrupted power is another problem in most of the places. Since the STPs are biological in nature, their continuous operation is a must in order to maintain the biological growth at activated level. 5.1.10.In most of the cities/towns included in GAP, is proper sewerage system does not exist and the sewage flows in open drains causing scenic and odour probloem. In rainy season, the run-off water generally mixes with sewage. Since the diversion of drains through pumping is taking care of only dry weather flow, during rainy season it cannot pump the additional load of run-off water. Thus, such interception will not be effective in controlling pollution of the river during rainy season. 5.1.11.In many cities, the sewage is not reaching the STPs due to non- existence or non-functioning of sewage transport system. 5.1.12 There are 21 towns under Yamuna action plan,3 under Gomti action plan and 12 under Damodar action plan,3 under Betwa action plan, 3 under Chambal action plan and one each under river Shipra and khan 5.1.13 There are 223 cities/ towns (Municipalities/Corporation) generating significant amount of sewage in the Ganga basin. These cities/ towns generate about 8250 mld ( million litre per day) of wastewater, out of which about 2460 mld is directly discharged into the Ganga river, about 4570 mld is discharged into its tributaries or sub- tributaries and about 1220 mld is disposed on land or in low- lying areas 5.1.14 Out of 8250 mld of wastewater generated in the Ganga basin, the treatment facilities are available only for 3500 mld of wastewater ( town-wise treatment capacity is provided. Out of 3500 mld treatment capacity, 880 mld is created under the Ganga Action Plan, 720 mld is created under the Yamuna Action Plan by NRCD, MoEF Govt of India and about 2189 mld treatment capacity is created by the Govt. of Delhi for restoration of water quality in Yamuna river 5.1.15 That, the treatment facilities at 48 additional towns along the Ganga and 23 towns on its tributaries/ sub- tributaries are being created under GAP Phase- II and National River Action Plan. It is expected that after completion of these plans, an additional capacity of about 1500 mld will be created. However, still there will be a large gap between the wastewater generation ( 8250 mld ) and treatment capacity (3500 mld). 5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS O&M OF TREATMENT PLANTS 5.2.1 Since operation and maintenance of STPs and Pumping stations is the weakest part in GAP, the O&M needs to be addressed on priority basis. 5.2.2 There should be a nodal office in each of the States to monitor and to review the O&M works of all the STPs and pumping stations. 5.2.3 Each treatment plant should have basic minimum manpower and fund required for O&M as follows:- MANPOWER REQUIREMENT _______________________________________________ Oxidation Pond Operator 1 Guard /Sweeper 3 Analyst 1 ______ Total 5 _______ UASB/ASP/TF Operator Mechanical 3 Operator Electrical 3 Fitter 2 Sweeper 3 Analyst 2 Lab. Attendant 2 _________ Total 15 __________________________________________________________ Note:- Besides the operational staff, supervisory staff may be considered as per the requirement and the above number may be decided according to local situation size of the plant, sharing of laboratory and treatment of technology. FUND REQUIREMENT FOR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF STP( PER ANNUM) Operation & Oxidation Oxidation UASB/ASP/TF UASB/ASP/TF Maintenance Pond (capacity Pond (capacity less (capacity more cost less than 5 mld) (capacity than 5 mld) Rs. than 5 mld )Rs. Rs. in lacs more than 5 in lacs in lacs mld) Rs. in lacs Per MLD 2 .0 0.5 5.0 3.0 treatment Pumping 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 Stations each Note: the cost mentioned above is indicative based on experience of other STPs under GAP. However, this can be decided according to local requirement and depending on the size, capacity and treatment technology. 5.2.4 The staff responsible for O&M should be professionally qualified and trained . There should be detailed operation manual for each STP. The operation manual should be available to each staff. The staff should be fully aware of trouble shooting. There should be qualified staff for collection and analysis of samples. 5.2.5 Each staff member should be given responsibility in terms of specific activity alongwith date and time in writing. The duty assignment records should be maintained in a Master File which should be checked by officers of Nodal office and State Pollution Control Board on regular basis. 5.2.6 There should be at least one Laboratory in each town where ASP is functioning. In case of Oxidation Pond , one Laboratory can cater to the service of other towns depending on distance and transport facilities, for daily sampling. The Laboratory should have basic facilities for analysing pH, conductivity, BOD,COD,SS, Volatile SS and dissolved Oxygen. 5.2.7 Training of O&M staff should be planned and implemented properly. 5.2.8 Separate provision of funds for O&M should be earmarked and sufficient autonomy be given to the staff for remedial measures and smooth functioning of STPs. 5.2.9 Strict action is required to be taken against the staff in case of default. Each staff member show submit a monthly report indicating duty performed by him and how it is matching with the assignment given to him. In case of deviation, sufficient reason should be recorded. 5.2.10 Every treatment plant should be monitored for its performance on daily basis, for BOD COD and SS. The monitoring results should be compiled on monthly basis and submitted to the Nodal office in the form of a monthly report. The monthly report should include following aspects: - Name of STP - Type - Capacity, mld - Actual treatment, mld ( average of the mld) - Performance in terms of % reduction in BOD,COD & SS on daily basis. - MLSS and dissolved Oxygen level in aeration tank on daily basis in case of ASP. - Raw sewage quality on daily basis in terms of BOD,COD & SS - Final effluent quality on daily basis in terms of BOD COD & SS - Unit-wise performance on daily basis - Abnormal situation encountered - Malfunctioning of any unit which needs repair - Abnormal situation like raid and storm water contribution etc. - Complete record of power failure alongwith date and duration. - The report should be reviewed by the Nodal Office. In case of any problem in O&M of STPs or its performance, the Nodal Officer should discuss it with incharge of the treatment plant and suggest remedial measures. - There should be a quarterly meeting of all the incharges of STPs including operators to discuss the findings of monitoring results and other issues related to O&M of STPs during the quarter. The outcome of the meeting should be recorded in form of minutes and communicated to State Pollution Control Board within 15 days of the meeting. 5.2.11 There should be a separate cell in the State Pollution Control Board for monitoring management of sewage treatment plants. This cell should constantly interact with the Nodal Officer on O&M of the STPs and other related issues.The cell should also conduct vigilance monitoring of the STPs atleast once in a month. The monitoring should include checking of records of STPs and their functioning alongwith collection of samples and analysis of BOD, COD and SS to evaluate their performance and compliance of standards. In case of unsatisfactory results, the cell should issue notice to the Nodal Officer under Water Act, 1974. 5.2.12 An annual report on the performance of STPs and O&M record should be prepared State-wise and submitted to the State Boards, CPCB and NRCD, highlighting all the important points including deficiencies and annual expenditure. 5.2.13 It may be useful to involve local communities in monitoring the functioning of assets created under NRCD PROFESSIONAL STAFF IN MUNICIPALITIES 5.2.14 It is necessary to have a cadre of professional staff in municipalities headed by technically qualified chief executives for planning and implementation of water supply, wastewater and solid waste management programme. As of now, the chief executive are mostly drawn from administrative cadre who are often posted for a brief tenure within which they are unable to comprehend, organise and implement any meaningful initiative. DECENTRALISED TREATMENT FOR NEW SETTLEMENTS 5.2.15 Decentralised approach in management of sewage needs to be encouraged. Co-operative group housing societies, multi storyed housing complexes, big hotels etc. need to set up appropriate on-site waste water treatment facilities for recycling of waste water for gardening and other non- domestic uses to the extent feasible. CONSENT TO OPERATE STP UNDER THE WATER ACT 5.2.16 STPs should be brought under regulatory mechanism for effective monitoring and pollution control. The Municipalities must apply and obtain consent from respective Pollution Control Board under Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
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