How to Write Goals and Objectives - PowerPoint by rql14597

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									How to Write Goals and Objectives




                                    1
                Overview

Definitions of Goals and Objectives
Purpose of Measurable Objectives
Relationship Between Measurable
Objectives and the Strategic Plan
Elements of a Measurable Objective
Methodology for Writing Measurable
Objectives
Tips for Writing Measurable Objectives

                                         2
          Overview (continued)

Writing the Objectives
Strategic Plan
Purpose of an Evaluation Plan
Types of Evaluations
Writing the Evaluation Section
Question and Answer Period



                                 3
  Definitions of Goals and Objectives

GOALS:
 Are broad statements that indicate what you
 hope to accomplish in school health.
 Create the setting for what you are
 proposing.
 Focuses on how a situation will be changed
 as a result of a successful project, not what a
 project will do.



                                                   4
  Definitions of Goals and Objectives

OBJECTIVES:
 Provide an organized pathway to meet your
 higher goals in school health.
 Are operational and measurable.
 Describe specific things you will be
 accomplishing.
 Include the quantitative or qualitative degree,
 amount or level of achievement or change.



                                                   5
   Definitions of Goals and Objectives

Qualities of an objective: S.M.A.R.T.
  Specific. What kind of, or which problem is to
  be addressed.
  Measurable. How much, how many, and how
  well the problem/need will be resolved.
  Action-Oriented. Uses action verbs.
  Reasonable. Result you can expect to
  achieve.
  Time-bound. Gives specific data for its own
  achievement.
                                                   6
  Definitions of Goals and Objectives



Sample GOAL
 Our child nutrition program will help
 children learn how to make healthy food
 choices.
and related OBJECTIVE
Our child nutrition program will offer two new
vegetable and two new fruit offerings per week
to all students during our 6 week Healthy
Eating Challenge.

                                                 7
   Definitions of Goals and Objectives


GOALS
Global statements of the need or
the problem(s) to be solved by your project.
OBJECTIVES
What it is your project will accomplish.
MEASURABLE OBJECTIVES
Include outcomes that define how the
participants in the project will be different
as a result.
                                                8
   Definitions of Goals and Objectives

PROCESS Objectives
OUTCOME Objectives




                                         9
   Definitions of Goals and Objectives

PROCESS Objectives typically begin with
words like “To develop” and “To establish”
and describe a process rather than an
outcome.




                                             10
     Definitions of Goals and Objectives

An example of a process objective:
 To establish a district Coordinated School
 Health Leadership Team.

Attainment measurement of this objective
is that the objective was met.




                                              11
   Definitions of Goals and Objectives

OUTCOME Objectives typically begin with
words like “To increase” or “To reduce”
and describe a measurable, expected
outcome.




                                          12
     Definitions of Goals and Objectives

An example of an outcome objective:
 To increase the average amount of daily
 moderate to vigorous physical activity of
 all students in grades k-8 by 20% .

 Attainment measurement of this objective
 is that all students increased their average
 daily physical activity by 20%.

                                                13
     Purpose of Measurable Objectives

Measurable objectives enable members of
the SHAC and CSH Leadership Team to:
   Clarify where they are going
   Clarify when they will get there
   Clarify what they will need to get there
   Assess whether or not they got there.




                                              14
  Relationship Between Objectives and a Proposal




Objectives form the basis for the
activities of a project.
Make evaluation easier to create if
objectives and outcomes are clearly
stated.
Create a strong sense of integration and
 consistency.
                                                   15
     Elements of a Measurable Objective



For an objective to be measurable, it must
include:
    an action verb that identifies an
    observable behavior
    the conditions under which the desired
    result should be performed
    the criteria for determining how well and
    when the behavior is to be performed.
                                                16
  Elements of a Measurable Objective



Use language such as:
 Increase
 Improve
 Eliminate
 Implement
 Maintain
 Seek
 Reduce
                                       17
                    Worksheet for Developing Measurable Objectives

Worksheet: ##
             COMPLIMENTARY ACTIONS STATEGIC PLANNING WORKSHEET
GOAL: _______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
[Goals are broad statements that indicate what you hope to accomplish, create the setting for what you are proposing and focuses on how a situation will be changed as a result of a
successful project, not what the project will do.]

                                     School Health Advisory Council                                          Coordinated School Health Leadership Team


                                    Actions:                                                                     Actions:
  OBJECTIVE:
                                       ________________________________                                            ________________________________
  ________________
                                        ________________________________                                             ________________________________
  ________________
                                       ________________________________                                            ________________________________
  ________________
                                        ________________________________                                             ________________________________
  ________________
                                       ________________________________                                            ________________________________
  ________________
                                        ________________________________                                             ________________________________
  ________________
                                       ________________________________                                            ________________________________
  ________________
                                        ________________________________                                             ________________________________
                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                 Actions:
   OBJECTIVE:                       Actions:                                                                        ________________________________
   ________________                    ________________________________                                             ________________________________
   ________________                     ________________________________                                            ________________________________
   ________________                    ________________________________                                             ________________________________
   ________________                     ________________________________                                            ________________________________
   ________________                    ________________________________                                             ________________________________
   ________________                     ________________________________                                            ________________________________
   ________________                    ________________________________                                             ________________________________
                                        ________________________________                                         
                                      
                     [Objectives provide an organized pathway to meet your higher goals. They are operational and measurable. They describe specific
                     things you will be accomplishing and include the quantitative or qualitative degree, amount or level of achievement or change.]




                                    Actions:                                         Actions:
                                       ____________________                            ____________________
                                       ____________________                            ____________________
                                       ____________________                            ____________________
                                        ____                                             ____                                                                                          18
    Methodology for Writing Measurable Objectives




Measurable objectives are as simple to
write as A-B-C-D-E.
  A = Audience: Who will be affected (target
       group)
  B = Behavior: The observable change
      (knowledge, attitude, behavior,
      process) that will occur in the target
      group because of your project.
                                                    19
       Methodology for Writing Measurable Objectives
                        (continued)



C = Conditions: How the behaviors
    will be observed or measured, including the
    instruments to be used.
D = Data: Levels of attainment that must
     be met in order for your project to be
     called a success (your definition).
E = Era: Identifies when the effects of
    your program will be measured.


                                                       20
        Methodology for Writing Measurable Objectives
                         (continued)



Following the A-B-C-D-E method:

At the end of the three years of implementation
(Era), 90% of the students in grades k-8
(Audience) will eat (Behavior) at least 3
servings of milk products per week (Conditions)
as measured by increases in annual food
service sales (Data).



                                                        21
      Tips for Writing Measurable Objectives


Ask the following questions before and after
writing the objective:
     What is to be increased or decreased?
     How much of an increase or decrease?
     How realistic is the increase or decrease?
     To what extent are objectives OUTCOME
     objectives as opposed to PROCESS
     objectives?


                                                  22
         Tips for Writing Measurable Objectives
                      (continued)



To what extent are the anticipated results
 being measured with measures that are
 meaningful to you, easy to do, and not too
 numerous?
To what extent are the objectives related
directly to the problem(s) to be solved and
to the goal(s) of the proposal?
 What impact will they have on the
 problem(s)?
                                                  23
               Writing the Objectives



Objectives    Activities       Evaluation
What do you propose to achieve and to
what extent?
What will you do to get there?
How will you know what you did worked?




                                            24
                    Writing the Objectives

  Objectives____Activities                     Measures


To review, select and
implement one of the
                        Form a SHAC/CSH         A specific program
TEA approved
                        Leadership Team work    will be selected and
coordinated school
                        group to review and     all teachers trained
health programs
                        recommend a specific    by January 2007
during the 2006-2007
                        program to be
year.
                        selected.




                                                                       25
     Purpose of an Evaluation Plan


Present strategies for collecting data that will
 provide evidence that the proposed objectives
have been met.
Describes exactly how you will decide whether
 or not your project has been successful and
 achieved its objectives.
Demonstrates how you will prove
 you achieved your objective.


                                                   26
Types of Evaluations

  -Formative/Process Evaluation

  -Summative/Product Evaluation




                                  27
    Types of Evaluations (continued)

Formative/Process Evaluation

-Sample Question
   How are we doing? Provides for
   ongoing monitoring of the project,
   focuses on processes and short-term
   results.


                                         28
    Types of Evaluations (continued)

Summative/Product Evaluation

-Sample Question
   How did we do? Measures the
   effectiveness of achieving objectives,
   and focuses on the outcomes and
   impacts of the project, as well as the
   processes that affect the outcomes.

                                            29
          Writing the Evaluation



Use the clearly stated goals and objectives,
 to determine the purpose of the evaluation
 (what you are attempting to assess) and the
 questions that can be asked to determine the
 results of the project.
Include the type of information to be collected,
 how it will be collected, and how the data will
 be analyzed.

                                                   30
       Writing the Evaluation Section (continued)



Questions to ask before and after writing
the evaluation section:
   Will carrying it out tell you whether you have
   achieved your stated objectives?
   Will carrying it out tell you whether you were
   able to follow your original plan of action; and
   if not, why?
   Will carrying it out tell you whether you
   completed your project on time and within
   fiscal constraints?

                                                      31
   Writing the Evaluation Section (continued)


Will carrying it out tell you whether your
project has made a difference?
How much closer to your goal are you now
than when you began?
Is your plan realistic?
Do you have the resources to capture the
data?
 Does it measure what matters?
 Is it too ambitious or grandiose for the
 project?

                                                32
                 Summary


Goals are global statements of the need or
problem being solved stated as if the problem
has been solved.
Measurable Objectives are S.M.A.R.T. and can
be developed using the A-B-C-D-E
methodology.
Evaluation can be formative and/or summative
and is often key to a successful programs;
informs others how you will determine whether
the project was successful.
                                                33
Question and
Answer Period


                34
                             References


  Guide for Writing a Funding Proposal
  http://www.anrecs.msu.edu/dissthes/hints5.htm

  Measurable Objectives: If You’re Not Measuring It,
  You’re Not Managing It
  http://www.growthassociates.org/Articles/Measurable.html

  Leon County Schools Grant Writer’s Guide and Related
  Resources - Designing a Sound Evaluation
  http://www.tandl.leon.k.12.fl.us/grants/guide_deveval4.htm

 Grant Guide
  http://www2.njstatelib.org/njlib/grhdeval.htm

  The Foundation Center
  http://www.fdncenter.org


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