How to Make a Terrarium - PDF

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					        Content Area Reading                              Quarter 1: Spiral Practice


Name:______________________________

How to Make a Terrarium
 Materials You Will Need:
 Large Clear Plastic Cup
 Potting Soil
 Small Pebbles
 A Small plant
 Ruler
 Plastic Wrap
 Tape or a large rubber band
 Water
 Measuring Cup

Steps/Procedure:

1. Put a thin layer of small pebbles in the cup. Use your ruler and make
  sure that your pebble layer is no more than one inch high.
2. Pour in two inches of potting soil.
3. Plant your small plant in the potting soil.
4. Add ¼ cup of water to the soil.
5. Cover the top of the cup with plastic wrap.
6. Fasten the plastic wrap with tape or a rubber band.
7. Place your terrarium in a sunny place near a window.
8. Carefully observe your terrarium each day for a week and see what
  happens. Record your observations on a chart.


                                                                            LA.A.2.2.8

1. What will you find in a terrarium below the potting soil?
          A. plastic wrap
          B. pebbles
          C. air
          D. plant
                                         30
      Content Area Reading                            Quarter 1: Spiral Practice


Name:______________________________

                                                                        LA.A.2.2.1

2. Which of these will you use LAST while making your terrarium?

        A. rubber band
        B. measuring cup
        C. ruler
        D. plastic wrap
                                                                        LA.A.2.2.1

3. In which step will you use the measuring cup?

        A. Step 1
        B. Step 2
        C. Step 3
        D. Step 4
                                                                        LA.A.2.2.2

4. Why did the author write this article?
        A. to teach students about how terrariums help plants grow well
        B. to tell a story about making a terrarium
        C. to show why it is important to plant things in terrariums
        D. to explain how to make a terrarium
                                                                        LA.A.2.2.1

5. What do you need to do BEFORE you add water to the
terrarium?
        A. Record your observations on a chart.
        B. Put the plastic wrap on top of the cup.
        C. Pour water into the measuring cup.
        D. Put the terrarium by a window.
                                   31
       Content Area Reading                            Quarter 1: Spiral Practice


Form Follows Function!

     What does that title mean? It's an "old
saying" in the world of science! When we make
something, we build it in a certain form, or
shape, so it can do its job! Let's look at a spoon.
The function of a spoon is to help people pick up food without spilling it.
A spoon is great for picking up soup or ice cream, but a fork can pick up
a piece of birthday cake better than a spoon! A fork is built with points,
so it can stab into solid foods. Spoons and forks were built like this so
each could do its job.

     Animals' bodies have different forms so they can live in different
environments. An animal that lives in the water usually has a tail and
fins, but no legs. It needs to swim, not to walk. If it does have legs, its
feet are usually webbed so it can swim well. A water animal's body is
built to do the job of swimming!

                  An animal that flies through the air has wings. It also
             has legs because it can't fly all of the time. A bird's or
             insect's body is built to do the job of flying!

                      Animals that live on the land usually have legs,
except for snakes and other animals that crawl on their bellies. To move
on land, animals need to walk, run and climb. The next pages will tell you
how animals' bodies are made specially, so they can live on the land, in
the water, or in the air.

                                      32
       Content Area Reading                            Quarter 1: Spiral Practice


Name:______________________________

                                                                         LA.A.1.2.3

1. Read this sentence from the text, “The function of a spoon is to help
people pick up food without spilling it. What does the word function mean
in this sentence?
        A. job
        B. shape
        C. form
        D. reason
                                                                         LA.E.2.2.1

2. Why do animals’ bodies have different forms?
        A. so you can tell animals apart
        B. because animals that live in the water need tails to swim with
        C. because their environments are different
        D. so that animals that need to fly have wings and feathers
                                                                         LA.A.2.2.7

3. What is one way that water animals are DIFFERENT from land
animals?
        A. Water animals do not have legs.
        B. Land animals have tails.
        C. Land animals cannot swim.
        D. Water animals have fins.
                                                                         LA.A.2.2.1

4. Which is TRUE about animals that fly?
        A. Birds are the only animals that fly.
        B. All animals that fly need legs.
        C. All animals that fly have feathers.
        D. All animals that fly need fins.

                                       33
       Content Area Reading                            Quarter 1: Spiral Practice




Name: ______________________________

              Mammals
       One group of animals is called
mammals. Many people keep mammals as
pets, but mammals can be farm animals,
or even wild animals! Most mammals live
on land.
           What makes an animal a mammal? Well, four things, or
characteristics, really. All mammals are warm-blooded animals, which
mean that the temperature of their bodies stays just about the same all
the time. Even if it gets very cold or very hot outside, a mammal's body
temperature stays the same. If a mammal gets very hot, it looks for
shade or water to cool off; or it pants or sweats. If a mammal gets very
cold, it can grow thicker hair or a layer of fat to keep warm.


                      Mammals have skin and hair on their bodies. The
              hair protects the skin and also can keep the mammal cool or
              warm. The hair comes in many colors! Usually a mammal's
              hair helps it blend into its surroundings.


           Mammal babies are born alive. The mother carries the baby or
babies inside her body until it is time to be born. Then the mother
feeds her babies milk until they are strong enough to find food on their
own. Do you know what? You are a mammal!

                                      34
       Content Area Reading                             Quarter 1: Spiral Practice


Name:______________________________
                                                                          LA.A.2.2.2

1. Why did the author write this article?
        A. to explain to the reader what the characteristics of a mammal are
        B. to tell a story about mammals and their characteristics
        C. to persuade the reader to have a mammal as a pet
        D. to explain to the reader that all mammals are warm-blooded
           animals
                                                                          LA.A.2.2.1

2. Which of the following is NOT a way that hair is helpful to
   mammals?
        A. It keeps the mammal warm, or cool.
        B. It helps the mammal blend in with its surroundings.
        C. It can be many colors.
        D. It protects their skin.
                                                                          LA.E.2.2.1

3. Why doesn’t a mammal’s body temperature change much when the
  outside temperature changes?
        A. Because they pant and sweat if it gets too hot outside.
        B. Because they are warm-blooded animals.
        C. Because they grow hair and fat if it gets too cold outside.
        D. Because they are mammals.
                                                                          LA.A.2.2.1

4. Which of the following is a reason that mammal mothers feed
   their babies milk?
        A. Mammal babies cannot eat or drink anything.
        B. Mammal babies are born alive.
        C. Mammal babies cannot find their own food.
        D. Mammal babies are warm-blooded.
                                      35
       Content Area Reading                           Quarter 1: Spiral Practice


Name:____________________________

                                Birds

                       Birds are wonderful animals, or creatures. They fill
                       our world with color and song! Most birds are wild,
                       but many people keep birds as pets. Some birds
                       live on farms. Some birds can swim! Almost all
                       birds can fly! But that is not what makes an
                       animal a bird!


Birds are the only animals with feathers! Their feathers have many jobs.
Feathers keep birds warm, give them their shapes, and help them fly.
They help birds hide from predators, or other animals who hunt them for
food. Feathers help males get a mate!

Birds are warm-blooded, which means that their body temperature does
not change when the temperature of their surroundings changes. Just
like a mammal's body temperature, a bird's body temperature stays the
same even if it gets very cold or very hot outside.

Baby birds are not born alive; they hatch from eggs. The mother and
father birds make a nest in the spring where the mother lays her eggs.
Some nests are in trees; some nests are on the ground. Sometimes both
the mother and the father sit on the eggs to keep them warm until they
are ready to hatch. When the babies hatch from the eggs, the parents
feed them and later teach them to fly.
                                    36
       Content Area Reading                         Quarter 1: Spiral Practice


Name:______________________________

                                                                      LA.A.1.2.3

1. Read this sentence from the text, “They help birds hide from predators,
or other animals that hunt them for food. A predator must eat….
        A. fruit
        B. meat
        C. vegetables
        D. feathers
                                                                      LA.A.2.2.7

2. How are birds DIFFERENT from all other animals?
        A. They lay eggs.
        B. They are warm-blooded.
        C. They have feathers.
        D. They are hunted by predators.
                                                                      LA.A.2.2.1

3. What happens BEFORE the mother and father bird sit on the
   eggs to keep them warm?
        A. The eggs hatch.
        B. The parents make a nest.
        C. The babies learn to fly.
        D. The parents feed the babies.
                                                                      LA.A.2.2.6

4. Which is an OPINION about birds?
        A. Birds are the only animals that fly.
        B. Birds are wonderful creatures.
        C. Some birds can swim.
        D. Many people keep birds as pets.



                                       37
          Content Area Reading                                Quarter 1: Spiral Practice



                         Nest Eggs
Birds all the sunny day
                                                               Laurel
    Flutter and quarrel
Here in the arbour-like
    Tent of the laurel.

Here in the fork
    The brown nest is seated;
Four little blue eggs
    The mother keeps heated.

While we stand watching her
    Staring like gabies,
Safe in each egg are the
    Bird's little babies.

Soon the frail eggs they shall
    Chip, and upspringing
Make all the April woods
    Merry with singing.

They shall go flying
    With musical speeches
High overhead in the
    Tops of the beeches.

                                       ….exerpts from “Nest Eggs” by Robert Louis Stevenson
(This work is in the public domain.)

                                        38
       Content Area Reading                            Quarter 1: Spiral Practice


Name:______________________________
                                                              LA.A.1.2.3/LA.A.2.2.8

1. Read these lines from the poem: “Here in the fork the brown nest is
   seated; Four little blue eggs the mother keeps heated.”
   In these lines the word fork means…
        A. a tree trunk
        B. a tool that is used for eating food
        C. a place where two branches join together
        D. a branch with leaves on it
                                                                         LA.E.2.2.1

2. You can tell the birds are happy when the eggs hatch because____.
        A. They sing merrily in the woods.
        B. They fly far up in the sky.
        C. They jump off of the nest.
        D. They make musical speeches.
                                                                         LA.A.2.2.1

3. What happens BEFORE the mother and father bird sit on the eggs to
  keep them warm?
        A. The eggs hatch.
        B. The parents make a nest.
        C. The babies learn to fly.
        D. The parents feed the babies.
                                                                         LA.A.2.2.8


4. A beech must be _______________.
         A. a shoreline covered with sand
         B. a type of tree
         C. a kind of bird
         D. a musical speech


                                         39
           Content Area Reading                                  Quarter 1: Spiral Practice




How to Make A Pinecone Bird-Feeder
(These ingredients will make enough to cover 1 large pinecone, or two-three
smaller ones.)
                                                                           Wide End
Materials:
    •   A large, open
                                          •   A big plastic or
        pinecone
                                              wooden spoon
    •   Vegetable
                                          •   Scissors
        shortening
                                          •   ruler
    •   Dry Oatmeal
                                          •   paper plate
    •   Birdseed
                                          •   ½ cup measuring
    •   A few feet of yarn
                                              cup
    •   A bowl



How to Make Your Bird Feeder:

1. Put all of your materials on a table.

2. Cut a 14 inch piece of yarn. Tie the yarn
   around the wide end of the pinecone.

3. Put ½ cup vegetable shortening and ½ cup
   oatmeal in the bowl. Stir the ingredients are
   they are well blended.
4. Spread the mixture over the entire pinecone
   with the back side of the plastic spoon.

5. Pour the birdseed on a paper plate. Next, roll
   the pinecone in the birdseed until it is covered
   with bird seed.

6. Hang the feeder from a tree branch outside.

                                                                  Adapted from: http://www.enviro-
explorers.com/pinecone_web_page/pineconefeederindex.html



                                                           40
       Content Area Reading                               Quarter 1: Spiral Practice


Name:______________________________

                                                                            LA.A.2.2.1

1. Which of these do you use LAST when making your pinecone
   birdfeeder?
        A. scissors
        B. measuring cup
        C. spoon
        D. yarn
                                                                            LA.E.2.2.1

2. The shortening and oatmeal mixture is used because…
        A. Oatmeal is a bird’s favorite food.
        B. It helps the birdseed stick to the pinecone.
        C. You can spread it with a spoon.
        D. Birds need to eat shortening to stay healthy.
                                                                            LA.A.1.2.3

3. Read this sentence from the text, “Stir the ingredients are they are well
  blended.” Another word that means the same as blended is_______.
        A. mixed
        B. gathered
        C. separated
        D. ingredients
                                                                            LA.A.2.2.1


4. What do you do BEFORE you spread the mixture on the
   pinecone?
         A. Roll the pinecone in birdseed.
         B. Hang the pinecone.
         C. Tie the yarn.
         D. Pour the birdseed.
                                       41
       Content Area Reading                           Quarter 1: Spiral Practice


Reptiles
   People love some kinds of reptiles. People keep turtles, lizards, and
snakes as pets. Some kinds of reptiles are feared like alligators,
crocodiles and other very large reptiles! These animals do not make good
pets. They need to live in the wild.

                                                         Backbone
Vertebrates

    Reptiles are vertebrates.
Vertebrates are animals that have
backbones. Birds, fish, amphibians
and mammals are other groups of
animals that have backbones. Some
                                               Dinosaur Skeleton: Dinosaurs
animals do not have backbones. Snails,         were reptiles
worms and insects do not have backbones.


Cold-Blooded

    Reptiles have dry skin. Their skin has scales
on it. Reptiles are cold-blooded. Their body
temperature changes as the temperature of the
air around them changes. A reptile’s body gets
warmer when the temperature of the air around
it gets warmer. A reptile’s body gets cooler when     Reptiles have dry skin
                                                      with scales on it.
the air around it gets cooler. Birds and mammals
are warm-blooded. Their body temperatures do not change as the
temperature of the air around them changes.
                                       42
          Content Area Reading                          Quarter 1: Spiral Practice




How do Reptiles Breathe?

       Reptiles live on the land and in
the water. All reptiles breathe with
lungs. Sometimes lazy alligators and crocodiles will lie in the water with
only their noses sticking out. Turtles stick their heads out of the water,
too. All reptiles stick their noses out of water when they need to breathe
air.


What do Reptiles Eat?

        Many reptiles are meat eaters. Some reptiles eat plants. Other
reptiles eat plants and meat. Alligators and snakes eat meat. Some
turtles only eat meat and other turtles only eat plants. Other turtles eat
meat and plants.


How are Reptiles Born?

         All reptiles hatch from eggs. Some mother reptiles lay their eggs in
a nest. All turtles and crocodiles lay eggs with shells. Some lizards and
snakes lay eggs that have shells. Other snake and lizard mothers protect
the eggs inside their bodies until they hatch. These babies are born alive!
A mother alligator will carry her babies
to the water. There are not many
reptiles that take care of their eggs or
their babies.


                                          43
       Content Area Reading                             Quarter 1: Spiral Practice


Name:_______________________________

                                                                          LA.A.2.2.7
1. What is one way that birds and reptiles are ALIKE?

  A. They both have feathers.
  B. They both have backbones.
  C. They are both cold-blooded.
  D. They both can fly through the air.
                                                                          LA.A.2.2.8



2. Use the picture on page 4 and the text to answer this question:
   Which of the following is TRUE about a backbone?

     A. Reptiles are the only group of animals that have backbones.
     B. A backbone is part of a reptile’s skin.
     C. Only cold-blooded animals have backbones.
     D. A backbone is part of a reptile’s skeleton.
                                                                          LA.E.2.2.1

3. Alligators stick their noses out of the water because…

  A. They need to smell animals that they can eat.
  B. They need to breathe air with their lungs.
  C. They need to blow bubbles in the water.
  D. They need to get warmer in the sun.


4. When a lizard lies in a sunny place it is most likely because

  A. its body temperature is too cold
  B. it is looking for an animal to eat
  C. it is taking care of its babies
  D. its skin is dry and covered with scales

                                          44
       Content Area Reading                             Quarter 1: Spiral Practice

                                                                          LA.A.1.2.3

5. Read this sentence from the article,” Snails, worms and insects do not
  have backbones. Which word means the OPPOSITE of “do NOT have
  backbones”?

        A. feared
        B. reptile
        C. vertebrate
        D. cold-blooded
                                                                          LA.A.2.2.2



6. Why did the author write “Reptiles”?
      A. to tell a story about the world of reptiles
      B. to convince people that retiles do not make good pets
      C. to inform people about how reptiles take care of their babies
      D. to teach people about the characteristics of reptiles
                                                                          LA.A.1.2.3



7. Read this sentence from the text,” Other snake and lizard mothers protect
  the eggs inside their bodies until they hatch.” What does hatch mean?

        A. egg shells
        B. break open
        C. protect
        D. get warmer




                                       45