Newborn Nutrition by sammyc2007

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									Newborn Nutrition

    Chapter 26
         Newborn Nutrition
• Need protein, carbs, fat.
• Inability to concentrate urine, increase
  fluids if hot or ill
• Need vitamins and minerals
• Formula fed gain weight faster, need more
  formula to get necessary nutrients
• Breastfed babies gain weight more slowly
       Stages of Human Milk
• Colostrum-2-4 days, yellow creamy,
  increase in pro., vit, min.and IgA
• Transition -until 2 wks PP, increase in fat
  and calories
• Mature-90% water
• Foremilk- H20, vit, protein
• Hindmilk-more fat
• Should BF 6-12 months
              Advantages
• Provide immunologic protection for up to
  18 months
• More easily and efficiently absorbed
• BF+ sunlight= no supplements
• BF promotes attachment
• Contraindication-breast CA, HIV,
  galactosemia, flagyl, jaundice, another
  pregnancy
               Bottlefeeding
•   Parents can share caring for newborn
•   Higher incidence of allergic reaction(cow)
•   Problem with powder concentration
•   Cow milk not acceptable for infant feeding.
•   Too much protein,calcium,phos, sodium
    potassium
           Newborn Feeding
• Indications of newborn hunger?
• Colostrum can be aspirated without irritation.
• Benefits- oxytocin production, stimulates
  peristalsis, decrease bilirubin, + attachment
• Newborn may play with nipple, recognize odor of
  mother
• Assess for fistula or atresia
• To R side for drainage and gastric emptying
           Feeding Patterns
• Established by newborn
• Breastfed babies feed more frequently
• Newborn cues of hunger
• Newborns needs are better met with couplet
  care
• Support informed decision regarding type of
  breastfeeding
      Breastfeeding Positions
• Football, lying, cradling, across lap.
• Use pillows for positioning
• Rub feet for sleepy baby
• May have to soothe upset newborn before
  feeding
• Explore cultural considerations of
  breastfeeding
    Physiology of Breastfeeding
• Lobes-alveoli- small to larger lactating ducts flow
  toward nipples
• Breast development influenced by estrogen
• Prolactin increases after birth and with sucking
• Sucking stimulates post pituitary to release
  oxytocin
• Letdown-caused by stimulation of myoepithelial
  cells
        Teaching Breastfeeding
•   Good positioning, facing mom
•   Use C or scissors
•   Stimulate to open mouth
•   Baby to breast
•   Alternate breast
•   Do not set restrictive time limits
•   Mother and baby will become sleepy
        Bottle/Breast Feeding
• May confuse newborn
• Use different muscles
• Mothers can use use pump (electric) or
  express manually.
• Can store milk in refrigerator or freezer
• Better to store in plastic
• Never microwave
         Effects of Drugs on BF
•   Avoid long acting drugs
•   Give meds right after BF
•   Observe infant for adverse effects
•   Use drugs that metabolize quickly
•   Weigh risks and benefits
        Bottlefeeding Education
•   Never prop up bottle
•   Assess nipple for size of hole
•   Point nipple directly into mouth
•   Burp at intervals
•   Regurgitation is normal
•   Fat baby not necessarily healthy
•   Discuss amt and frequency with client
          Assess Weight Gain
•   Assess growth and weight gain
•   Six wet diapers/day
•   Should not exceed 32 oz./day
•   Can calculate needs and have parents keep
    records

								
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