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HEALTHFUL EATING

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									HEALTHFUL EATING

Nutrition is the science that explores the
needs and effects of food on organisms. In
America today there is no single health topic
that generates as much attention as does
nutrition



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KEY VOCABULARY
Chapter 1
   Fortification              Vitamins
   Proteins                   Minerals
   Fatty Acids                Calcium
   Saturated                  Iron
   Unsaturated                Hemoglobin
   Cholesterol                Fiber
   LDL’s                      Beta Carotene
   HDL’S                      Free Radicals
   Lipoproteins               Obesity
   Triglycerides              Calories
   Food Pyramid               YO Yo Dieting
                               Bulimia
                               Anorexia Nervosa

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    FUNDAMENTAL BUILDING
          BLOCKS
   PROTEINS
   CARBOHYDRATES
   FATS
   VITAMINS
   MINERALS
   WATER

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    EATING WELL AND EATING
            WISELY
   Research continues to define the relationships
    between the foods we eat and the quality of our lives
   What we eat has a strong influence on our health
    status as well as the avoidance of:
   DRUGS, ALCOHOL, SATURATED FAT, AND
    SUGAR-LADEN FOODS
   Basically food is needed by our bodies to prevent
    starvation or to ensure that we survive
   Your energy requirements or caloric intake will vary
    according to your activity level
   Your energy intake or calories should match your
    energy expenditure
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         Guidelines to Good Eating
   Eat a variety of food      Follow a low fat diet
   Balance the food            keeping intake of
    you eat with                saturated fats less
    physical activity           than 10%
   Eat a large selection      Choose a diet
    of fruits and               moderate in sugars
    vegetables that            Monitor salt and
    contain dietary fiber       sodium intake
   Drink 80-96 oz of          Drink alcohol in
    water daily                 moderation
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CARBOHYDRATES:

   Monosaccharides          Simple sugars
   Glucose                  Blood sugar/ IV’s
   Fructose                 Fruit and honey
   Galactose                Similar to glucose
   Disaccarides             Formed by 2 sugars
   Sucrose                  Table sugar
   Maltose                  Formed by grains
   Lactose                  Milk sugar
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COMPLEX
CARBOHYDRATES
   Polysaccharides are starches that are
    composed of numerous monosaccharides
   Grains and certain vegetables which contain
    vitamins and minerals
   Complex carbs should comprise @40-60%
    of total calories
   Severe lack of carbs as in starvation results in
    the break down of vital organs:
   Heart, liver, muscle etc. into amino acids
    which convert into glucose for energy
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METABOLISM OF
CARBOHYDRATES
   Insufficient carbohydrate intake negatively impacts fat
    break down
   Ketones are formed which disrupt the acid-base
    balance or Ketosis
   50-100 grams of carbs are recommended
   For example: 3 fruits; 3 slices of bread;or a little more
    than a cup of cereal
   Nutrient density is an important consideration when
    making carb food choices
   Empty calories do not contribute to a balanced diet
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PROTEINS
   Build and repair body tissue including blood
   Regulate body processes
   Provide fuel for body cells
   Made up of amino acids joined by chemical bonds
   9 of the 20 amino acids are called the essential
    amino acids and need to be consumed in the food
    that we eat
   Complete protein comes from animal sources
   Incomplete protein comes from plant sources

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PROTEIN FACTS
   It is possible for a woman to gain the
    appropriate number of amino acids from the
    combination of one or more plant sources
    that complement each other
   Women need amino acids on a daily basis
   We need @ 15-20% of our total daily calories
    consumed in the form of protein
   The disadvantages to eating too much protein
    from animal sources are:
   Increased risk for CVD and Cancer
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FAT is the “F” Word
   The word fat creates much concern and
    anxiety among women
   It is the most talked about and least
    understood of all the nutrients
   Fats affect levels of blood cholesterol and a
    promote a sense of fullness after eating
   Saturated fat is the reason America is over fat
   Fat is linked with CVD: CANCER:OBESITY

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CHOLESTEROL
   Cholesterol is a vital component of various body cells
   Cell membrane
   Nerve Fibers
   Certain Sex Hormones
   Cholesterol is found mainly in animal sources, eggs
    and dairy products
   High density lipoproteins HDLS good chol that acts
    as the scavengers of the blood stream and carry
    wastes to liver for proper elimination
   Low density lipoproteins LDLS bad chol deposit
    excess fat and cholesterol on artery walls and cause
    atherosclerosis
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LIPIDS
   Collectively fats are referred to as lipids
   Fats transport the essential fatty acid linoleic acid and
    the fat soluble vitamins ADEK
   Lipids are made up of atoms of
   Carbon: Hydrogen: Oxygen
   The simplest form of Lipids are Fatty Acids
   Fatty acids are joined together to form a fat molecule
   They are a highly concentrated form of food energy
   9 calories per gram of fat
   Fats are non-water soluble

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FATTY ACIDS
   SATURATED FATS are solid at room temp due to
    density of hydrogen atoms
   MONOSATURATED FATS lack only one pair of
    hydrogen atoms eg. Olive;Peanut; Canola oil
   POLYUNSATURATED FATS lack 2 or more pairs of
    H atoms eg. Corn; Safflower; Sesame oil
   UNSATURATED FATS are liquid at room
    temperature
   TRANS FAT is the fatty acid formed when hydrogen
    is pumped into liquid vegetable oils to make them
    more firm

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VITAMINS
   Vitamins are trace nutrients that perform
    unique functions in the body
   Trace nutrients mean that one does not have
    to consume large quantities in order for their
    associated functions to be carried out
   These nutrients enable the body to use
    carbohydrates, proteins and fats
   They enable the nutrients to build and
    maintain the tissues in the body
   It is imperative that we consume the right kind
    of food proportionately EATING
                       HEALTHFUL                   15
10/25/2011
FAT AND WATER SOLUBLE
VITAMINS
   Vitamins ADEK are fat soluble and are absorbed and
    carried through the body with dietary fat
   Water soluble vitamins are the other 9 vitamins which
    dissolve in water
   Diseases result from various vitamin deficiencies
   Vitamins can only be derived from food sources
   It is possible that large amounts of vitamins are lost
    during food preparation
   Steaming or boiling broccoli until it is very soft will
    result in much of the V-C being left behind in the pan

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ANTIOXIDANTS
  Antioxidants are believed to provide a defense
   against such diseases as cancer and heart diseases
 Our body cells use O2 to burn the fuels inside them

 As with any burning process an “exhaust” is given off
   as a by-product
 The waste product is in the form of oxidants or free
   radicals
 Free radicals combine with cholesterol to damage the
   blood vessels or with
 Other chemicals to create carcinogenic effects of
   cancer formation
 Vitamin C, E and BETA CAROTENE are found in
   fruits and vegetables
 Vitamin C has a positive effect on iron absorption
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MINERALS

   MACROMINERALS         TRACE MINERALS
   Calcium               Iron
   Magnesium             Zinc
   Phosphorous           Iodine
   Potassium             Selenium
   Chloride
   Sodium

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FACTS ABOUT MINERALS
   Minerals are obtained from both animal
    and plant sources
   Animal sources are more easily utilized
    by the woman's body
   Plant sources tend to have compounds
    that bind up the minerals thus reducing
    mineral bioavailability
   Minerals serve many important bodily
    functions
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CALCIUM
   99% of calcium in a woman’s body is found in
    the bones and teeth
   The remaining 1% is used to stimulate
    muscle contraction and nerve impulses
   Regulate blood clotting and cells
   Osteoporosis is the demineralization of bone
    and is preventable
   The quality of a woman’s bones in old age in
    the absence of risk factors is related to:
   Genetics, Diet, and Lifestyle
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BONE MASS DENSITY
   This is related to calcium intake over a
    woman’s lifetime
   Specifically it appears that the greatest
    influence comes during childhood and the
    elderly years
   Bone mass density is also influenced by
   Excess alcohol consumption
   Cigarette smoking which affects menopause
    and accelerated bone loss
   Caffeine is related to increased urinary
    excretion of calcium
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CALCIUM SOURCES
   SARDINES
   SESAME SEEDS
   SKIM MILK
   DRIED FIGS
   BLACK-EYED PEAS
   SPINICH
   GREEN BEANS
   ALMONDS
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IRON
   We need 10-12mg of iron daily in order to
    manufacture hemoglobin
   Hemoglobin is found in our RBC's and is responsible
    for transporting O2 to the cells and CO2 away from
    the cells
   An iron deficiency can result in anemia
   Iron is stored in the liver, spleen, muscles
   Iron deficiency usually is the result of continuous
    dieting, pregnancy, athletic endurance activities,
    vegetarianism, and adolescence
   Iron found in animal tissue is more rapidly absorbed
    than iron found in plant sources such as spinach and
    grain
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MINERALS FOR NEEDED BODY
FUNCTIONS
   Sodium, potassium, calcium, and
    phosphorous are needed to promote a
    healthy water balance
   Sodium, potassium and calcium influence the
    movement of nerve impulses
   Iodine is a key ingredient in the hormone
    thyroxin
   Magnesium functions to increase strength,
    regulate enzyme functions and regulate
    nerves and heart muscle contraction
   Phosphorus strengthens bones and teeth
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WATER THE NUTRIENT
   We can live for weeks without food, vitamins
    and minerals
   We can only live for a few days without water
   Our body is made up of about 60-70% H2O
   Water:
   Regulates body temperature
   Assists with the many chemical reactions in
    the body
   Aids in the elimination of body wastes and
    cellular by-products
   We need @ 80-96ozs of water per day
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    PHYTOCHEMICALS-Non nutritive
 substances in plant foods that react positively on the
 body’s physiology           Yellow and orange
 Carotenoids                 fruits/green leafy
                                  vegetables antiox
   Phytoesterols                Green and yellow
                                  vegetables blocks
                                  cholesterol uptake


   Allylic Sulfides             Garlic, onions, chives
                                  detoxes
   Phytoesterogens
                                 Cereals/grains prevent
                                  diseases related to
                                  aging and menopause
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NUTRITION AND THE
CONSUMER
     Understanding terminology such as
     “Health foods”
     “Organic”
     “Natural” fortification
     Knowing which sources of information are
      reliable and trustworthy
     Interpreting food labels, can improve a
      woman’s ability to become a more healthier
      consumer
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ADDITIVES- while we need to be aware of food
additives we need to acknowledge the roles they
play in the food we consume
   To maintain product consistency, anti caking agents
    keep products like salt to flow freely
 Emulsifiers prevent products from

 To improve or maintain nutritional value or
    fortification V-D added to milk
 To reduce spoilage

 Preservatives will prevent spoilage caused by mold,
    bacteria and fungi
 To provide leavening or control alkalinity

 Leavening agents are added to help baked goods
    rise during cooking
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 To enhance flavor or provide a desired color
    IMPORTANCE AND NATURE OF
             FIBER
   Is either soluble or insoluble
   Derived from whole natural foods, fruits,
    vegetables, skins, seeds, stems,grains
    Effects digestion and elimination
   Reduces risk of various diseases due to the
    cleanliness of the digestive tract and blood
    vessels
   Improves circulation
   Essential dietary component than cannot be
    digested by enzymes in digestive tract
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BODY COMPOSITION

   UNDERWEIGHT
   OBESITY
   OVERWEIGHT
   LEAN BODY MASS
   OVERFAT
   HEIGHT / WEIGHT CHARTS

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OBESITY AS A RISK FACTOR
   Obesity is a risk factor for the following
    conditions:
   Hypertension
   CVD
   Certain cancers
   Gout
   Gallbladder
   Arthritis
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YO YO DIETING
   Repeated chronic pattern of dieting which
    describes most dieters behavior
   Frustrating and hazardous to one’s health
   People whose body weight goes up and
    down have a high incidence of
    CHD
   Maintenance failure rate is high
   More and more fat is stored in the abdominal
    area
   Abdominal fat is more harmful to health than
    fat in any other area
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BASAL METABOLIC RATE
   Amount of energy you need to maintain your
    body functions
   Each decade after age 30 your energy needs
    decline by @ 2%
   Based on a 2000 cal. Intake this is @ 40
    calories less per day
   This is especially true if your activity level
    goes down
   It is extremely valuable to maintain a
    physically active lifestyle as well as monitor
    ones caloric intake
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WEIGHT LOSS PROGRAM
   One pound of fat equals 3500 calories
   Exercise is crucial to weight
    management
   Proper weight management is a
    lifetime-lifestyle commitment
   There is no fast way to weight loss
   Fad diets are not the answer
   Weight management through
    medications does not work
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EATING DISORDERS-Psychologically
Imposed
   Bulimia Nervosa
   Most common eating disorder
   Characterized by compulsive over eating that
    is followed by vomiting; laxatives, diuretics
   Leads to dental erosion
   Anorexia Nervosa
   Begins in the teen years
   Characterized by starvation and distorted
    body image
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