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HEALTH AND NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF PULSES

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					HEALTH AND NUTRITIONAL
  ASPECTS OF PULSES


  Dr. G.N.V.Brahmam, M.B.,B.S., D.P.H.,
             Deputy Director
      National Institute of Nutrition
          Jamai-Osmania (P.O),
          Hyderabad – 500 007

   Phone: (O) 91- 040 - 27019141 (Telefax)
              27008921- 27 Ext.286 (PABX)
          (R) 27208711
      E-mail: gnvbrahmam@yahoo.com
      HEALTH AND NUTRITION

HEALTH
“… is a state of complete physical, mental,
 and social well being and not merely
 absence of disease or infirmity”
                                - - - WHO

NUTRITION
   “ … is a process of ingestion of food,
    digestion, absorption, assimilation,
    and utilization of various nutrients”
MALNUTRITION
“ ….. a pathological state that results from
ingestion of one or more nutrients, either
in excess or deficient quantities over a
period of time.”


Undernutrition : Due to deficient intakes
Overnutrition : Due to excess intakes
      SIGNIFICANCE OF NUTRITION
Normal Growth, development and functions

Epidemiological data reveals strong association
 between undernutrition and morbidity &
 mortality.
Chronic degenerative disorders such as
 coronary heart disease, hypertension, Type 2
 diabetes, certain types of cancers, etc. are
 related to diet and nutritional status
Undernutrition in early Childhood is associated
 with chronic degenerative disorders in later life
SIGNIFICANCE OF NUTRITION (Contd.)
Consumption of foods rich in dietary fiber, anti
 oxidants etc., is associated with reduced risk of
 certain types of cancers.
Obesity and overweight are also associated with
 Increased risk of developing cancer of the breast,
 colon, endometrium, gallbladder, esophagus,
 pancreas, kidney, etc.
                 DETERMINANTS OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS
Agro-climatic factors          Demographic factors         Socio-economic       Disasters
                                                           factors
• Food production              • Population                                     Drought/Floods
                                                           • Religion
• Land Ownership               • Family Size               • Community          Wars
• Type of land                 • Urbanisation              • Occupation
                                                           • Income
• Rain fall
• Geographic conditions           H H FOOD                                     Availability of &
• Agricultural techniques                            Physiological
                                  SECURITY           factors
                                                                               participation in
• Use of hybrid seeds                                                          developmental
• Use of fertilizers                                 • Pregnancy               programmes
                                  FOOD               • Lactation               • PDS
                                                     • Breast feeding          • Rural Dev. Prog.
Socio-cultural                   INTAKE                practices               • Employment
factors                                              • Infant & child            generation prog.
• Illiteracy                                           Feeding practices
• Ignorance                 NUTRITIONAL
                                                            Pathological Conditions
• Taboos                      STATUS
                                                           • Infections
                                                                 • Diarrhoeas
  Environmental factors                                          • Resp. Infections
                                                                 • Malaria
  • Environmental sanitation                                     • Others
  • Personal hygiene                                       • Infestations
  • Safe drinking water                                          • Hook worms
                                                                 • Round worms
                                                                 • Giardiasis etc.,
HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY:
Ability of the Household to access food
which is culturally acceptable and
adequate in terms of quality, quantity and
safety for all members of the household
throughout the year, in order to ensure
active and healthy life

HOUSEHOLD FOOD INSECURITY:
Presently or potential inability to consume
food which is adequate, having all the
nutrients essential for a healthy and
productive life.
                 DETERMINANTS OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS
Agro-climatic factors          Demographic factors         Socio-economic       Disasters
                                                           factors
• Food production              • Population                                     Drought/Floods
                                                           • Community
• Land Ownership               • Family Size               • Occupation         Wars
• Type of land                 • Urbanisation              • Income
• Rain fall
• Geographic conditions           H H FOOD                                     Availability of &
• Agricultural techniques                            Physiological
                                  SECURITY           factors
                                                                               participation in
• Use of hybrid seeds                                                          developmental
• Use of fertilizers                                 • Pregnancy               programmes
                                  FOOD               • Lactation               • PDS
                                                     • Breast feeding          • Rural Dev. Prog.
Socio-cultural                   INTAKE                practices               • Employment
factors                                              • Infant & child            generation prog.
• Religion                                             Feeding practices
• Literacy
• Ignorance                 NUTRITIONAL
                                                            Pathological Conditions
• Taboos                      STATUS
                                                           • Infections
                                                                 • Diarrhoeas
  Environmental factors                                          • Resp. Infections
                                                                 • Malaria
  • Environmental sanitation                                     • Others
  • Personal hygiene                                       • Infestations
  • Safe drinking water                                          • Hook worms
                                                                 • Round worms
                                                                 • Giardiasis etc.,
    INFECTION AND UNDERNUTRITION
            ….. a Vicious Cycle

                   Frequent
                   Infections


                                 Reduced
Lowered                          Food
resistance to                    intake/
Infections                       absorption



                                     Death

                UNDERNUTRITION
Good Nutrition is Essential for Proper:

  … GROWTH
       Increase in Physical Mass
            Eg. Weight, Height etc.

  … DEVELOPMENT
       Functional Capability
            Eg. Mental, Physiological etc.

  … MAINTENANCE
        Body Processes
                FOODS


Foods Are complex substances, which on
digestion are split in to simpler substances
called as „nutrients‟.
             NUTRIENTS
Macronutrients
    Carbohydrates (Energy)
    Proteins (Body building, Protection)
    Fats (Dense Energy)

Micronutrients
    Vitamins
         (Fat soluble: A,D,E,K)
         (Water Soluble: B comp., Vit. C)
    Minerals (Iron, Iodine, Calcium, Zinc)
       VARIOUS FOOD GROUPS
Cereals & Millets
  Pulses & Legumes
  Green Leafy Vegetables
Roots & Tubers             Protective
  Fruits                     Foods
  Other Vegetables
  Milk & Milk Products
Fish & Flesh Foods
Fats and Oils
Sugar & Jaggery
           BALANCED DIET
   … is one which consists of foods from
different groups in such proportions, so
as to meet the daily requirements of
various nutrients for optimal growth,
development and maintenance of health.
  LEAST COST BALANCED DIET
[For an Adult Male doing sedentary Work]

                      Recommended
                       Quantity (g)
   Cereals              : 460
   Pulses               : 40
   GLV                  : 50
   Other Veg.           : 60
   Roots & Tubers       : 50
   Milk & M.P.          : 150
   Fats & Oil           : 20
   Sugar & Jaggery      : 30
     PULSES : Poor Man’s Meat

Rich in:   -- Proteins
           -- B Comp. Vitamins
But poor in :
           -- Vitamin A
           -- Vitamin C

Raw Pulses have “Trypsin Inhibitor” which
interferes with Digestion of Proteins.
However, it gets destroyed in normal cooking.
                  Proteins
 Complex organic nitrogenous compounds.
 Constitute about 20% of the body weight in an
  adult.
 Made up of smaller units, called as Amino Acids
  (AA).

 About 24 Amino acids are needed by the human
  body, of which 9 are essential amino acids,
  because they can not be synthesized in the
  body, and hence must be obtained from
  extraneously (Diet).
Essential Amino Acids
    1. Valine
    2. Histidine
    3. Leucine
    4. Isoleucine
    5. Lysine
    6. Phenylalanine & Tyrosine
    7. Methionine & Cystine
    8. Threonine
    9. Tryptophan
      LIMITING AMINO ACIDS
 Cereal proteins are deficient in lysine and
  threonine , but rich in methionine.

 Pulse proteins are deficient in methionine
  & Tryptophan, but rich in lysine

 Therefore, by judicious mixing of cereals
  and pulses, the overall quality of proteins
  in the diets can be improved.
      Functions of Proteins
 Development of Muscle,
        -- Body Tissues,
        -- Hormones,
        -- Enzymes
 Repair and maintenance
 Required for a wide range of
  metabolic processes in the body
         Sources of Proteins
Animal sources:
Milk, meat, eggs, cheese, fish, etc.
These proteins contain all the AA - biologically
complete proteins.

Vegetable sources:
pulses and legumes, cereals, beans, nuts, oil
seeds, etc.
CONSUMPTION OF PULSES
IN THE RURAL COMMUNITIES
       Average Consumption of Pulses (g/CU/Day)
                    -- Time trends
70
                                                                                                       1975-79
                              60                                                                       1988-90
60                                                                                                     1996-97
                                                                                56
                                                                                                       2001-02
50                             50



40                                      38                                 39                         RDI
                                                        37
                         35        41                                                                          34
                 32                          31                                           32                     32
                                                                30 30 34             30
30                                                       3633                                                         27
                                                30                  32
                  2728                             24                                                             27
                                              28                                                20
20     18   18
                                                                                           21
     14 17

10                                                                                                         9


0
      KER         T.N.        KAR             A.P.      M.R.       GUJ          M.P       ORI        W.B       Pooled

     Source: NNMB Rural Surveys
         % Households by number of Types of Pulses
                        Consumed
  80
                     NONE
                                                                                    70
                     1                    67
  70
                     2
                                                                                                                               60
                         >=3
  60                                                                                               54
P                                                                    52                                                                   51
       50                 50
E                                               46
                                                                                                                  50
  50
R                                                      43
                                                                                                             41
C           38                                                                                                                      36
  40                                                                                          34
E
                                                                                                                                         33
N
  30                           24
T                                                               23    22
                                                                               19
  20                                       17
                     14         12                                                                                                             13
             11                      12                 9                                10             11
                                                                                                                       8
  10                                            4
                                                            2              3                                                        3
                                                                                              1          1                 1                    3
                 1                                                                                                                   1
   0
        KER              T.N.         KAR            A.P.       M.R.            GUJ                M.P            ORI           W.B      Pooled

       Source: NNMB Rural Surveys
          Commonly Consumed Pulses in the Rural
                        Areas
                 RED      BLACK   GREEN   BENGAL   KESARI
   STATES
                GRAM      GRAM    GRAM     GRAM     DAL
 Kerala                     
 T.N.                       
 Karnataka                  
 A.P.                       
 Maharashtra                                      
 Gujarat                          
 M.P.                                              
 Orissa                                            
 W.B.                                               


Source: NNMB Survey 2000 Report
                Average Consumption of Pulses (g/CU/Day) by
                        Community                                                     Occupation
          40                                              40
                34                           32                                        33
                                                                                                              31
          30              26         25                   30       25                                                   26
                                                                              23                     24
  Grams




                                                    Grams
          20                                              20

          10                                              10

           0                                                0
                ST       SC         OBC     OC                  Agl. Lab. Oth. Lab.   Cultiv.    Artisans   Service   Business


                     Type of House                                                 Type of Family
          40                                                                                                     31
                               31                                        28                     29
                                                            30
                                           28
          30     24
Grams




                                                  Grams

                                                            20
          20

          10                                                10


           0                                                 0
               Kutcha    Semi Pucca       Pucca                      Nuclear               Joint            Extended
      Average Consumption of Pulses (g/CU/Day) by
                                                          Land Holding (Acres)
                                  60
                                                                                         47      48
                                  50
                                                                    40           37
                                  40


                          Grams
                                                          29
                                  30         24
                                  20

                                  10

                                   0
                                       No Land          1-5         5-10        10-20   20-30   >=30

                                               Per Capita Income (Rs./Month)
                     40     36                                                                           36
                                                                           31                    30
                     30                                        27                  28      28
                                        26
             Grams




                                                   22
                     20


                     10


                     0
                          <30          30-60      60-90       90-150 150-300 300-600 600-900    900-   >=1500
                                                                                                1500
Source: NNMB Second Repeat Survey
           Mean daily Intake of Pulses and Legumes
               (as % RDI) by Age and Gender
                                                                  32
                    Boys
          30        Girls                               28             27
                                    25 25    26    25        26


                            20 20
  Grams




          20
                      13
               12

          10



           0
                1-3         4-6     7-9     10-12       13-15     16-17
                                    Age in Years
Source: NNMB Second Repeat Survey
                Mean Intake of Pulses and Legumes
                      (g/Day) Among Adults
           50


           40     36                    34         35
                            29
           30
   Grams




           20


           10


            0
                Males     NPNL      Pregnant   Lactating

Source: NNMB Second Repeat Survey
         Frequency Distribution (%) of HH Consumption
                    of Pulses (g/CU/Day)
  STATES      <5     5-10   10-15   15-20   20-25   25-30   30-35   35-40   40

Kerala        49.5   2.0     3.9     4.4     6.1     7.0     6.8     4.5    15.9
T.N.          16.6   4.4     4.6     6.8     8.1     7.1     8.9     8.0    35.5
Karnataka     12.3   2.0     4.8     6.5     7.0     9.0     9.7     7.2    41.5
A.P.          49.1   1.6     1.1     1.9     4.0     4.8     6.1     5.1    26.3
Maharashtra   22.5   1.4     4.6     8.2     8.4    10.6     8.3     7.4    28.6
Gujarat       17.6   0.1     3.0     5.7     7.0     9.7     7.9     6.3    42.7
M.P.          34.3   2.1     1.5     2.8     3.5     5.5     7.9     8.0    34.4
Orissa        43.4   2.9     3.6     5.5     6.0     7.3     6.3     6.8    18.3
W.B.          59.3   6.4     8.8     7.9     6.3     3.4     2.0     2.0    4.0
Pooled        34.0   2.6     4.0     5.5     6.3     7.1     7.1     6.1    27.3


Source: NNMB Survey 2000 Report
   Distribution (%) of Households according to
      Percent of RDA by Pulses & Legumes
 % RDA     KER    T.N.   KAR        A.P   M.R.   GUJ    ORI    Pooled
<10        52.0   23.7   10.9   37.0      23.6   28.0   51.3    33.8
10-20      0.7     3.0    0.2       0.2   0.5    0.5    0.7     0.7
20-30      1.9     2.6    1.4       0.3   0.7    1.5    0.7     1.2
30-40      4.1     2.2    3.2       1.9   2.4    3.2    0.9     2.6
40-56      3.4     6.3    5.0       3.8   4.6    4.2    2.6     4.1
50-60      6.1     7.4    6.6       4.9   5.8    5.0    4.8     5.7
60-70      7.8     8.5    7.1       3.3   8.8    3.7    5.1     6.2
70-80      3.7    10.0    7.1       6.8   5.6    5.4    4.0     5.8
80-90      2.9     5.9    8.8       6.4   5.6    6.4    4.4     5.7
90-100     2.5     7.4    5.2       4.2   5.1    5.7    3.7     4.5
>=100      15.0   23.0   44.5   31.3      37.2   36.4   21.7    29.7

Source: NNMB Second Repeat Survey
Distribution (%) of Individuals according to
intake of Pulses and Legumes as % of RDA

                            10-12   10-12   Adult    Adult
 % RDA      1-3      4-6
                            Boys    Girls   Male    Female

 <50        74       58       57     55      39       49

 50-70      11       13       15     15      10       12

  70       15       29       28     30      51       39

 Source: NNMB Survey 2000 Report
KESARI DAL
(Lathyrus Sativus)
  Lathyrus Sativus

Grass pea, chikling pea, Indian vetch, khesari, batura,
matri etc.
India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Ethiopia, Europe,
West Asia and North Africa
Major States in India MP, Maharashtra, Bihar, Orissa,
West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh

Production figures of Lathyrus in 1995:
India           0.800    Million tonnes
Bangladesh      0. 174   Million tonnes
Pakistan         0. 045 Million tonnes
Proximate Composition of Lathyrus
            Sativus
 Protein              25.6 - 28.4 %
 Carbohydrate         48.0 - 52.4 %
 Fat                  0.58 - 0.8 %
 Ash                  2.90 - 4.6 %


 BOAA (Neuro-toxin)    0 .22 - 2.0 %
            Neuro Lathyrism
Characterized by:
     - Heaviness & stiffness of limbs
     - Muscle cramps
     - Tremors
     - Exaggerated ankle/knee jerks
     - Altered gait
     - Spastic paraperisis
             Recent outbreaks of Neurolathyrism
                 Afghanistan                      2001
                 Nepal                            1998
                 Ethiopia                         1997

       ( Getahun etal Tropical Medicine International Health 10, 2005 )


Neurolathyrism outbreaks in last three decades in India
    Madhya Pradesh: 1975 ( Dwivedi & Misra, Proc. of
                                Nutr soc.India 1975)

    Maharastra         :   1977 (Kulkarni etal IJMR 1977)


                           Sporadic cases
     Karnataka, AP& Maharastra 1995 (Bhat & Amruth 1995)
     Maharastra                          2003 (Sudershan & Babu 2003)
Four Pronged Strategy for Prevention and
           Control of Lathyrism


  Educating community against using LS as
   staple
  Persuade to parboil before cooking
  Dissuade landlords from paying wages in
   the form of Lathyrus
  Encouraging to identify and propagate low
   BOAA strains
CONCLUSIONS

Though contribution of Pulses to total protein
requirement is low, it is very essential to improve
the quality of protein.

Average consumption of pulses, ingeneral is
relatively poor and much lower than the
recommended levels.

The consumption is relatively better in the
States of Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and
Madhya Pradesh.
CONCLUSIONS (Contd.)

 The average consumption of pulses is gradually
 decreasing over the period, probably because of
 lowered production and escalating costs.

 Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve the
 extent of consumption of pulse through:
      - Increased the production
      - Increased availability, and
      - at affordable price.

				
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